The development of a student’s IEP takes place within the larger picture of the special education process under IDEA . It may be helpful to look briefly at how a student is identified as having a disability and needing special education and related services and, thus, requiring an IEP.
Step 1: Child is identified as possibly needing special education and related services.
“Child Find” The state must identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities in that state who need special education and related services. To do so, states conduct “Child Find” activities. A child may be identified by “Child Find,” and parents may be asked if the “Child Find” system can evaluate their child. Parents can also call the “Child Find” system and ask that their child be evaluated. Or— Referral or request for evaluation. A school professional may ask that a child be evaluated to see if he or she has a disability. Parents may also contact the child’s teacher or other school professional to ask that their child be evaluated. This request may be verbal or in writing. Parental consent is needed before the child may be evaluated. Evaluation needs to be completed within a reasonable time after the parent gives consent.
Step 2: Child is evaluated.
The evaluation must assess the child in all areas related to the child’s suspected disability. The evaluation results will be used to determine the child’s eligibility for special education and related services and to make decisions about an appropriate educational program. If the parents disagree with the evaluation, they have the right to request an Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE ). They can ask that the school system pay for this IEE.
Step 3: Eligibility is decided.
A group of qualified professionals and the parents look at the child’s evaluation results. Together, they decide if the child is a “child with a disability ,” as defined by IDEA. Parents may ask for a hearing to challenge the eligibility decision.
Step 4: Child is found eligible for services.
If the child is found to be a “child with a disability,” as defined by IDEA, he or she is eligible for special education and related services. Within 30 calendar days after a child is determined eligible, the IEP team must meet to write an IEP for the child.
Step 5: IEP meeting is scheduled
The school system schedules and conducts the IEP meeting. School staff must:
- contact the participants, including the parents;
- notify parents in time to make sure they have an opportunity to attend;
- schedule the meeting at a time and place agreeable to parents and the school;
- inform the parents of the purpose, time, and location of the meeting;
- inform the parents who will be attending the meeting; and
- inform the parents that they may invite individuals to the meeting who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child.
Step 6: IEP meeting is held and the IEP is written
The IEP team gathers to talk about the child’s needs and write the student’s IEP. Parents and the student (when appropriate) are part of the team. If the child’s placement is decided by a different group, the parents must be part of that group as well.
Before the school system may provide special education and related services to the child for the first time, the parents must give consent. The child begins to receive services as soon as possible after the meeting.
If the parents do not agree with the IEP and placement, they may discuss their concerns with other members of the IEP team and try to work out an agreement. If they still disagree, parents can ask for mediation, or the school may offer mediation. Parents may file a complaint with the state education agency and may request a due process hearing , at which time mediation must be available.
Step 7: Services are provided.
The school makes sure that the child’s IEP is being carried out as it was written. Parents are given a copy of the IEP. Each of the child’s teachers and service providers has access to the IEP and knows his or her specific responsibilities for carrying out the IEP. This includes the accommodations, modifications, and supports that must be provided to the child, in keeping with the IEP.
Step 8: Progress is measured and reported to parents.
The child’s progress toward the annual goals is measured, as stated in the IEP. His or her parents are regularly informed of their child’s progress and whether that progress is enough for the child to achieve the goals by the end of the year. These progress reports must be given to parents at least as often as parents of nondisabled children are informed of their progress.
Step 9: IEP is reviewed.
The child’s IEP is reviewed by the IEP team at least once a year, or more often if the parents or school ask for a review. If necessary, the IEP is revised. Parents, as team members, must be invited to attend these meetings. Parents can make suggestions for changes, and agree or disagree with the IEP goals or with the placement.
If parents do not agree with the IEP and placement, they may discuss their concerns with other members of the IEP team and try to work out an agreement. There are several options, including additional testing, an independent evaluation, or asking for mediation (if available) or a due process hearing. They may also file a complaint with the state education agency.
Step 10: Child is reevaluated.
At least every three years the child must be reevaluated. This evaluation is often called a “triennial.” Its purpose is to find out if the child continues to be a “child with a disability,” as defined by IDEA, and what the child’s educational needs are. However, the child must be reevaluated more often if conditions warrant or if the child’s parent or teacher asks for a reevaluation.
Reference: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, A Guide to the Individualized Education Program, Washington, D.C., 2000.