World History to 1685

World Civilization to 1648
Dating:BC&AD(BC&CE)532AD Dionysius Exiguus started 
I.ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION: MIDDLE EAST TO 500BC
  A. Oldest hominid fossil 3248000 BC 
   1. oldest footprints 3748000 BC
   2. several competing hominid
    a. Homo habilis(able or competent hominid)
      i.700000BC, tool maker, large brain
     ii.changes from gathering to also hunting
    b. Homo erectus (standing man) 
	 i.tool builder left africa 348000 BC
    c.Homo sapiens neanderthalensis wise Neanderthal
	 i.valley in Germany 123000BC-33000BC
     ii.never interbreed with Homo sapiens sapiens
    iii.competed with homo sapiens at same time
    d. Homo sapiens sapiens (also Cro Magnon Man)
 	 i. valley in France 100000BC
	ii. no links with previous life forms found
       a.if evolution true we should see links now
	  b.minor changes evident within species
	    i.(skin tone)
3. Paleolithic (old stone age) 400000-10000 BC
    a. generally hunting and gathering 
    b. possibly some herding of animals
    c. possibly domesticating the dog
   4. Neolithic (new stone age) 9000 BC
    a. starts in Palestine mild ice age 
    b. forced to plant some grain
     i.1000 yrs later domesticate
      a. cattle,goats&sheep
	 b. cats and dogs used
	 c. larger communities free up some people
 	 d. specialists in trades start
	 e. begin market economy with trade & art
   5. Agriculture Invented
    a.Fertile Crescent 9000 BC
	i. barley, wheat & oats
    b.Chinese in Yellow River Valley 7000 BC 
     i. Rice and millet
    ii. slash and burn 
    c. Indus Valley 7000 BC
    d. Native Americans also invent 5000 BC
i.	peppers, squash, pumpkin, avocado & corn
6.Change from Hunting&Gathering to Agriculture
    a. hunting done by men (upper body strength)
	i. weaker males do not breed
    ii. women chosen for fertility 
   iii. organization to hunt large animals 
    b. women do the gathering 
    c. farming provides constant food source
	i. women simply gather at home now
    ii. women hand property down to daughters
   iii. men do not need property
    iv. matriarchal societies develop
	v. life is dependent on fertility of earth 
    vi. several early stories about female gods
	 a. fertility cults & female deities B.The oldest 
Language
 1. Proto-Indo-European
  a. deduced from traces in ancient languages
   i.words or parts common in ancient languages
  ii. word for dog or wolf the same	
    a.may show time before domestication
    b.Indo-European basis for European languages
	i. India, the middle east and Europe
C. End of neolithic - The Copper Age 
 1. starts Central Europe around 5000 BC
  a. known as Old Europe 
  b. used pictographs but no written language
 2. Sumeria of Mesopotamia 3500-1500BC
  a. organize people to control river flooding
  b. organization feed large numbers start cities 
  c. copper and silver used 
  d. Temples (4000BC) & Ziggurats(3100BC)
   i. show importance of priests
  e. writing starts (3500BC) all over region
  f. life, writing & religion centered on food
   i. priests controlled resource & stored it
  ii. Secret knowledge of writing & astronomy
 3. Kings and War
  a. developed as wealth accumulated
  b. King to run army to protect wealth
  c. army to expand and take over other resources
  d. History starts with kings
   i. to maintain rule kings record successions
  ii. creation myths start during this period
    a. divine favor and bestowing on king
b. insure justice & victory over others
  e. King Priest- may have preceded Kings
   i. Kings had religious duties 
  ii. Priests may have been first kings 
 iii. may have developed after armies generals
  f.patriarchal societies develop from raids&war
   i. strength in war becomes the dominant theme
  ii.hold on to property through power & strength
    a.property starts to represent power & wealth
    b. farming sustains life now not hunting
 iii.kings claim lands & require taxes for armies
  g. successive settlements built upon others 
   i.Jericho had numerous early earth&stone walls
D. The Bronze Age
 1. An alloy of tin and copper
  a. stronger than both
 2. Sargon of Akkad 2370BC 
  a. Akkadians unite southern Mesopotamia
  b. first imperial state  
 3. writing used first time for history 
a.	not for just commerce & religion 
4. become the second Dynasty of Ur
  a. at mouth of Euphrates River
  b. Abraham & Israelites leave region
 5. Third dynasty from Zagros Mountain 2200BC
  a. do not conquer all of Akkadia
 6. the two dynasties develop Cuneiform
  a. triangles and lines in clay tables
E. Babylon (first Dynasty)
 1. 1990BC Amorite & Elamite brake Akkadia & Ur
  a. established new capitol up river from Akkad
 2. King Hammurabi 1792-1750BC
  a. code of law (from Sumerian & Akkadian kings)
  b. carved on left on large stone markers
  c. basically eye for eye & tooth for tooth
 3. Mathematics
  a. started with Babylon
  b. some geometry and algebra
  c. both base 10& 60 (60 min. hr & 360º circle)
 4. Astrology tracked plants & predicted future
 5. Weakened with invasion of Kassites in 1595BC
  a. Kassites rule south half
F. Egypt
 1. Pre-dynastic period 3800-3100BC
  a. kingdom of Hierakonpolis(city of the falcon)
   i. built power on pottery (course & fine)
  ii. survived with agriculture/trade gave power
 iii. environment changed more savannah (drier)
  iv. abandon city and move towards Nile
  b.Pottery kings take control & expand to river
   i. individual families controlled cities 
  ii.cities cooperate in irrigation&flood control
  c. 3200BC return to Hierakonpolis 
   i. build Necropolis in old cemetery
 2. Old Kingdom 
  a. Hierakonpolis(Catfish)becomes first emperor
   i.(First Dynasty)
  ii. built upon successor (Scorpion)
 iii. starts to unite both upper and lower Egypt 
  iv. united Egypt must control river flooding
    a. irrigation projects down Nile organized
    b. Rosetta stone 
     i. discovered in 1799 by Napoleon's army
    ii. Greek, Hieroglyphics & Demotic(Egyptian)
iii. Before only knew Greek histories of Egypt 
    c. Nile center of life, attributed with power
	i. believed the valley belonged to the gods
    ii. Pharaoh divine to harness the river
   iii. Pharaoh living representative of the gods
	 a. he alone could draw wealth from the land
    iv. Society & life associated with farming
	 a. birth, death, rebirth, afterlife
	 b.preserve&collect seeds=prepare afterlife
     v. first use of writing on graves
	 a. pictures on grave masks
	 b. Book of the Dead & cult first writing
 	 c. writing on pots found at Hierakonpolis
    vi. Egypt builds tombs/Babylon temples
 	 a. first built by Djoser at Saqqara
	  i. 1st or 2nd pharaoh of 3rd Dynasty 2600BC
	 ii. square with rough steeped sides
	 b. great pyramid at Gisa by Khufu
	  i. for himself and wife 
	 ii. 13acres,482'tall; 2,300,000 21/2ton blocks
	iii. 20 years to build
3. Middle Kingdom
  a. 7th-10thdynasties 2150-2050 internal strife
   i. weak central government/ governors control
  b. 11th Dynasty reestablishes central control
   i. stop building pyramids
    a. power was too dispersed throughout kingdom
  c. ended with the explosion of Thera 
   i. an island in the Aegean Sea
  ii. largest volcanic explosion in history 
    a. tidal wave, flooded the Nile River delta
    b. sent world into a global winter
  d. The Shepherd Kings 
   i. Hyksos-non Egyptian people invaded the delta
 4. Hittites of Asia Minor use Iron (1800BC)
  a. easily conquer neighboring tribes 
  b. technology spreads through Celts(Phoenicians)
 5. New Kingdom
  a. 18thDynasty by Ahmose defeated the Hyksos
  b. expanded south into the Sudan
   i. conducted rich trade in gold & ivory
c. Pharaoh Akhenaton(r.1379-1362BC)
   i. abandoned old gods for Aton
  ii. single all powerful god (first monotheist)
 iii. developed a new theology and cult
    a. destroys all records of father and gods
    b.moves capitol to Amana & starts new religion
    c. brings mother and may have married her
    d. Nefertiti 2nd wife
     i. 1/2 brother & sister or 1st cousins
  iv. maybe murdered? son takes over
  d. Tutankhaton(changed name to Tutankhamen)
   i. the boy pharaoh (r.1361-1352BC)
  ii. four years later drops cult drops cult
 iii. returns to capitol at Thebes 
  iv. Tomb discovered(1922)mostly intact 
  e. decline & fall: weak kings ruled
   i. controlled only part of Egypt
  ii. 1100 BC northern families overthrew kingdom
 iii. 1000-800 BC Libyans in the west conquered
  iv. 800-700 BC Kushites from Nubia took control
   v. 7th - 4th centuries Persians ruled 
vi.333BC Alexander the Great conquers
 vii. 326BC Ptolemies starts a Greek dynasty
viii. 30BC Rome conquers
 5. Society and Culture
  a. early Pharaohs came from merchant class
   i. merchants lost status in later years 
    a.trade limited to local markets cheap goods
    b. priests control state trade
     i. priests held most large amounts of land
    ii. control most of supplies coming to market
  b. Pharaohs are gods but priest run things
   i. scribes placed slightly above priests 
    a. don't serve in military or pay taxes
  ii. scribes created an educational system 
    a. men of low birth could arise to serve state
    b. created a literary culture 
     i. reflected values of upper class
  c. Wives of Pharaohs from military families
   i. Pharaohs received a military education 
  d. artisans 
i.	upper class support(priests,scribes&military 
ii. could not sell on open market unless free
 iii. the beginning of a middle class
  e. peasants
   i. the majority of people in Egypt
  ii. owned own plots of land & raised crops
 iii. wealth of Egypt depended on irrigation
    a.peasants, priests & artisans supply labor 
  iv. sold labor to work on temples or pyramids
  f. slaves 
   i. only a small percentage of society
  ii. usually taken captive from prisoners in war
 iii. upper-classes had one or two house slaves
  iv.large numbers in mines&construction projects
   v. rarely used in agriculture
  g. women
   i. marriages arranged between families
  ii. women may divorce,own land & make contracts
 iii. women have priests&equal religious rights
G. The Era of Small Kingdoms
 1. Phoenicians 
a.1100-800BC control Eastern Mediterranean trade
  b. lived along eastern Mediterranean coast 
  c. trade and colonies extensive
   i. started city state of Carthage near Tunis 
    a. practiced worship of Baal
	i. sacrificed children to god
  ii.sailed to Brittany, Cornwall&Ireland for tin
 iii. may have sailed around Africa
  iv. some believe to have traveled to America
    a. may be source of the legend of Atlantis
  d. center of learning and culture
   i. oldest city north of Tyre & Sidon, Biblos
    a. famous for manufacture of writing material
    b. Greek for book, may come from biblios
  ii. spread use of northwest Semitic alphabet
    a. easier than Egyptian or Cuneiform
    b. symbols represent sounds, easy to write
    c. basis for Greek, Latin & Hebrew alphabets
	i.Greek basis for Russian Cyrillic alphabet
  e. Assyrians conquer eastern empire around 750BC
   i.some move to Carthage(Rome conquers in 146BC)
2. Israel
  a. Palestine founded between 1250 to 400 BC 
  b. innovations in religion recorded
   i.religious history written between 1000-150 BC
  ii. oral traditions now written but problems
    a.Hebrew scripture has no vowels(mn:mean,men)
    b.start to forget,commentaries kept record
    c. traced history to ancient Mesopotamia
	i. story of flood found in Babylonian writing
    ii. code of law similar to Hammurabi's
    d. no evidence until Egyptian period
	i. formed in Egyptian delta around Avaris 
    ii. Ramses II (1290-1224BC) rebuilt Avaris
      a. Bible tells that slaves built city
	 b. After Ramses died Moses led out of Egypt
    e. Moses led Israel 40 yrs. in Sinai
	i. wrote first five books (Torah)
    ii. may have been influenced by Midianites 
	 a.Midianites destroy Egyptian temple, Horeb
	 b.gilded snake image at shrine (Nu.21:4-9)
    f.unsuccessful invasion of southern palestine
g. invaded from east with success
    h. Bible account may be very accurate
    i. No king for years & trouble with neighbors
    j. 1000BC Saul made king by prophet Samuel
	i. few years later David anointed by Samuel
    k. golden age, David expanded kingdom
	i. conquered Philistines & Canaanites
    ii. built capitol in Jerusalem
   iii. Solomon 960-930BC expanded trade&diplomacy
	 a. built temple & royal palace
	 b. after death 10 tribes rebel
	  i. Kingdoms of Israel and Judah
	   a. Israel conquered by Assyrians
        b. Judah by the Chaldean & Persians
        c. remnants conquered by Greeks & Rome
H. Age of Empires
 1. Assyrian Empire (ca.750-612BC)
  a. conquered all of Mesopotamia & Egypt
  b. ruled by terror&power from capitol at Nineveh
  c. 613-612BC Babylonians rebelled others follow
2. Chaldean Empire (ca.626-693BC)
  a. led the rebellion from city of Babylon
  b. king Nebuchadnezzar conquered Israel & Egypt
   i. carried off the leaders of conquered nations
 3. Persian Empire (ca.549-333BC)
  a. king Cyrus capitol Ecbatana north Mesopotamia
   i. joined Medes and others to form empire
  ii. conquered Anatolia (Turkey)&west Ionian pen.
 iii. continued & took all of Chaldean empire
  b. Darius (r.529-486BC.) conquered Egypt 
  c. liberal empire
   i. let people retain religion & government
    a. learnt from assyrians
    b. permitted Judah to return & rebuild kingdom
  ii. Persian governors & army keep peace & taxed
  d. Zoroastrianism
   i. 6th cent BC. prophet Zoroaster
    a. two gods control world: one good one evil
    b. battle for 6000 yrs humans can choose sides
    c. good go to paradise (a Persian word)
    d. evil go to eternal fire (hell)
     i. may give concept of heaven & hell
f. able to stop Greeks until 333 BC & Alexander
  g. resurface after Greeks & challenge Rome
  h. destroyed by Arabs after Islam (637AD)
II. GREEK CIVILIZATION
 A. Crete and Mycenaean Greece
  1. started on the island of Crete
   a. Minos (dynastic name for the kings of Minoa
    i. story of king Minos
   b. Preseus defeats Minotaur half bull&half man
    i. the labyrinth (some evidence under palace)
   c. Knossos the capitol on north shore 
   d. develop own writing borrowing from mid east
    i. needed for large scale trade
   ii. a syllabic script(signs represent sounds)
  iii. not all deciphered
  2. wealthy society
   a. middle class had a number of amenities
    i.indoor plumbing, sewers-frescos&furnishings
   ii. bakeries, craftsmen of all types in cities
   b. contact and trade with middle east 
c. women have some power&education ? how much?
  3. Thera exploded (1630BC)
   a. volcano caused tremendous destruction
    i. hot ash cloud traveled all the way to Egypt
   ii. burnt most the population of Crete
   b. Tsunami flooded islands & most of the coast
    i. survivors, left to Phoenicia
  4. Mycenaean Greece
   a. Greek city states
    i.rouged coastline & mountains favor isolation
   ii.establish cultural foundations for west civ
     a.art,science,ethics,politics,aesthetics,lit.
  iii. High Bronze age around end of the Minoans
   b.name of Homer's hero Agamemnon's home Mycenae
    i. cities ruled by princely families
   ii. usually had a large palace on a small hill
     a. palaces usually were two stories tall
     b. had a large covered porch 
     c. contained storage rooms & workshops
	 i. commerce under the kings control
   iii. ranged from 6 to 9 miles radius 
c. Women had some rights
	i. Male dominated society 
    ii. women allowed in some professions
	 a. many from other civilizations
	 b. usually only dealt with textiles
   iii.upper class women stay at home well guarded
    d. raiding societies
     i. Commerce = making & selling or looting
    ii.no religious shrines but some women priests 
	 a. priests in some upper class families
    e. The Trojan Wars (c.1200-1180BC)
	i. Homer The Illiad and The Odyssey	 a.Heinrich 
Schlieman excavate near Dardanelles
	  i. discovered 2 sites one 1200 & other 1800BC
	 ii. thought 1800 was Troy but no its the 1200
	 b. Schlieman also excavated Mycenae 
       i. most work in 1870-90s 
      ii. Dorian invasion (northern Greek peninsula)
        a.after war men return to different world
        b. several cities destroyed & kings usurped
        c. Dorians settle peacefully among Greeks
         i.only trace in language years later
B. Dark Age and Archaic Greece (c. 1150-500BC)
  1. little art or architecture
   a. no written records 12th-8th cen.BC
  2. minstrels & poets flourish
   a. develop historic & mythical stories
  3. revival of trade brings new ideas & pressures
   a. quest for more lucrative trade markets
   b. population pressures
  4. started colonies across Mediterranean
   a. Naples, Palermo, Byzantium
  5. Archaic Period (800-500BC)
   a. start of coins probably in Lydia, Asia Minor
    i. gold or silver stamped with image of maker
     a. minter guaranteed weight and content
     b. rulers claim exclusive right to mint
   ii. barter bulky may not want,no standard goods
  iii. rapid trade along journey(perishable goods)
  6. Rebirth of Civilization
   a. adapted Phoenician alphabet to write Greek
    i.first real alphabet with vowels & consonants
b.	Homer brings together oral Greek traditions
c. Hesiod writes about economy & gods
    i.village:awful in winter,miserable in summer 
   d. Sappho on island of Lesbos wrote lyric poems
    i. school to Ionian aristocrat's daughters
   ii. only known woman poet in ancient world
     a. primarily wrote love poems to young women
     b. Lesbianism may come from her & island
   e. Tyrtaeus of Sparta wrote martial songs
    i. to inspire men(c.650BC)
   f. Greek cities held regular poetry contests  
   g. Architecture experiences revival
    i. Greek temples acquire design
	a. columns with sculpted seats
   h. Sculpture depicts realistic human anatomy
    i.Egyptian profiles replaced by frontal views 
C. Polis
 1. Origins
  a.polis:city-states control area around town   i. 
sometimes smaller towns in the area  b.different than the 
previous Mycenaean citiesowned by the citizens not a single 
ruler
ii. constitutions established law
 iii. aristocratic families run lessers support    a. each 
family's traced to heroes or gods    b. priests 
mediate&perform religious duties    c. duty & service to 
city represented power    i.military 
service,govern,build,sponsorship  iv.women have less 
freedom-upper class confined    a. succession depended on 
certainty of fathers  c.introduction of wine&olive oil 
change society   i. rich land owners become very rich   ii. 
small farmers become poorer
    a. can't compete with imported cheap grain 
iii.development of the hoplite(shield)phalanxes    a. 
before individual battles, melees    b. now unites of men 
fight together    c. each man part of whole no room for 
heroism    d. each man with five acres had to serve  2. 
Tyrants 600-699 B.C.   a.rule of a single man (heredity)    
b. rose during class conflict     i.between land owners & 
commercial interests   
ii.promised reforms for poor & gained support   c. Greeks 
suspicious of Tyrants and ousted  3. Lawgivers   a. 
commercial economy creates need for new laws    i. old laws 
were oral traditions
   ii. fit agricultural society  iii. all based on ancient 
heros and gods   b.Draco-one of first law givers (621BC)    
i. harsh chief Athenian magistrate(draconian)    c. Solon-
established new codes to protect poor
    i. (590BC) no debtors prisons   ii. basis for Athenian 
constitution   d.written law can only change with another 
law    i. citizenry could not change it on whim   e. 
marketplace becomes the center of town     i. commerce, 
politics, learning, debate all
  4. Social Life in Athens   a. Athenian society reflected 
early city states     i.boys7-14 go to school in 
palaestra&gymnasium     a. learned then practiced physical 
arts     b. writing, reading, poetry, & arithmetic     
c. rich continue education under one teacher   b. citizens 
had obligations and rights    i. serve on jury and in 
assembly   ii. serve in phalanx or on ship  iii. rich 
support projects including military   c. metics:foreigner 
that lived within the city    i.control manufacturing, 
banking & commerce   ii. could not own land&limited access 
to court   iii. subject to head tax   iv. citizen patrons 
provided legal protection   d. Slaves: outnumbered 
Athenians ten to one    i. even poor houses had one or two 
slaves   ii. worked in all facets of society  iii. could 
buy freedom and become a metic   iv. ran away but never 
revolted in Athens   e. Women: believed given to more 
sexual passion    i. kept cloistered at home 
   ii. only allowed outside with an escort     a. usually a 
male slave to protect   iii.had only limited access to 
education(Lesbos)
  ii. local customs and beliefs affected religion     a. 
gods different in different regions   e. cities sponsor 
religious events    i.contradictions caused many to be 
skeptical   ii.religion lost personal touch&emotional power  
iii. society & religion growing more impersonal   iv. many 
left religion to join secret cults	a. secret knowledge & 
beliefs held new statusD. Rise of Athens and Sparta 1. 
Tyrants overthrown in Athens (510 B.C.) 2. Cleisthenes put 
through constitutional reform  a. divided city into ten 
tribes   i. each tribe had all elements of society
    a. rich & poor etc.  b. 50 men from each tribe served 
in assembly   i. chosen by lot each year  c.leaders elected 
by assembly but drew no salary   i. only rich could serve 
but responsible to all  d.politics & debate more important 
for everyone   e. defending the state   i. Only rich served 
in phalanx, afford armor
ii. anyone can server in navy even poor & metics iii. navy 
protected trade & expanded power  f. Athens dominates 
commerce in 5th cen. BC. 3. Sparta  a. aristocratic 
oligarchy   i. 650BC neighbors rebel & 50 yrs of war  ii. 
Sparta became a military machine   b. Sparta & allies of 
area become Lacedaemon   i. 3 classes of people     a. male 
citizens equal among selves    b. subject communities 
manage own affairs
     i. have no say over sparta    c.serfs (belots) worked 
farms & support army    ii. boys start military training at 
7   iii. men joined army at 20 & could marry     a. could 
not live with wife until 30    b. lived in barracks with 
other soldiers    c. remained liable for military until 60 
yrs.  c. Sparta controls most Peloponnesus by 500B.C.    i. 
through direct control or alliances  ii. competitors of 
Athens found ally in Sparta
. The Persian Wars (499-479BC) 1. Cyrus the Great controls 
vast Persian Empire  a. Ionians rebelled, Athens sent fleet 
to help  b. Rebellion quashed   c. Shah Darius of Persia 
sent army to punish  d. Athenians defeat Persians at 
Marathon  e. Xerxes marches 100,000 men over Dardanelles  
f. Athens & Peloponnesian League defend Greece
 2. Thermopylae a narrow pass easily defended  a. 6,000 
Spartans defend pass (all killed)  b. Athenian fleet stops 
Persian supply fleet
  c. Athens abandoned and burnt by Persians 3. Athenians 
rebuild fleet&attack Persian navy  a. Persians loose to 
Sparta at Plataea (479BC.)   b. Athenian navy sinks most of 
Persian fleet  4. Ionians independent
  a. Athenian commercial influence dominateF. Age of 
Athenian Domination&Peloponnesian War 1. Athenian Empire  
a. Delian League (478BC)   i. started on Delos to defend 
against Persia
ii. each member contributes ships or money
 iii. Athens chooses leader of fleet & treasury
    a. contributed the most to the league  iv. Athenian 
maritime empire developed     a. move Treasury&government 
to Athens (454BC)     b. Athens grew only 1/3rd of food 
supply     i. commerce important to survival    ii. safe 
seas to protect commerce    c. Sparta controlled the 
Peloponnesian League	i. never challenged control of 
Aegean seas    ii. independent states had to choose sides
 2. Athenian Politics  a. Athenian Constitution begins to 
fail   i.Ostracism used to stop one too much power    a. 
majority can exile someone for ten years  ii. now used by 
political rivals     a. bribe poor to cast vote against 
rivals    b. print shards with names on them  b. Pericles 
in power (463-429BC) 3. The Peloponnesian War (431-404BC)
a. Sparta & Athens challenge each other   i. Sparta an 
oligarchy & Athens a democracy  ii. conservative states 
allied to Sparta
    a. others to Athens  b. both needed each other for 
commerce & food   c. minor troubles sparked war   i. 
control over colonies of Corcyra&Potidaea  ii.exclusion of 
Megara from Delian League market  d. Athens wins first war 
over disasters   i.Pericles lets farmers in city & 
overcrowds  ii. plague kills Pericles & thousands iii. 
Athenian navy forces Sparta to peace 421BC.  e. Athenians 
start war over internal politics   i. hoped for more 
concession from Sparta  ii. bold and risky campaigns 
risking all    a.Athenian Oligarchy takes control of 
politics    b. Asks aid from Persia but Persia overthrown    
c. war continues under democracy iii. Sparta wins 404BC  
iv. Athens & others free from Spartan in 370BC
G. The Classical Civilization of Greece 1. Architecture and 
Art  a.Pericles rebuilt Athens after Persian war  b. 
classic architecture of Parthenon & Acropolis  c. sculpted 
the ideal human form not reality 2. Drama and Music  a. 
drama from religious festivals & poetry   b. tragedies 
written and performed in trilogies   c. contests involving 
tragedies  d. after contests comedies entertained people  
e. eventually comedies had own competitions  f. The three 
major playwrights of Greece   i. Sophocles (496-406BC)7 of 
123 plays survive  ii. Aeschylus (525-456BC) only 6 survive  
iii. Euripides (480-406BC) only 17 survive 3. Greek 
Historians   a. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-420BC)   i. 
wrote about the Persian War  ii. believed it a struggle 
between east & west iii. wrote about everyone living in 
known world
iv. wrote down what his informants said     a. recorded 
their errors and prejudices	i. Egyptian men walk on fours 
like dogs etc.  b. Thucydides (460-400BC)   i. wrote about 
the Peloponnesian War  ii. Was general in the war exiled 
for 20 yrs    a. lost a city he was to protect iii. 
criticized Herodous for being too romantic  iv. used 
important characters at time in work    a. he used their 
words to explain motives  4. Philosophy   a. develops from 
astronomy & algebra (Babylon)    i. thinking about 
existence and order in world   ii.Thales of Miletus 
predicted an eclipse585BC      a.math better than myth to 
explain world   b. thinkers and teachers supported by city   
c. Socrates (469-399BC)    i. first philosopher of note in 
Ancient Greece   ii.led aristocratic students around 
marketplace   iii. Two attempts at oligarchy 411 & 401 BC.     
a. both failed and his students blamed     
b. 401BC found guilty and sentenced to death     c. Hemlock 
& debate or nobility of city-state   d. Plato (426-347BC)    
i.Student of Socrates wrote Socrates arguments   ii. exiled 
after 401 rebellion, returns in 387  iii. starts The 
Academy school for aristocrates    iv. wrote extensively 
and proposed idealism     a. physical is only a reflection 
of a divine
     b. The Republic ideal city-state 
      i. run by philosopher-king   e. Aristotle (384-322BC)    
i. student of Plato    ii. believed the physical is unique 
& no ideal  iii. study the physical & learn patterns   iv. 
investigated all the governments of Greeks      a. tried to 
find a pattern of government    v. Aristotelian logic     
a.method of rational inquiry that shapes west   vi. tutors 
King Philip's son Alexander 340BCH. The Greek World in the 
Fourth Century B.C.
1. Philip II of Macedon (359-336BC)  a. Sparta controls all 
of Greece beating Athens  b. City-States rebelled with 
urging of Persia  c. Persia backs Sparta when rebellion too 
big   i. plays both sides to keep Sparta small  ii. 
supports Peloponnesian league and allies iii.grants 
autonomy to city-states outside league  d. Philip takes 
advantage of weakened Greece   i. makes alliances with some 
city-states  ii.challenge Athenian trade & defeats their 
navy   e.Philip allows city-states autonomy but watches 2. 
Alexander the Great (336-323 B.C.)  a. father was 
assassinated  b. leads Greek & Macedonian army against 
Persia    i. three decisive victories win Persia  
c.conquers Egypt and named a god the son of Amon   i. 
founds the city of Alexandria  ii. library&center of 
learning for ancient world  d. continues to eastern Persia 
and on to India  e.Hellenizes world-men intermarry spread 
culturestarts Greek colonies in conquered countries 
f. catches fever and dies at 33 after conquering
 3. Alexandrian Greece  a. after death generals divide 
Empire  b. Antigonus takes Macedon & Greek peninsula  c. 
Ptolemeus takes Egypt & Alexandria    i. world trade very 
profitable now  d. Seleucus takes old Persian Empire to 
India  e.Maurya dynasty starts in Ganges & takes India
III.HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION,ROME & MEDITERRANEAN
A.Mediterranean World after Alexander the Great
 1. Political and Commercial Powers
  a. Asia Minor (Turkey & Macedonia) 
  b.Seleucid Persia(Mesopotamia&East Mediterranean)
  c. Ptolemaic Egypt (Nile to Libya)
  d. The west had two kingdoms of note
   i. Carthage founded by the Phoenicians of Tyre
    a. controlled west into Spain & north Africa
  ii. Massalia (Marseilles) Gaul
    a. Frane & Rhone River all along coast
 iii.both may have traded along west African coast
2. Hellenistic Civilization
  a.Greek spoken through Alexander's world
   i. India overthrew Greek control & rebuilds
  ii. merchants traded throughout empire easily
  b. Alexandria
   i. center of Hellenistic culture & learning
  ii. built temple to muses to study art & science
    a. a museum
 iii. lighthouse- wonder of ancient world
  iv. the library another wonder 
    a. copy of books from every ship
    b. center of knowledge 
    c. Jewish center outside Jerusalem
   i. Septuagint 3rd cent. BC 
    a. written by 70 or 72 translators
  ii. commissioned by High Priest at Jerusalem
 iii. maintained Jewish religion 
 3. Art and Literature
  a. sculpture tried to portray emotions&reality
   i. moving pieced like the Venus de Milo
  b. literature continued the Greek traditions 
4. Science
  a. secured Babylonian,Egyptian&Greek knowledge
  b. Herophilus 350BC identified nervous system
	and blood circulation
  c. Aristarchus of Samos 320BC 
   i. planets revolve around the sun
  d. Alexandrian Eratosthenes (330BC)
   i. circumference of earth
  e. Euclid (300BC) system of geometry 
  f. Archimedes of Syracuse (250BC) 
   i. pulley, screw, & lever =physics
 5. Philosophy and Religion
  a. Greeks turn to virtue&discipline over service
   i. local religion did not cover the large world
  ii. world events could effect other regions
 iii. elite turned to philosophy
  b. Stoicism influenced by Zeno of Citium (300BC)
   i. all men are bound by Universal laws
  ii.Power,wealth,desires&affection are dangerous
 iii. should not seek public office but accept
  iv. try to be ordinary and unaffected
c. Epicureanism based on Epicrus (310BC)
   i. proper conduct brings simple pleasures
  ii. moderation in all things
 iii. Ambition & wealth causes problems
  iv. avoid attachment to family,friends or state
  d. Cynicism from Antisthenes (420BC)
   i. Antisthenes taught in Athens gymnasium 
  ii.doubts possibility of getting true knowledge
 iii. no sense in trying to save a ignorant world 
  iv. seek peace of mind & withdraw from world
  e. mystery religions for common man 
   i. borrowed from local customs and beliefs 
  ii. Essenes-Dead Sea Scrolls-Qumran(110BC-68AD)
 iii. Worship of Isis in Egypt 
  iv. Diana - Mother goddess of Asia Minor 
 6. The Fate of Hellenistic Civilization
  a. internal dissension and cultural conflict
  b. language not enough to unite people 
   i. upper class united but not poor
  c. Rome slowly conquered Hellenistic states 
B. The Foundations of Rome and its Power 
 1. Origins
  a. Roman myth of Romulus and Remis
  b. Etruscan invasion of the Italy 1000BC
   i. Etruscans a non Indo-European civilization 
    a. unsure of origins & language
  ii. lived in city states like Greece 
    a. aristocratic families ruled
 iii. women enjoyed more freedom than Greeks
  iv. Rome & other villages stop Etruscans
    a. city state emerged around 6th cent BC
    b. Romans & Etruscan alliances
    c. 510BC Romans oust Tarquin Etruscans
 2. The Republican Constitution
  a. written to restrain development of tyrants
   i. two man executive(consuls)elected yearly
  ii. two or three men in high government jobs
 iii. in emergency a dictator controls 6 months
  b. assembly of citizens (only men are citizens)
   i. elects officials, make law & appeals court
ii. five sections with various numbers of votes
    a. patricians = 80 votes
    b. four classes of plebeians = 90 votes
    c. non class held the remaining 23 votes
     i. Equestrians(rich plebeian cavalry=18 votes
    ii. Artisans = 2 votes
   iii. Proletarians (landless poor) = 1 vote
  c. only patricians could be magistrates
  d. join Senate after service in high office
	i. 4 quaestors, 
 	 a. 2 managed the public treasury
	 b. 2 assisted consuls in military finances
    ii. 2 praetors 
      a. 1 handles justice involving citizens
	  i. governs city when consuls left
      b. 1 handled cases involving foreigners
   iii.Senate directs rulers many were relatives
	 a. bribe poor for votes in assembly
  e. Same men have military & civilian powers
   i. only use military power outside the city
  ii. inside city civilian authority & law ruled
 iii.citizen soldiers held discipline outside city 
    a. in city could voice opinion and freely vote 
  f. age requirements on certain offices
   i. quaestor minimum 25 yrs old
  ii. practor minimum 30 yrs old
 iii. consul minimum 35 yrs old
  g. term limits but could return after break 
   i. 325 BC minimum 10 yr break before return
  ii. wars outside Rome require strong leadership
 iii. start Pro-console for military
  h. Plebeian unrest
   i. Etruscans plebeians seek king's protection
    a. division between king & rich help poor
  ii. Patricans pressure poor to give up land
 iii. no written law patrician judges made rules
    a. related to those who persecuted the poor
 3. Struggle between Patricians and Plebeians
  a. Tribunes two Plebeian magistrates (470BC)
  b. 12 Tables written by one of Tribunes (450BC)
   i. 1st time law of Rome written
  c.ban on plebeian&patricians marriage lift446BC
d. assembly starts military tribunes 444BC
   i. 3 men control military & 2 civilians
  ii. military tribunals rule if senate agrees
    a. plebeian elected to tribune in 400BC
     i. war demanded best men regardless
  e. 421BC plebeians could become quaestors
  f. Reforms of 367BC and plebeian equality
   i. 367BC plebeians could become consuls
  ii. 340BC one consul plebeian one patrician
  g. struggles persisted between the classes 
   i. Patricians gave way in times of emergency
C. The Growth of Roman Italy (500-265BC)
 1. Expansion of Roman Power
  a. 496BC entered the Latin League
   i.towns join Rome to protect from Etruscans
  ii. towns respected each others citizens 
  b. 450BC Celts invade Etruscans from north
   i. Gauls continued into northern Rome
  ii. Rome suffered defeats from 390-360BC
 iii. Rome conquered the last Etruscan 350BC
 c. War against the Latin League (340-338BC)
  i. Rome conquered their neighbors in the League
ii. Roman citizenship to Italian peoples
  d. Rome expands to Greece
   i. 290BC Rome controls all Italy
    a. Rome conquered the Samnites to the south
  ii.Greek city states in south Italy held out 
    a. King Pyrrhus of Epirus supports Greeks
    b. won battles but lost too many men
    c. Greeks come under Roman control 265BC
 2. Roman Military System
  a. legion formed backbone of Roman military
   i. 4,300 men in smaller divisions for mobility
  b. relied on citizen farmers to fill ranks
  c. farmland supports troops 
D. Roman Expansion Overseas
 1. The Punic Wars 264-146BC
  a. Carthage threatens Greeks in southern Italy 
   i. Phonecians control Sicily&western Med. Sea
  ii. Rome built a navy to invade Sicily
    a. lost 3 fleets to storms
    b. 4th fleet destroyed Carthaginians
  b. 2nd Punic war over Spain & silver mines
i.	Carthage attacked a Roman ally in Spain
ii. Hannibal crossed Alps with army into Italy
    a. beat Romans badly 70,000 Romans died
    b. 10,000 Roman sold into slavery
    c. Roman's allies stop invasion of Rome
    d.Scripio Africans appointed & attacked Spain
     i. took back Spain and invaded Carthage
 iii. Hannibal returns to defend but lost
  iv. Carthage fleet limited to ten ships
  c. Rome eventually laid siege to Carthage
   i. destroy city, enslave citizens, salt fields 
  ii. north Africa became Roman client state
 2. Rome and the Hellenistic East
  a. small states in east ask for aid
   i. Rome came to military aid
  b. Macedonia aided Carthage in second Punic war 
   i. Rome defeated and invaded
  c. Corinth destroyed for disobedience
  d. Athens plundered and sold as well 
  e. Rome conquered Asia Minor
  f. Syria & Egypt given independence 
   i. need permission in foreign affairs
E. Consequences of Expansion
 1. Governing the Provinces
  a.constitution works for small agriculture state
  b. proconsuls rule local authorities & garrisons
  c. unscrupulous proconsuls enrich themselves
  d. special court to try accused of graft (149BC)
   i. became political tools to gain power
  e. Rome allowed client states to rule themselves
   i. distrusted city had Roman military governors
 2. Economic, Social, and Political Change
  a. poor farmers could not compete with imports 
   i. rich bought up poor farms
  ii. rich concentrate on producing wine & oil 
 iii. rely on imports for food supply
  b. the urban mob
   i. poor farmers lost land & moved to city
  ii. rich supported & bought votes in assembly
 iii. ambitious leaders promised land reform
  iv. mobs didn't get they rioted
  c. taxes 
   i. Equestrians & middle class profited greatly
  ii. Publicans bided for districts to tax
d. Citizenship
   i. local aristocrats made citizens once proven
  ii. remained loyal to Rome & Pax Romano
  e. Slaves
   i. taken in conquest sold into slavery
  ii. some won freedom - given or bought
 iii. slaves could become citizens unlike Greece
  iv. children of citizens became citizens
    a. most citizens children of foreign slaves
 3. Literary, Artistic, and Religious Change
  a. Greek culture influenced their conquerors
  b. Greek slaves taught Roman children 
  c. Roman's copy Greek art,religion& architecture
   i. we know Greek art from Roman copies
  ii. some resistance:claim Roman culture superior
  d. Rome's legal system and government held
   i.no lawyers judges appointed for a single case
  ii. judges do as they please but must be fair
    a. incompetence & prejudice carry heavy fines
  e. Few works written in Latin most in Greek
   i. a few Latin histories(the work of Cato)
  ii.mostly translation of Greek works:Odyssey etc.
F. The Collapse of the Republic 146-59 BC
 1. The Society of the Late Republic
  a. stratification of wealth
  b. rich lend money to small farmers to collect
   i. destroyed crops & irrigation ditches
  c. mobs form & fate of Rome tied to this group?
 2. The Gracchi
  a. Tiberius Gracchus
   i.tried land reform, give landless public land
  ii. senators control public land and refused
 iii. Tiberius won seat as Tribune and passed law
    a. one Tribune vetoed 
    b. Tiberius had him kicked out
  iv. Tiberius ran again for office
   v. Senate urges mob to riot & hang Tiberius
  b. Gaius Gracchus ten years later
   i. revised idea of land reform 
  ii. bill sells grain at 1/2 price to get mob
 iii.Equestrians power over corruption case juries
  iv. Tried to open citizenship for Italian allies 
a.	division within supporters, riot hanged him
3. Marius and Sulla
  a. Marius an Equestrian elected consul 107BC
   i. Several wars keep as a general elected 5x
  ii. brakes tradition and let landless in army
 iii. paid army from loot and settled on new land
  iv. poor now found living in army & joined
   v. loyalty now towards general and state
  b. Sulla- Marius's officers rose to consul 88BC
   i. marched against Mithradates in Asia Minor
  ii. enemies undermined his support at home
 iii. Marched on Rome and appointed dictator
  iv. had enemies condemned & gave land to troops
   v. retired and died next year in 79BC
 4. New Leaders: Pompey, Crassus and Cicero
  a. Pompey rose from Sulla's army to be a general
  b. Crassus stops Spartacus slave rebellion 71BC
   i. Pompey put down a slave rebellion in Spain
  c. both men elected to consul in 70BC
  d. Cicero an Equestrian unknown
   i.prosecutes Verres-corrupt provincial governor 
  ii. famous for his speeches 
iii. sided with Pompey against Crassus
  e. Mithradates rebelled again in 74BC
   i. Pompey creates Roman province in Asia Minor
  ii. converted Syria into a province, 
    a. put in new king in Israel
 iii. senate would not ratify his arrangements
  iv. sought help of Gaius Julius Caesar
G. The End of the Republic (59-30BC)
 1. Rise of Caesar (59-52BC)
  a. The First Triumvirate 59BC
   i.won favor of Crassus by paying his old debts
  ii.supports Pompey's allies gave loot to army
 iii. elected to consul with Crassus & Pompey
  iv. took command of army in Gaul
    a. needed to connect Italy with Spain
   v. Caesar conquers Gaul 7 makes it a province
  vi. Crassus fights Persia defeated and killed
 2. Caesar and Pompey (52-48BC)
  a. Pompey elected sole consul to stop mob 52BC
  b. Pompey tries to stop Caesar's power base
   i. tries to take back his army
c. Caesar's allies defend him but give up
  d. Senate demands both men resign 
  e. Caesar refuses marches on Rome - Rubicon
  f. Pompey cannot organize army, flees to Greece
   i. Some senators follow him
  g. next year fight small battles Pompey wins
  h. Caesar wins decisive victory, Pharsalus 48BC
  i. Pompey goes to Egypt but killed by Ptolemaic  
  j. Caesar puts down Pompey's supporters
 3. Caesar in Power (48-44BC)
  a. declared dictator in 48Bc
   i. made Imperium-supreme military commander
  ii. ruled by power not elected
  b. tried to end corruption of provincial govs.
  c. enlarged senate include provincial nobles
  d. adopted Egyptian calendar of 365 & 1/4 days
  e. Senate felt he usurped power
   i. challenged ancestral rights
  ii. Brutus & Cassius conspiracy & murdered him
 iii. March 15, 44BC (The Ides of March)
  f. wasn't in power very long
i.	may have reformed or eliminated constitution
4. Civil War and the Second Triumvirate (44-30BC)
  a.Mark Anthony-Caesar's chief lieutenant won mob
  b. Brutus&Cassius little support Senate was dead
  c. Octavian-Caesar's grand nephew & heir
   i. got Cicero's & controlling senator's support
  d. Octavian gained support of mob
   i. formed second Triumvirate
  ii. Mark Anthony & Lepidus (lieutenant)join him
  e. 44BC led army on Rome and granted full power
  f. Cicero commits suicide, Brutus&Cassius escape 
   i. hunted & killed at Battle of Philippi 42BC
  g. Anthony gets the wealthy East 
   i. has love affair with Cleopatra
  ii. give her large sections of eastern provinces
 iii. Cleo hated in Rome, Anthony looses support
  iv. weakens army in fight with Parthians
  h. Lepidus gets Gaul & Spain
  i. Octavia gets Italy & Rome
   i. gains control of west, moves against Anthony
  ii. Assembly relieves Anthony of command 31BC
ii.	Agrippa leads Octavia's fleet in battle
iv. Anthony & Cleopatra escape but fleet beaten
   v. Anthony then Cleopatra commit suicide
  vi. Octavian restores Republic 1/13/27BC
 vii. He is a military dictator of Rome & Republic
    a. given title Princeps (first citizen)
     i. spoke before the Senate & they listened
    b. old institutions in place but lacking power
    c. Senate voted Octavia the title Agustus (god)
     i. adopted title as name enhancing authority
 
IV THE ROMAN EMPIRE 27BC-476AD
A. The Principate of Agustus (27BC-14AD)
 1. The Organization of Imperial Government
  a. Provinces
   i. military lieutenants govern provinces 
  ii. taxes supported garrisons
  b.Senate govern richest most romanized provinces
   i. those with no need for military garrisons
  c. city-states governed themselves 
   i.local aristocracy was recognized & Romanized
2. Augustus's Social Program - "Restoration"
  a. Wants to link rule with past, Cato & Cicero 
   i. encouraged marriage and childbearing 
  ii. governs Rome through magistrates & Senate
 iii. Revitalized old civic cults & Roman religion
    a. priesthood almost destroyed in Civil War
    b. Augustus declared himself highest priest
  iv. forbade the practice of the mystery cults
  b. paterfamilias   i. strong family ties
  ii. father responsible for everything
    a. son cannot borrow money on his own
    b. father owns everything while alive
    c. children given in marriage w/ consent
    d. chose trade or skills son should develop
 iii. women expected to sew&do household chores
    a. those who had many children honored
    b. slaves started to do women's work
    c. upper class women were involved in business
     i. probably started with running large houses
d. some owned & managed property 
     i. some hid it from husbands
    e. 3 or more children did not need escort
    i. Augustus's new law already practiced
  c. Family life was waning
   i. upper class reveled in debauchery
    a.lavish parties,luxurious expense&few values
    b. Augustus wanted return to hard work & duty 
  ii. some women refused to marry 
    a. had abortions & used contraception
    b.adopt adult men(lovers)as heirs to property
 iii. poor-need to work to eat 
 3. Golden Age of Latin Literature
  a. Livy (59BC-17AD)
   i. wrote a history of Rome to Augustus
    a. extol virtues of Roman life and society 
  b. Ovid (43BC-18AD)
   i. wrote love&pastoral poetry & mythology
    a.The Art of Love-brought Ovid into question
    b.banished him to west shore of Black Sea
    c. considered his witting contrary to goals
c. Vergil (70-19BC)
   i. wrote poems dealing with rural life 
    a. a farmer for a number of years
  ii. hired by Maecenas (Augustus's lieutenant)
    a. wrote the Aeneid a history of Rome
    b. link Aeneas&Augustus both warred for gain
    c. claimed moral superiority a strength
    d. "War down the proud, spare the weak"
B. The Successors of Augustus  (A.D. 14-68)
 1. Tiberius succeed Augustus in 14AD
  a. tremendous jockeying for position
  b. when old feared for life moved to Capri
  c. feared & executed several senators&officials
 2. Caligula (little boot) succeeded Tiberius 37AD
  a. insane,cruel&incompetent in military affairs
  b. praetorian guard assassinated him in 41AD
 3. Claudius supported by praetorian became caesar
  a. survived intrigue by pretending to be a fool
  b. started the conquest of Britain
   i. extended Roman citizenship
  c. able bureaucrat establish Roaman bureaucracy 
  d. married niece Agrippina who poisoned him
4. Nero-son of Agrippina succeeded in 54AD
  a. megalomaniac thought himself a poet & artist
  b. fiddled while Rome burned?
   i. fire started may be for urban renewal ?
  ii. blamed small community of Christians
    a. Christians not worship state or local gods
  c. obsessed with intrigue
   i. had his tutor Seneca commit suicide
  ii. executed several leading senators & generals
 iii. let administration fumble, legions rebelled
  iv. committed suicide in 68AD
C. The Empire at its height (69-180AD)
 1. Vespasian becomes caesar after war & intrigue
  a. commander of eastern legion rose through army
 2. Titus Vespasian's son co-ruled with him 71-79
 3. Domitian Titu's brother ruled from 81-96
 4. Senate elevated Nerva to caesar who died in 98
 5. Nerva adopts Trajan a military commander 117AD
  a. Trajan starts succession of 5 good emperors
 6. Hadrian (117-138) military extend frontier
a.	wall in Britain to protect north
b. armies needed to be large & cost more
  c. farmers start specializing&develop cash crops
   i. Oil & wine, grain from Egypt & north Africa
  ii. Europeans tied to world market
D. Crisis of the Third Century
 1. Political and Military Weakness
  a.Marcus Aurelius(161-180) last of good emperors
   i. set up second capitol in Trier near Germany
  ii.established defense along Rhine-Danube rivers
 iii.allowed German tribes to form confederations
  iv. incompetent son takes over when he dies
  b.Commodus(180-192)assassinated for incompetence
  c. brief civil war as commanders vie for throne
  d. Septimius Severus emerges triumphant (193-211)
   i.army takes control over the civil government
  ii.legend says advised son to ignore government 
  e. Generals vied for power & use armies 
   i. Caledonian in northern Britain raided south
  ii. Germanic tribes formed confederations
    a. Franks in the lower Rhine valley 
    b. Alemans in the lower Danube
b.	Goths from Scandinavia started pirate fleet
f. Last of the Severi caesars died in 235
   i. armies took over
  ii. 235-285 army created and killed 26 emperors
 2. Economic and Political Problems
  a. burden of the military forced change
   i. Caracalla (r.211-217) 
    a.grants citizenship to all free men in empire
    b. made them liable for military and taxes
    c. taxes paid in kind(grain or other goods)
  ii. government takes over trade to supply armies
    a.government controls production of arms&cloth
    b. merchants trade in fewer goods, luxuries
 iii. provincial governments suffer heavy taxes
    a. lack of revenue caused leaders to retire 
    b. governments collapse & appoint bureaucrats
    c. few survive turmoil or succesive emperors 
 3. Imperial Society: First to Third Centuries
  a. rural life
   i.farms & towns had watchtowers, walls & guards
  ii. thieves were common on the road
iii.	army called to stop large scale insurrection
b. land belonged to aristocrats 
   i. many farmers are only tenants (don't own)
    a. bailiffs&accountants also take from tenants
  ii. shepherds lowest on social ladder 
   c. some farmers own land but not better off
    i. taxes based on production of districts 
   ii. did not consider exemptions given to nobles
  iii. overcrowding a major problem
	a. unwanted children killed
	b. some infants abandoned on dungheap
      i. nobles adopted them as slaves
   d. Urban life
    i. most skilled artisans moved to cities
   ii. landlords move to manor houses in cities
     a. 1/3rd of city made of large manors
     b. many landlords owned slums for the poor
     c. Crassus owned private fire brigade
  iii. public buildings covered 1/4 of city 
     a. rest were densely populated neighborhoods 
      i. estimates of 200 people per acre
b. people live on streets & public buildings 
   iv. Organizations and associations
     a. formed neighborhood ass. for welfare
     b. craft guilds formed to lobby government
     c. foreigners build local shrines 
   e. Culture and Society
    i. education common in middle & upper class
   ii. most educated people spoke and read greek
  iii. empire declined local languages increased
   iv. in west books translated into Latin
 4. The Rise of Christianity
  a.start in Palestine prominent in 4th cen. Rome 
  b.Judaism in crisis as some adopt Greek customs
   i. Septuagint 
  ii. several sects Sadducees & Pharisees
  c. Jews divide over how do deal with the Romans
   i. 1st large scale revolt over Census in 4BC
  ii. 66AD revolt, destroy Jerusalem & temple
 iii. 135AD Masada and dispersal of most Jews
  d. Rome start persecuting Christians 3rd Cen. 
i.	250Ad Decius orders sacrifice-divine favor
ii. many authorities given dispensation 
 iii. open opposition met open reprisals
  iv. persecution stops 251-257 and 260-303
   v. great persecution from 303-311
E. Order Restored: Reign of Diocletian, 284-305
 1. ruled with Maximian both called Agustus
  a. moved capitol to Nicomedia in n.w. Asia Minor 
   i. closer to the frontier and problems
  b. reduced size of armies to smaller units
   i. paid them from government not commanders
  ii. loyalty shifts from commanders to government
  c. divided up provinces from 50 to 100 provinces
   i. made government accessible
  ii. opportunity for new leaders
  d. taxation a problem want to use census as base
   i. develop caste system farmers remain farmers
    a. children had to follow parent's vocation
  2. Diocletian chose 2men named Caesar after him
   a. 2 ruled after Diocletian & Maximian retire
   b. civil war broke out
    i. Constantine emperor of west provinces 312 
	a. wins sole emperor in 324
F. The Empire in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries
 1. Constantine's capitol at Milan then Byzantium
  a. trade Germans land to fight other Germans
   i. developed buffer zones
  ii. could not always be trusted in times of war
  b. Goths migrate from Scandinavia to s.w.Russia
   i. two groups the Visigoths & Ostrogoths
  c. 375 Asiatic Huns invade steeps of Russia
   i. develop horseshoes, stirrups, bows&arrows
  ii. Visigoths retreat with Roman treaty
    a.Emperor Valens(364-378) promised provisions 
     i. they supported frontier against Huns
    b.Valens broke word, Visigoths plunder area
     i.Visigoths attack,kill Valens at Adrianople
    c. Theodosius(379-395)restore order&pacified
 iii. Huns settle in Hungarian plain
    a. only grassland in Europe
G. 5th Century: End of Imperial Authority in West
 1. Rome slowly gives way to conquering Germans
  a. Alaric unites Vizigoths in 375 invades Italy
c.	Stilicho(German under Rome)defended till 408
i. Vizigoths took Rome in 410
  ii. Rome could not produce enough food for army
 iii. plan fleet&invade n.Africa but Alaric dies
  iv. Vizigoths invade southern Gaul to Spain
 2. Stilicho's tribe the Vandals plunder s.Europe
  a. Gaiseric(428-477)built fleet&invaded N.Africa
   i. even attack Italy
 3. Franks move west, establish themselves in Gaul
 4. Atilla the Hun 433 plundered most of southern
  a. 451 defeated in Gaul and turns to Italy
  b. 452 Pope Leo I (440-461) led embassy 
   i. turn Atilla from Rome
  ii. weak with malaria and exhausted they left
  c. Atilla dies 453
 5. Western empire lost authority
  a. Teodosius I last emperor to control east&west
  b. Emperors of West under German kings by 470s 
  c. Odoacar 476 rebells crowns himself emperor
   i. did away with the imperial court of the west
ii.	this marked the fall of Rome
d.East Emperors of Constantinople viewed superior
   i. Zeno(474-491)
    a. orders Theodoric(Ostrogoth)to conquer Italy
    b. recognized Theodoric as governor of Italy
 iii. east and west would never be united again
  iv. German culture spread in west & disappeared
H. The Christianization of the Empire
 1. The Conversion of Constantine
  a. battle of Mulvian Bridge won with Christ?
   i. generals and soldiers becoming christians 
    a. mother a christian 
     i. only 5% of population in west christian
    ii. 10% of population in east christian
    b. 314 Edict of Milan (his first capitol) 	i. 
christian tolerance
    c. death bed baptism but believed earlier
    d.in unrest church fulfills social function 
     i. judges, charity, maintain order
    ii. upper class attracted to social functions 
iii.	Constantine supports link between classes
2. Constantine & Unity of the Christian Movement
  a. Donatists after Donatus of North Africa 
   i.question those who accommodate hid persecution
  ii.Irenaeus(120-200)claim authority laying hands
 iii.Constantine 314 at Arles decides for Irenaeus
    a.authority legal despite character of leaders
    b.Arius (256-336)claims Jesus not fully human
     i. Arianism challenged beliefs
    ii. Council of Nicaea 325 
      a. universal beliefs of Christians
	 b. Nicean creed at Council of Chalcedon 451
	 c.council of bishops is superior in doctrine
	 d. emperor given important role in church
 3. The Progress of Christianity after Constantine
  a. Senate tied old pagan cults with privileges
   i. refused to become Christians
  b. Theodosius I 390- Christian official religion
   i. destroyed pagan altars
  c. Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
   i. educated in Rome wrote Confessions    a.explains own 
conversion&process of conversion
b. City of God utopia & christian history 
  ii. establish christian doctrine of years
  4. The Growth of the Church as an Institution
   a. bishops claim independence & equal authority
   b. bishops in early church claimed superiority
   c. Rome and Antioch vied for principle seat
    I.Petine Doctrine established Rome's contention
   ii. bishop of Rome took title Pope(papa-father)
  iii. Leo I 452 first to enunciate doctrine
     a. apostolic see
   iv. Antioc, Alexandria & Constantinople reject 
   d.Christianity remain religion of city&educated
  5. Rome and Culture during the migrations
   a.Roman culture only slight altered by invaders
    i. upper class gave way to peasant culture
   ii. traded in Latin with writing & philosophy
   b. Jerome writes Latin Bible (Vulgate) in 380 
    i. commissioned by Pope Damasus (366-384)
 
V. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
A. The German "Successor States" in Europe
 1. Visigoths controled Spain starting in 420-430
 2. Burgundians in western Alps to Rhone River
 3. Ostrogoths in Italy under Theodoric 
 4. Clovis (481-511) set up Franks in Gaul
  a. called their home after themselves France
 5.Anglo-Saxons(Germans in Scandinavia)to Britain
  a. the celts fled to Conwall, Wales & Ireland
  b. England comes from Ang-Land
B. The Setting of the Germans
 1. Taxes continue to be paid to German kings 
  a. 2/3rds of the tax when to German army
 2. Germans slowly settle land becoming farmers
  a. Kings divide plundered land from civil wars
  b. intermarriage leads to German settlements
C. Burgundians and Visigothic Kingdom of Spain
 1. both most romanized Germans became Christians
  a. both Arians even after the Council of Nicea
  b. Arianism caused trouble between German&Roman 
d.	Othodox Franks with Roman defeat Burgundians
d. Visigoths felt threatened 
   i. Recarded I(586-601) became orthodox
  ii. disputed successions weaken throne
 iii. 711 Moorish armies invaded from North Africa
 2.kings saw selves as rulers within the Empire
  a. kept old Roman laws and traditions
 3.Ostrogothic Italy:Continuation of Roman Culture
  a. Theodoric a successful king
   i. from Constantinople, consul before Zeno
  ii. launched public works project in Rome
 iii. peace with Germans through marriages
    a. married a Frankish princess
    b. sister married the king of the Vandals
    c. daughters marry Visigothic&Burgundian Kings
    d. niece married a Thuringian King
  iv. kept Ostrogoths&Romans separate in kingdom
    a. Ostrogoths could not attend Roman schools
    b. Romans could not join army
   v. tried to maintain Roman culture
a.	reestablish senate with old Roman families
b. Cassiodrus served Theodoric as consul
     i. redound writer & historian
    ii. retired, starts monastery called Vivarium
      a. monks copy ancient works&start a library
      b. published on writing, theology & history
      c.Boethius also consul to Theodoric(480-524)
       i. translate Plato & Aristotle into latin
      ii. suspected of treason, arrested&executed
     iii. The Consolation of Philosophy in prison        a. 
argues spiritual values are superior
        b. gives rational start to apologetics
 4.Roman&Constantinople war over Arianism in Italy
  a. Revolution & foreign threats destroy country
   i. cities taken and retaken, crops wasted
  ii. 90% of Rome depleted
 iii. Plague strikes Mediterranean from 540s-570s
  b. Lombards invade Italy from north control 572
   i. Constantinople holds some cities inc. Rome
    a. Constantantinople is isolated from the west
D. The Rise of the Franks
1.	Clovis(481-511)converted & gained support
b. Cassiodrus served Theodoric as consul
     i. redound writer & historian
    ii. retired, starts monastery called Vivarium
      a. monks copy ancient works&start a library
      b. published on writing, theology & history
      c.Boethius also consul to Theodoric(480-524)
       i. translate Plato & Aristotle into latin
      ii. suspected of treason, arrested&executed
     iii. The Consolation of Philosophy in prison        a. 
argues spiritual values are superior
        b. gives rational start to apologetics
 4.Roman&Constantinople war over Arianism in Italy
  a. Revolution & foreign threats destroy country
   i. cities taken and retaken, crops wasted
  ii. 90% of Rome depleted
 iii. Plague strikes Mediterranean from 540s-570s
  b. Lombards invade Italy from north control 572
   i. Constantinople holds some cities inc. Rome
    a. Constantantinople is isolated from the west
D. The Rise of the Franks
2.	Clovis(481-511)converted & gained support
E. Anglo-Saxons in Britain
 1. Arthur legend (beginning of a united Britain)
  a. evidence of Roman captain holding off Celts 
  b. Arthur's death, & fall to Anglos and Saxons
  c. Glastenbury & Avalon the same?
   i. Arthur buried on Avalon&Joseph of Arimathea
  ii. The site of Glastenbury Abby built on site?
 iii. Joseph took Jesus there as young boy? 
  iv. The Holy Grail? wooden remains rest in Abby 
   v. Cromwell destroys Abby in Civil War 
  vi.staff turns into thorn bush Puritans destroy
    a. Joseph's staff worshiped as idolatry 
 2. Celts settle in Cornwall, Wales, Ireland,
      Scotland & Britiany
  a. continue study of Greek, loose Roman culture
  b. extensive loyalties based on clans
 3. Anglos & Saxons each establish small kingdoms
  a. Kent, Wessex, Sussex & Essex in south
  b. Mercia & east Anglia in middle of Island
  c. United, Dira & Bernicia in north
  d. Bretwalda-senior king unites Clets protection
F. Germanic Society
 1. religion-from both Indo-Europeans & neighbors
 2. Social&economic systems similar to neighbors
 3. kings trace linage from decedents of gods
  a. Anglo-Saxons claim decent from Odin
   i. (Woden) god of war
  b. king honored or blamed for everything 
  c. sometimes kings sacrificed to please god 
   i. new king picked
 4. system of honor & status
  a. each man has status from family
   i. may improve in his life
    a. war, marriage,trade&service effect status
  b.affront to honor may be righted by blood feud
   i. tried to avoid-could spread through family
  ii. kings&community tried to settle through law
  c. debts become the duty of extended family 
   i.if not paid man can seek help from neighbors
  ii. debtor can be killed or enslaved 
 iii. no man trusted unless family beside him
    a. not even marry without family
e. Roman taxes placed on villages & communities
   i. if land unused neighbors pay taxes
  ii. if heirs to land missing neighbors may let 
 5. Women in Germanic Society 
  a. husbands older than wives
  b. women obeyed parents in marriage
  c. property divided equally among all heirs
  d. woman's family owes debt just as male side
  e. wife dies without children property to family
  f. women are portrayed as both good and evil
   i. dangerous, seducers & cunning manipulators 
  ii. charismatic&holy with sound advice & wisdom
 iii. share in family responsibilities to succeed
G. The Growth of Church Institutions
 1. The Bishops and Clergy
  a. Church base beaurocracy on Roman system
  b. municipal districts became dioceses around300
  c. bishops oversaw the dioceses or see
  d. elders became known as priests 
  e. deacons cared for the physical needs
   i. Widows, orphans & buildings
  f. others include: cantors, exorcists & readers 
2. The beginnings for Monasticism
  a. probably from eastern religious traditions
  b. Christian monks got no support from church
   i. practiced fasting,vigils,wearing sack cloth
      & celibacy
  ii. Asceticism=rejection of material sinful life
  c. St. Anthony (251-356) first monk
   i. followers lived in caves, huts in the desert
  ii. many left hard ascetic life
 iii. 4th century,Pachomius start 1st monastery
    a. disciple of Anthony
    b. cenobitic monastery-monks living together 
 3. The Origins of Western Monasticism
  a. John Cassian starts 1st western monastery
   i. Lérins Is. 380s
  b. Bishop Martin(360)founded pachomian monastery
   i.Archbishop of Tours use monks to run church
  ii. Augustus of Hippo did same thing
  c. Martin of Tours first monk as missionary
   i. sent out to country-side to convert peasants
 4. Celtic Monasticism
  a. one of first missionary monks was Ninian(397) 
  b. Anglo-Saxon invasion slows missionaries 440
  c. Patrick (461) 20 yrs. in Ireland
   i. miracles - snakes (never where any)
  ii. clover & trinity
 iii. identified with Irish catholicism
  d. Pachomius monasteries became the model
   i.each monastery serve spiritual need of a clan
  ii. bishops were only ceremonial
 iii. abbot heads monastery & church of region
  e. West question & suspect monastic asceticism
   i. eventually more accepted in the west
 5. The Growth of the Monastic Rule
  a. Benedict of Nursia (480-543) 
   i. established rules for western monasteries
  ii. described general regulations not specifics
 iii. abbot elected by monks,consecrated by bishop
    a. above monks, between them and God
  iv. vows of poverty,chastity,obedience&stability
a.	monks can't leave monastery w/o Abbot's ok
b. Monasteries become center of learning
	i.central to monasteries was the"work of God"
    ii. monks needed to read and write 
   iii. each monastery had a library
	 a. needed to teach novices
	 b. learning declines in population
    iv. central work was copying manuscripts
      a. maintain books before printing press
    c. Convents - develop out of monasteries
     i. women attracted to monasteries as well
	 a. avoid unwanted marriage or way of life
	 b. some learned women found more freedom 
    ii. under protection of monks, 
	 a. offered spiritual companionship
     d.Lombards burn Benedict's Montecassino abby
 	 i. moved to Rome and attracted upper class
     ii. Pope Gregory I(590-604)joined & promoted 
    iii. influence spreads Benedictines in Europe
H. Gregory I and the Papacy
 1. Leo I (440-461) established Petrine Doctrine 
 2. bishops in west sought justice of Pope
  a. this added to the prestige of the papacy
3. Gregory left the bureaucracy to become a monk
 4. became Pope at 50 yrs old
  a. most popes older,rose through bureaucracy
  b. Lombards surround Rome and government weak
  c. attempt to convert Lombards&stop advance
 5.Gregory makes church more important
  a. formed new bishoprics from weak ones
  b. wrote books on church organization
  c. brings  pagan practices into church 
   i. blessed fields, pagan celebrations now OK
  ii. pagan shrines become Christian 
I. The Conversion of the Germans and its Effects
 1. Gregory enlisted monks to convert Germans
  a. once kings converted people followed
  b. not easy among Anglo-Saxons, no single king
   i. kings entrenched paganism 
 2. church gains power & rights 
  a. property belongs to individual in German law
  b. property laws change to allow church to own
   i. written document from king insuring title
  ii. Charter from king now to church for land
VI. INDIA AND CHINA IN ANTIQUITY
A. INDIA
 1. Early civilization
  a. starts in Indus Valley
  b. large cities laid out in grids 
   i. Present at Moheno-Daro & Harappa
  ii. at height 2500BC (1st Egyptian pyramid) 
 iii. cities even more advanced then Egyptians
    a.granaries,drainage systems,industrial section
    b. no temples found but may not be recognized
    c. trade network extends to the mesopotamia
     i. merchants seals found there from India
  c. decline may be due to climactic change
 2. Early Aryan-Indian Society
  a.Aryans-warrior people invade north India1500BC
   i. spoke Sanskrit -the classic Indian language
  ii. originally pastoral turned to agriculture
 iii. take over subcontinent except in south
   a. southern India retains cultural distinctions
    i.language in south Dravidian not Indo-European
b. Varnas-originally four classes 
    i. reflect Aryan society
   ii. basis for the Indian Caste system
  iii.Warriors-1st&oldest,later second to priests
   iv.Brahmans-priests later 1st place in society
    v. Vaishyas - merchants & cultivators 3rd 
   vi.Shudras-peasants, darker conquered people 
  vii."Untouchable"-last touch dead,leather&dirt
	a. later-those outside normal Aryan society
 viii.seems to break down into Jatis caste system
     a. Jati means-birth-family associations
     b. much more complex system then Varnas 
     c.different religious sects,diets,trades,etc.
     d.leaving Jati is worst banishment&punishment
 3. Religious Developments
  a. Aryans worshiped many gods 
   i.Hindu mythology more complex than Greco-Roman
  b. religious philosophy first written 600s BC
   i. The Rig Veda-collection of hymns about gods
  ii.The Upanishads-commentary about Veda 700s 
iii. primary thought is man has a soul "Atman"
    a. part of the "Brahman" - the world's soul
    b. when man realizes connection is enlightened
    c. until, cannot escape cycle of birth & death
    d. laws of Karma govern world & balance all
     i. every action has a reaction
  iv.reincarnations occur as judgment of this life
    a. vegetarianism - reenforced from this belief
   v. failure to see connection causes Maya
    a. Maya- illusion of world
  c.Jainism- Vardhamana Mahavira starts540-468BC
   i. nonviolence & all things are animate 
  d. Buddhism-Guatama Sidhartha starts 563-483BC 
   i. taught poverty, chastity, disattachment 
  ii. formed community of monks & nuns
 iii. The Four Noble Truths center to his teaching
    a. life is suffering, 
    b. the cause of suffering is craving or desire
    c. to stop suffering you must stop desire
    d. eightfold path to stop desire
i.right views, right intention, right speech, 
       right action,right livelihood,right effort, 
	  right mindfulness, & right concentration
    ii. escape rebirth through Nirvana 
      a. there is no Atman no individual soul
	 b. consciousness is illusion based on desire
      c. Caste did not matter
       i. offended Brahmans & enticed lower castes
 4. The Mauryan Empire  321-181 BC
  a.India divided into 16 countries in 6th cen. BC
  b. Persians control northwest subcontinent
  c. When Alexander died the Mauryans took over
  d. Mauryan control all except the extreme south
  e. Mauryans develop complex system of government 
   i. built road & irrigation projects
  ii. all land belonged to emperor 
 iii. farmers paid 1/3 crop as tax
  f. Emperor Ashoka r.269-232BC
   i. most famous of Mauryan king becomes Buddhist
  ii. sent out Buddhist monks as missionaries
iv.	built Buddhist shrines throughout all India
iv. allowed religious tolerance
   v. believed in welfare for the whole world
 5. Political Division, 180BC-320AD & invasion
  a.Kushan Empire-invade from central Asia 1stcen. 
   i. converted to Buddhism after entering India
  ii. spread religion throughout empire into China
 iii. statues first portray Buddha
  iv. worship of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
    a.men on verge of enlightenment direct others
    b. Hinduism developed at same time as Buddhism 
	i. Three main deities
      a. Brahma - Creator
      b. Vishnu - The Preserver
       i. had nine incarnations last one Buddha
        a. implies Buddhism extension of Hinduism
      ii. one incarnation was Rama 
        a. links the epic poem the Ramayana
     iii. one incarnation Krishna 
	   a. a hero warrior in the Bagavad Gita
         i. part of epic poem the Mahabharata
b.	supports reincarnation, karma & castes
i. each caste should do their duty
          a. follow their darma (code of life)
	   ii. four stages of life: 
		a. student
		b. householder 
		c. retired 
		d. ascetic
        c. Shiva - The Destroyer
 6. The Guptas, 325-550
  a. controlled the Ganges & Indus River valleys
   i. kings of Ceylon send tribute to Guptas
  b. complex bureaucracy with agents and spies
  c. defeat Huns advancing south from Central Asia
  d. contribute to advances in science & art
   i. numbers introduced to Arabs come from India
    a. including the decimal system
  ii.calculate pi,world is round, year365 1/3days 
     round earth&revolves on axis,&lunar eclipses
 iii. art reaches heights in painting & sculpture
    a. focus on Buddhas (although most were Hindus)
c.	scenes depicting secular life as well
7. South India
  a. maintain independence with empires in North
  b. Tamil language maintained in south 
   i. Use extensive poetry
  c. three competitive states divided south
 8. The Spread of Indian Culture
  a. middle 6th century culture spread across Asia
  b. today Buddhism is largest religion in Asia 
  c. Hinduism also spread throughout Asia
   i. evident in Angkor Wat
  ii. Cambodian walled complex 4,900X4,200 ft. 
 iii. dedicated to Vishnu in 12th cent. 
B. China
 1. Ancient culture and life in China
  a. Yellow River Valley center early Chinese
   i. Shang period (1600-1027BC)
    a. reached Bronze age produced ceremonial art
    b. build large wall around capitol city
	i. 2,385 ft long, 60 ft wide & 30 ft high
    c. entombed slaves,animals&riches with leaders
     i. extensive mythology regarding afterlife
d. development of Chinese writing (characters)
     i. first idealized pictographs&later phonetic
	 a. pronunciation changes, characters remain
    ii. first on oracle bones & tortoise shells
      a. used for divination & guarded by elite
   iii. characters cross language barriers 221BC
      a. communicated through written language 
      b. later Koreans, Japanese & Vietnamese take
  ii. Zhou (Chou) conquered Shang 1027BC
    a. slight change in art work
     i. secularization-decline of religion
    b. no longer bury live men or animal w/ rulers
    c. establish authority in nobel families
     i. oldest son inherits if state recognized
    ii. system resembled feudalism as it developed
 iii. Warring States Period 403-221BC
    a. Zhou ruled in name only 
    b. several competing kings & states fight 
    c. eventually one triumphs to control empire
 2. The Age of Philosophers
  a. Confucius (551-479BC)
i. tried to bring order to a warring world
    a. looked for leader to advise then taught all
  ii. believes he teaches values of civilization 
    a. not a new religion
    b.ideal man is humane from this comes virtue 
    c. Ren the quality of acting humane
    d. class&birth unimportant, virtuous behavior
    e. everyone should follow the li 
	i. sacred, ceremonial duty will bring order
    ii. no need for laws or government if all do
   iii. Benevolent leaders will win people over
    f. family devotion important above all
 iii. believed only one valid eternal way
    a. little contact with other advanced cultures
  iv. relatively unknown in his own time
    a. followers built upon his ideas
  b. Mozi (Mo Tzu) 470-391BC
   i. taught the practicality of universal love
  c. Mencius 371-289BC
   i. human nature is fundamentally good 
  ii. goodness needs to be cultivated&nourished
 iii. stressed need for benevolent government
    a. if government not good OK to rebel
  d. Xunzi (Hsün Tzu) 298-238BC
   i. people are selfish but can be good
  ii. accepted need for laws and punishment
  e. Daoists (Taoists)
   i. Dao De Jing(Tao Te Ching)by Laozi(Lao Tzu)
    a. 1st work
    b. cryptic, paradoxical & suggestive 
    c. remain outside, above & beyond nature
    d. stressed nonaction over action,
	i. weak over strong etc.
   ii. Zhuangzi(Chuang Tzu)wrote 2nd Daoist work
	a. argues usefulness of useless, (paradox)
	b. pursues the relativity of everything 
 3. The Unification of China
  a. 771-221BC brought major changes in China
   i. warfare includes large peasant armies
  ii. technology matched the demands of large army
    a. irrigation, reclamation, & iron production
b.	changes in management, taxes & labor 
c. commerce increased, coinage, better roads
    d.property exchanged,large cities build walls
  b. Legalists 
   i.change scares people, find security in past
  ii. Han Feizi (Han Tei Tzu) died 233BC
    a. new problems demand drastic new solutions
    b. improved management&strict law enforcement
    c. State of Quin(Ch'in)unified China in 221BC
     i. in n.w. China perfect for developing 
      a. lots of land for food
      b. mountain passes to protect themselves
      c. develop fighting w/ small warrior tribes 
    ii. divide state in administrative districts
   iii. had centralized bureaucracy 
    iv. placed direct taxes on peasants
	v. harsh penalties for criminals 
	 a. also punished those that fail to report
 4. The First Empire: Qin and Han
  a.Qin Shihuangdi(Ch'in Shih Huang-ti)2221-207BC
   i. legalist assistant Li Si (Li Ssu) 
ii.	hostile towards Confucianism
a. suppression of scholars critical of leaders
    b. Confuscians claim worst empire in history
 iii. standardize weights, measures & script
  iv. built enormous imperial mausoleum
   v. linked several walls to protect
    a.(predecessor to great wall)
  b. Han dynasties (Former Han 202-8AD)
     i. similar to ancient Rome, built on others
    ii. 25,000 miles of roads, advances in ships
   iii. Better medicine, astronomy & agriculture
    iv. did not develop a code of law
      a. relied on bureaucracy
      b. trained scholars in imperial university
      c. students studied Confucian texts
      d. a royal consort became powerful
       i. overthrew child emperor
      ii. last 33 years & next Han took over
  c. Later Han 25-220
   i. establish Chinese presence in Korea&Vietnam
  ii. continued troubles with northern nomads 
iii. Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu)great shepherds&horsemen
    a. practice warfare constantly best in world
    b. Chinese incorporate through gifts& marriage
    c. became a tributary of China
     i. allowed them to trade & receive presents
  iv. kept enemies weak, used one to fight another
    a. similar to Roman policy of buffer states
 5. China in Disunity, 220-589
  a. nomads eventually invade 
  b. nomads cannot run the state (too big)
  c. need Chinese administrators
   i. start acting Chinese
  ii.others objected, offending northern neighbors
  d.foreign rulers sympathetic to foreign religion
   i. Buddhists now made ground into China
(Midterm Exam)
VII. THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
A. The Eastern Rome After the Loss of the West
 1. Idea of one Roman Empire continues to 1600s
  a. some attempt to reunite east & west empires
 2. Change to a Greek style Civilian Government
  a.Zeno I & Anastasius 479-518 use eastern army
   i. recruited Isurians instead of Germans
  ii. allowed religious diversity because of army
 iii. Egyptian & Syrian civil administrators used
  b. Army takes over after Anastasius dies
   i. Justin I (518-527) military rule again
  c. Justinian 527-565reinstates civilian gov.
   i. a nephew raised under bureaucrats 
  ii. starts cultural revival
 3. The Early Years of Justinian's Reign
  a. commission to revise & codify Roman Law
   i. law complicated&conflicting over centuries 
  ii. took lifetime to master
 iii. justices confused over contradictions 
  iv. Corpus Iuris Civilis(Body of Civil Law)534
  b. Married Theodora-circus performer 1/2 his age
   i. against law for senator to marry an actress
  ii. society outraged and scandal.
    a. rumors about her being a prostitute 
  c. riots force tax change
   i. Zeno feared Ostrogoth attack 480s
    a. organized clubs-militia
  ii. clubs upset over high taxes
    a. needed for war with Persia & bureaucracy
 iii. riots loot and burn city center 532
  iv. Theodora encourages Justianian to stay
   v. Belisarius stops riot and kills hundreds
    a. Theodora choose death before loss of throne
  d. conquest for wealth
   i. 533 Justinian invades northern Africa
    a.Gen. Belisarius destroys Vandels in N.Africa
     i. Moorish rebel & Belisarius pacifies 548
    ii.Justinian can't take Rome from Ostrogoths
      a. 535 makes temporary capitol at Ravenna
      b. controls most of Italy by 556 
       i. eventually Rome
c. Goths more Roman than Bysantines at time
	  i.wore togas,republican offices,spoke latin
      d. 568Lombards take Byzantine Italian claims
 4. Origins of Byzantine Art
  a. Justintine rebuilt Constantinople after riots
   i.public baths,aqueducts,cisterns&gov.buildings
  ii.built: 25 churches including Hagia Sophia 527
    a.built around great dome 184'high & 100'x250'
    b. central dome supported by two half domes
     i.later supported by four half domes in cross
    c. frescos & mosaics inside represent heavens 
     i. God the father in center with angels below
    ii. saints cover the walls
   iii. represent universe under God's rule
    b. Byzantine Art more abstract than realistic
     i. flat static pose on gold background
      a. color & line make figures look 3d 
	  i. some figures appear in front of others
    ii. large staring eyes emphasize spiritual
   iii. influence western art in early Renaissance
 5. last 25 Years of Justinian's Reign
  a. Persians capture Antioch in Syria 
  b. Slavs took Balkans (540)
   i. Antioch provided trade, Balkans provide labor
  c. Bubonic plague hits city in 542
   i. couldn't bury dead fast enough
  ii. 200,000 may have died in area
 iii. 40% of manpower gone
  iv. taxes now required of the rich too
   v. closed all entertainments-fear of rebellion
  d. reorganized military
   i. smaller army, string of forts & diplomacy
  ii. resent taxes that pacify threatening tribes
  e. Maurice582-602 couldn't maintain large empire
   i.Persians, Lombards, Slavs & Avarsput pressure 
B. From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire
 1.Phocas (602-610)lost most of Empire to invaders
  a. Asia Minor lost to Persians
   i. persecution the Christians under Persians
  b. Greece lost to Bulgers and Avars
  c. Lombards push into Italy
  d. Empire reduced to Rome, Ravenna, South Italy
     North Africa, Sicily and Constantinople
 2. Heraclius (610-641) launched long reconquest
   a. reconquered Asia minor after 4yrs
   b. broke Persia, took Egypt, Syria & Palestine
    i. trade with the near east was reestablished
   c. Eastern provinces ruined by war
    i. now a drain on treasury
   d. Arab fleet took over eastern provinces
 3.Leo717-741 raised in Syria spoke Arabic
  a.governs eastern province invaded by Arabs 717
   i.promise to give up if help him become Emperor
  ii. Arabs withdrew from attacking Constantinople
 iii. Leo stormed capitol and became Emperor
  b. Bulgars destroyed Arab army
   i. Leo betrayed Arabs defeating their fleet
  ii. Arabs control Syria & N.Africa but no threat
  c. reformed bureaucracy & abridged code of laws
  d. establish Greek society in Constantinople
   i. Church control a problem between East & West
  e. instigated movement against the use of icons
C. The Controversy Over Iconoclasm
 1. The Origins of Iconoclasm
  a. Constantine claimed to be 13th apostle & 
   i. Byzantium church claimes Apostolic founding 
  ii.4th century bishop took title of "patriarch"
    a.title used by Alexandrian&Jerusalem bishops
    b. Emperor believes church part of government
	i. Emperors control selection of patriarchs
 2. 726 Leo the Isaurian started to destroy icons
  a. Judaism taught that images were evil 
   i. Semitic Christians & Islam taught the same 
  b.Plato:pretty things led to thinking of beauty
   i. Christian church assimilated Plato 
  c. Islamic rulers criticize Christian icons
   i. Caliph Yazid II destroyed icons 718
    a.retaliation for not taking Constantinople
 3. Monks,Icons & Theory of Imperial Government
  a. Monasticism spread in east faster than north
   i. too many good young men becoming monks?
  b. monks objected to Leo's desecration of icons
  c. Leo asserted the right of Caesaropapism 
i. Christ's representative on earth 
    a. Emperor ruled church too
  ii. based on Constantine's role in councils
    a. Arles 314 & Nicaea 325
  d. Monks taught separation of Church & state
   i. Leo I 
    a. Petrine doctrine: Pope - vicar of Christ
  e. Emperor Leo & his son Constantine V 741-75
   i. strongly antimonastic
 4. Constantine V argued against icons
  a. claim icons of Christ depicts only humanity
   i. heresy
  ii. if depicted divine side also seen as heresy
    a. depicted God as human
 iii. John of Damascus argued once God became man
      you could depict him in human form
  b.Constantine V & council of Constantinople 754
   i. declared icons heresy
  ii. monks rejected pronouncement and council
  c. Constantine closed monasteries
i.	drafted some monks into army 
d. married his son Leo IV to an Athenian, Irene
   i. she supported icons
  e. Leo moderated father's position 
   i. yet still iconoclast
  f. Leo died
   i. Irene is regent for 10yr old Constantine VI
  ii. calls council of Nicaea 787
    a. reversed position on icons
 iii. Irene blinds son when he asserts himself
  iv. people felt their was no emperor
    a. did not see woman as leader
  g. Icons restored in 843 
   i. slow to implement in Constantinople
D. The Byzantine Empire Between East and West
 1. Constantine V lost Ravenna to Lombards 750 
  a. relinquished all Italy to Lombards
  b. Pope Zachary (741-52) appeals to protect Rome
   i. Contantine ignores pleas
ii.	Zachary turns to the Franks and Charlemagne
c. Charlemagne wanted to be Emperor of Rome
   i. Leo II Dec.25,802 crowns Charles Emperor
  ii. Wants united East & West 
    a. rumor of marriage to Irene but no.
    b. believe he needs election in Constantinople
    c. Forced Byzantines to acknowledge him
	i. Constantine captures Venice  
    ii. Constantinople opened long negotiations
  iii. Harun al_Rashid (786-809) led Arab invasion 
   iv.813 Constantinople-Charles Emperor of Franks
 2.Byzantine Society,Economy & Macedonian Dynasty
  a.Byzantine army & navy are drafted from provinces
   i. Arab invasions in south
  ii. Bulgar invasions in Balkans
    a. destroyed farm lands & changed armies
 iii. Aristocrats bought ruined farms 
    a. soldiers now tenants
    b. generals had more power over armies
    c. Irene Emperor suspended taxes 
     i. gained support & ruined treasury
    ii. Nicephorus,finance minister,deposed her802
d. Arabs took control of Crete
     i. plagued Byzantine shipping 
    e. N. African Moors invade Sicily & s.Italy
     i. Byzantines tried to get aid of Franks
      a. Franks refused since Charles not emperor 
  b. Michael III 842-67- alcoholic homosexual
   i. weakened the empire
  ii. Bazil-Armenian stable boy &Michael's lover
    a. becomes regent
    b. handsome, tall & illiterate
 iii. Bardas, Michael's uncle also made regent
    a. cultured patron of arts & intellectuals
  iv. Bazil murdered Bardas 
   v. Michael went insane & threatened Bazil
    a. Bazil had him killed
  c. Bazil the Macedonian & starts great dynasty
 3. Byzantine Culture & Relations with West 
  a. Bardas reestablished a secular university 
   i. university center of learning-Constantinople
  b. Photius become Patriarch 
i.	reforms the education of the clergy
ii. Writes the Myriobiblion (the Library) 
    a. a history, philosophy & theology
 iii. Sends Constantine the philosopher to Slavs
    a. Constantine creates script writing Slavic
  c.Nicholas I 858-67 challenges Patriarchy
   i. reclaims dioceses to expand influence
  ii. Slavs & Bulgars were becoming Christians
 iii. East & West church tried to sway conversions
  iv. Nicholas quotes the Donation of Constantine    
a.supposedly by Constantine to Pope SylvesterI
    b. gives Pope authority over western empire
    c. discovered a fraud in 1440 written 701-750
   v. Bulgarians commit to East & schism continued
    a. Basil I removed Photius but still divided 
E. The Macedonian Period
 1. Bazil I (867-86)tried to regain Western Empire
  a. sent missionaries to the Slavs in Greece 
   i. established control over eastern Greek coast 
  ii. built new ties to Venice
  b. kept the Arabs fleets from advancing
   i. defeated pirates of Crete 
c. Went mad & 886 was assassinated
 2. Leo V son of Leo becomes emperor of Franks
  a. lost fleet to Arabs in 911
  b. Bulgars's internal problems slowed advance
   i. King Khan Boris a Christian but most pagan
  ii. abdicates to son Vladimir(pagan)& civil war 
 iii. Symeon, Byzantine-educated Christian
    a. overthrows his brother Vladimir
  iv. Symeon attacks Constantinople's provinces 
  c. expands & defines administration
   i. new law codes started by Bazil I finished
  ii. Book of the Eparch code for administrators 
 iii. appointed brother, Stephen, patriarch
 3. Romanus (920-44) and Constantine VII (944-59)
  a. Leo V had no sons with 3 wives
   i. mistress gave birth to son
  ii. Civil law prohibited 4th marriage
    a. forced patriarch to legitimize son
     i. caused division within church for years
 iii. died & seven yr old Constantine VII emperor
iii.	Mother & Leo's brother, Alexander - regents
v. Symeon claims title of Emperor himself
    a. Constantinople denies Symeon title 11yr war
  b. Romanus - a general seizes government (920)
   i. married emperor's daughter claims co-emperor
  ii. expanded empire again
    a. fought Arabs in south and east
    b. pushed into Armenia & Caucasus Mts. 
    c. made peace with Russians 945
 iii. Sons overthrow,  mob demands Constantine VII 
  c. Constantine VII let Romanus run empire
   i. A scholar: leads golden age of Byzantium
  ii. tries uniting German kings to Constantinople
    a. Otto I's daughter to marry son Romanus II
    b. Romanus II marries another woman rashly 
    c.Otto II marry Theophano, Romanus II daughter 
    d. Constantine VII dies-military takes control
     i. Nicephorus Phocas seised power in 969
    ii.Aristocrat, General John took control969-76
   iii. demand for a legitimate emperor until 976
 4. Basil II(976-1025)Grandson of Constantine VII
a.	strange, aesthetic, loner, doesn't like women
b. launched war on Bulgars, "the Bulgar Slayer"
   i. repatriated 14,000 blinded Bulgars 
  c. fought Russia & established peace with Kiev 
   i. Prince of Kiev became Christians 
    a. married into royal family(Russian claims)
  d. weakens land holding aristocracy
   i. 996 land owners must prove ownership 75yrs
  ii. if public land must show title for 1000 yrs 
 iii. Aristocrats must pay taxes of failing towns
    a. church hurt most by this last legislation
    b. reduced power of some families
  e. empire increases but no heir
   i. bureaucracy & aristocrats support pretenders 
F. Byzantium and the West
 1. The Foundation of the Comnenian Dynasty
  a. Trouble in Europe during declining Byzantines 
   i. Normans from N. France take Southern Italy
  ii. Turks attack eastern empire
  b. Alexius Comnenus 1081-1118
  c. Byzantium asks western help conquering Turks
i.	Pope Urban II (1088-99) added in 1095
ii. Jerusalem conquered by Turks in 1070 
 iii. First Crusade return Holy Land from infidels
    a. knights establish principalities in east
    b. Alexius upset over new kingdoms in his land
  iv. Venice gave aid for monopoly of trade
    a. prices increase & Venetians rich
 2. The first Collapse of the Empire 1204
  a. Westerners resented Byzantine intrusion
  b. 4th crusade ferried to holy land by Venetians
   i. Venice ask crusaders attack Constantinople
    a. payment for transportation 
  c. West puts own emperor in Constantinople
   i.emigrants from Byzantine setup capitol Nicaea
  ii. Sultanate of Iconium to east 
 iii. Venice controls coast line
  iv. Bulgarians and Serbians close in to Aegean
  d. Ottoman Turks launch wars in east
   i.take Serbians, Bulgarians then Constantinople
  ii. May 29, 1453 city fell to Ottoman Turks
VIII ISLAM AND THE RISE OF THE ARAB EMPIRE
VIII ISLAM AND THE RISE OF THE ARAB EMPIRE
A. The Emergence of the Islamic World
 1. The Arabian Peninsula in Ancient Times
  a. on trade routes to far east, became rich
  b. Yemen control trade along Red Sea until Rome
  c. Roman backed Abyssinian became Christians
   i. forced Christianity on Yemen
  ii. Persians back Yemen discontent 
    a. eventually Yemen rebel
  d. Medina & Mecca two towns on trade route 
   i. Arabs join together to defeat Persians 605
 2. Mohammed and the Creation of Islamic Religion
  a. 610 Mohammed tells about his prophecy 
  b. 613 announces his religion & gathers followers
   i. The people of Mecca drive him from town
  c. The tenets of Islam 
   i. God is good and omnipotent his name is Allah
  ii. Allah will judge all men on last day
 iii. men should be grateful and worship Allah
  iv. Allah expects men to be generous with wealth 
   v. Mohammed warns men of coming last judgment
d. tenants influenced by Christianity & Judaism 
  e. Merchants in Mecca offended 
   i. tribal leadership protects Mohammed
  ii. Tribal leadership changes & moved to Medina
 iii. Hegira becomes the defining event of Islam
    a. all dates correspond to the journey 622
  f. created a Islamic community 
   i. dietary rules similar to Jews 
  ii. no alcohol, no gambling, usury, infanticide
 iii. arbitration used instead of blood feuds
  iv. regulate inheritance, protect widows & orphans
   v. limited polygamy and divorce
    a. no more than 4 wives (if wives accept)
    b. divorced wives can't be sent away penniless
  g. Mohammed and war with Mecca
   i. 628 followers attack caravans going to Mecca
  ii. Mohammed&1,500 pilgrimage to shrine Ka'aba
 iii. Mecca refuses entry but next year 3 days OK
  iv. Mohammed unites Bedouin tribes & followers
iv.	629 Mecca submits to Islam & Mohammed
2. The Founding of the Arabic Empire
  a. Mohammed redirects tribes to fight together 
   i. religion units tribes against non believers
  ii. religious wars called jihad iii. organized against 
Persian&Byzantine Empires
  b. Mohammed died 632 without heir
   i. leaders elect an early follower, Abu Bakr
    a. brought Arabs on peninsula under one leader
  ii. Omar 634-44 took Damascus & Jerusalem
    a. Bedouin tribes remain active force
     i. military & administrative agents 
    ii. enforced laws & will of Medina
    b. Non-Moslems pay heavy taxes
    c. Persian slave murdered Omar in 644
  c. The Koran holy book of Islam
   i. first oral tradition memorized revaluation
  ii. Othman 644-56 recorded into a holy book
  d. Othman's succession and civil war
   i. Mohammed's successor from Hashimite clan
  ii. clan includes direct descendants&married
ii.	Othman married two of Mohammed's daughters 
iv.Ali, rival accused Othman of violating Sunna    a.Sunna-
lore about Islamic government&society
    b. Ali's faction murdered Othman 656
    c. Mu'awiya of Othman's clan want blood feud
   v. two arbitrators cannot agree on next caliph
  vi. fanatical supporters of Ali rebel Kharijites
    a. claim arbitration contrary to Koran    b. Ali had 
most Kharijites massacred 
    c. 658 one escaped and murdered Ali
 vii.Mu'awiya governor of Syria elected new caliph
    a. able to acquiesce Ali's sons 
    b. moved capital to Damascus
    c. stopped the election of the caliph
  e. Civil War establish two factions within Islam
   i. Shiites - party of Ali
    a. claimed Ali's right was hereditary
    b. also claimed he followed the Koran & Sunna
  ii. Sunnis - party of Ommayyads
    a. respond by claiming an more orthodox sunna
    b. victory establish them as orthodox party
iii.	Kharijites-remnant kept own religious views
B. The Ommayyads
 1. Further Conquests
  a. Ommayyads conquered the east into Pakistan
  b. minor conquests into Asia Minor 
  c. north to Caucasus Mts., Caspian & Black Seas
  d. west into north Africa 
   i. converted the Berber tribes in Tripoli
  ii. west to Morrocco & north to Spain
 iii. conquered Iberian Peninsula to Pyrenees Mts.
    a. Spanish labeled them Moors
 2. Ommayyad Society and Culture
  a. Islamics don't pay taxes at first converts do
   i. Lead to more conversions & broke state
    a. Caliphs demand converts pay
  b. Arabic language spreads to conquered peoples
   i. language goes through some changes 
    a. new technology & bureaucratic needs
    b. theology - based on Arabic texts now expand
   i. language as a medium of culture
  c. Architecture-mosque,minarets,patios,fountains
i.	spanish architecture, Dome of the Rock
C. The Rise of the Abbasids
 1. The Collapse of the Ommayyad Caliphate
  a. tax structure weakened the Caliphate
   i. non muslims taxed central government weaken
  b. no strong territorial victories in 700s 
  c. dissatisfaction erupted in open rebellions
   i. claim leaders corrupt & living in luxury
  d. Abu Muslim led rebellion against Ommayyad 
   i. converted by Shiites led them & Yemenites
    a. Yemenites never satisfied with Ommayyad 
  ii. Abu Muslim's faction massacred the Ommayyads
 iii. only one Ommayyad survived, Abd al-Rahman
    a. escaped to Cordova Spain set up Caliphate
 2. The Abbasid Caliphate
  a. The abbasids moved capital to Baghdad
   i. left Arabs to incorporate other races 
  b. relied on Persian bureaucracy & Persian ways
   i. ruler now called the Vizier  c. shifted to support 
the Sunnis majority
   i. faced two Shiite revolts
  d.Manichaeans-followed,Mani Zoroastrian priest
i. Caliph Al Mahdi used revolt to kill enemies 
  3. The Appearance of the Turks
   a. Turks, a Asiatic tribe moved into Turkestan
    i. Turkish slaves proved more dependable army
   b. Army fiercely loyal to Caliph's family
   c.Slave revolt in sugar plantation led downfall
    i. Turk Mu'nis becomes Emir, military dictator
D. The Isma'ilis & Rise of the Fatimid Caliphs
 1. Isma'il was 7th generation from Al-Husain
  a. 1st martyr for Islam
  b.disinherited for not following tenets of Islam
  c. after his death followers proclaim him Mahdi   i. 
hidden imam he would return from dead 
    a. would lead true religion
  2. Isma'ilis name successor,Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi
   a. proclaimed him Mahdi, 909
   b. Ubaid was a descendent of Fatima 
    I. followers became Fatimids
  3. Fatimids struggle with Abbasids for control
   a.threaten Abbasids & gained N.Africa to Spain
   b. unsuccessful taking Baghdad or east
E. The Rise of the Turks
 1. the Background
  a. Turkish power declined after 945 the Buyids
   i. Azerbaijan family seized power in Baghdad
  b. Buyids contended among themselves for control
   i. left Jews & Christians alone to prosper
    a. encouraged greek learning
  c. Samanids-1st Persian kings since Arab conquest 
   i. Persian language w/ Arabic alphabet, "Farsi"
 2. Turkish Dynasty of Gahazan: Afghanistan&India
  a. Turkish military set up dynasty at Ghazna 
  b. Mahmud (r.990-1030)controls East into India
   i. opened India up to missionaries
  ii. spread learning and scholarship
 3. The Coming of the Seljuk Turks
  a. a group of Turks that broke away
  b. conquer Baghdad in 1055 
   i. set up a new government- a sultanate
  ii.emirate - a governorship under the caliph 
 iii.sultanate - independent state loyal to caliph
  c. conquered Jerusalem prompted crusade from west
  d. head as far south as Damascus but not Egypt
4. Islamic Culture and the Seljuks
  a. Seljuks introduce renaissance of Sunni culture
   i. Buyids were Shiite
  b. new books religion stressing prayer & charity
  c. beginning of Orthodox Moslem terrorists
   i.called "Assassins" chew hashish before attack
  ii. killed several leaders & political turmoil
  d. internal conflict lost Syria&Palestine
   i. first crusade 
 5. Saladin & Recovery of the Mediterranean Lands
  a. Kurds in Iraq rose to prominence in government 
  b.Saladin Kurdish leader defend Egypt from Franks
   i. by 1169 Saladin took over Egypt himself
  c. Saladin drove the Europeans to the coast 
  d. known as just&kind united Egypt & middle east
F. The Mongol Invasion
 1. new dynasty in Persia, new leader the "Shah"
  a. ordered seize of Baghdad
  b. in seize troops attack caravan from Asia
  c.Ghengis Khan retaliated insult to his merchants
 2. Mongols launched war from 1220-1260
  a. killed over 800,000 people taking Baghdad
b. only Christians were spared (don't know why)
  c. on death of Khan, war stopped over succession 
   i. Mongols pull out most troops 
  ii. Islamic forces defeated rest
G. Islamic Society and Economy
 1. Trading across the empire created new commerce
  a. letters of credit bought & sold in towns 
  b. goods flow to all parts of empire 
   i. letters of credit honored everywhere
 2. Ethnic diversity tolerated 
  a. most rulers the sons of slaves or low birth	
  b. no room for racial purity
 3. men allowed four wives & slave concubines
  a. only rich could afford this
  b. most men except poor had one wife&concubine
   i. most families had one or two slaves
  c. women wore veils outside & closely guarded
   i. women & children lived in the harem
  d. lack of access to women led to homosexuality?
   i. common in Islamic society & tolerated 
  ii. seen as scandalous to the Christian west
IX THE EMERGENCE OF WESTERN EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION
 A. The Rise of the Carolingians
  1. Mayors of Palace under the Late Meroviangins
   a. After Dagobert629-39 mayors run the kingdom
    i. Keep weak king was sign of Roman tradition
   ii. German kings needed to be strong to lead
   b. King had authority to delegate power
    i. Roman concept Germans embrace, mayors power
  2. The Carolingian dynasty
   a. Pepin of Heristal Austrasian mayor 
    i. defeats Neustria & Burgundy 687
   b. Pepin declared his two grandsons his heirs
    i. son Charles Martel (the hammer) took over 		a. 
Neustria & Burgundy rebell & can't stop
	b. Charles Martel leads counter revolution
	c. kills nephews and takes over
   c. Charles Martel 714-41 fought back Moors 732
    i. supports Anglo-Saxon&Irish missionary monks
     a.Wynfrith,St.Boniface,1st Archbishop of Mainz
   ii.739 P.GregoryIII ask Martel help w/Lombards
     a.Byzantine busy w/Bulgarians&Ommayyad caliph
b. Lombards aided Franks against Moors 
	c.Martel's son PepinIII sent to Lombard court
	d. Pepin the Short 741-68 & Carloman 741-47
      i. both inherited throne
     ii. support Boniface & reforms of the church
	  a.frankish monasticism had variety of forms
       b.men associate political unity w/religious
       c.Pepin&Carloman call council under Boniface
        i. hoped to end differences
       ii. Carloman became monk in Rome
 3. The Making of a New Royal Family
  a. Pepin and Charles Martel ruled for kings
   i. Childeric III made king by Pepin in 743 
  b. Pepin wanted legitimacy to rule on own
   i. German king connected in heredity to God
  ii. Pepin got divine permission from Pope in 750
  c. Pope Zachary claimed he already ruled in fact
   i. German archbishops anoint Pepin, Old Testament
 4. The Franks and the Papacy
  a.Pope StephenII752-757 ask Pepin stop Lombards
   i. Lombards conquered Ravenna & threatened Rome
b. Pepin invited Pope to residence near Paris
   i.Pope anoint Pepin&wife(Patrician of Romans)
  c.Pepin invade Italy restores Ravenna to Pope756
   i. precedent of Pope's control of central Italy
B. Charles the Great & Carolingian Renaissance
 1. Charles the War Leader and King
  a. Pepin's sons, Charles the Great & Carloman
   i. fought and might have started civil war
  ii. Carloman died suddenly 
    a. his wife & sons fled to Lombards 771
  b. King Desiderius of Lombards claims Ravenna
  c. Charlemagne invades Italy773&conquer Lombards 
   i. Charlemagne takes Lombard crown 774
 2. A warrior King
  a. warred against Saxons & opens to missionaries
  b. continued fighting against Moors in south 
   i. able to establish a buffer "Spanish March"
  ii. Song of Roland (medieval epic)
  c. Ostmark formed787 as buffer to east Bavarians
   i. later became Austria
  d. 796 crushed Avars in east 
i.	gained contact with Byzantine Empire
3. Local government
  a.councils-appointed from leading men in kingdom
   i.oversee local jurisdictions&sections of army
  b.capitularies -oversee royal & church estates
  c. counts - oversaw larger regions of country
   i. given civilian & military command 
  ii. were not always loyal to king
  d. missi dominici(men sent by king) 
   i. traveling checks on counts
  ii. in pairs one cleric & one layman 
 4. Claim of God's vicar on earth as Constantine
  a. appointed laymen over abbeys & bishoprics 
   i. used taxes to support government & church
  ii. monk missionaries serve political purposes
 5. The Carolingian Renaissance
  a. Charles concerned Church varied see to see
   i. Boniface couldn't unite monasteries
  ii. Bishops spread different liturgies&doctrines
  b. Charles wanted reform  
   i. invited intellectuals to his court 774
  ii.Pope Hadrian gave Charles copy canon law780
iii. Charles had scholars study the law
  c. set up court to train clerics-bishops&abbots
   i. Pope sent sacramentary-
    a. how Mass & rites performed
    b. also sent a copy of Benedictine Rule
    c. court copied documents & sent around world
     i. new bishops & abbots spread doctrine
    ii. only had moderate success
    d. Alcuin headed reform735-804 a learned monk
     i.thought to build on ancient Roman tradition
    ii.Bits of Roman learning remain but corrupted
    e.establish idea- religious life based on law
     i. written code vs. local custom&bishops will
    f. 780s Charles orders copies of all books 
	i. copying errors prevalent-years of copying
    ii. nonstandardized script created more errors
   iii. orders force monasteries to standardize
      a. developed distinctive styles in 9th cent.
    iv. developed Caroline Minuscule
      a. few abbreviations,few connected letters
      b. separated words & lower case
b.	becomes standard script for scholarship
6. The Coronation of Charles as Emperor
  a.794Charles claims"rector of Christian people"
   i. Caesaropapism like Leo III & Constantine V
  ii. reforms Frankish church
  b. 796 looted Lombard gold&built second Rome
   i. built up capitol at Aix-la-Chapelle
    a. helped caliph Harun al-Rashid fight Moors
    b. built Byzantine type structures
  c. Charles seeks title Emperor
   i. Irene blinded her son Constantine VI 797
	a. no man on throne of Constantinople 
  d. 800 Charles called Roman council 
   i. settle dispute over Leo III
  ii. churchmen claim they couldn't judge pope
    a. Petrine Doctrine - papal authority
    b. Pope took oath of innocence on charges 
 iii. 12/25/800 Pope crowns Charles emperor
    a. Byzantines contested title
    b. Constantine took Venice from Byzantines
    c. 813 Leo V, Byzantium signed Franks treaty 
     i. recognized Charles emperor of Franks
ii. protected western frontier from Franks 
   iii.Charles agrees Romans in east separate
    d. Charles divides title&kingdom among 3sons 
     i.Louis the Pious outlives Charles 
      a. other two die so he inherits all
C. Decline of the Carolingians and New Invasions
 1. The Disintegration of the Carolingian Kingdom
  a. Louis 814-40 reformed morals of royal court
   i.(The Pious)associated with churchmen & monks
  b. Louis divided kingdom among his three sons
   i. Lothair Emperor 840-55 gains middle kingdom 
  ii. Louis the German King of East Franks 840-76
 iii. Charles the Bald King of West Franks 840-77
    a. Emperor 875-77
  c. 820s sons warred among selves & father Louis
   i. 833 Lothair imprisoned Louis in a monastery
    a. churchmen declared Louis unfit to rule
    b. months later gains support & throne
    c. needed to do penance before recognized 
  ii. aristocrats gain power by pitting brothers
a.	gained royal lands & privileges
b. church gained right to crown emperor 
	i. Charles crowned Louis 813&pope crowns 816
    ii. Lathair sent to Rome to be crowned in 824
  d. Louis the Pious dies 842, three sons fight 
   i. one oath taken in Latin other in German
  ii. Treaty of Verdun 843 ended war 
    a. divided kingdom in three
  e. Lothair divided his kingdom among his 3 sons
   i. Lothair II (855-69 got northern part)
    a.no legitimate heir&uncles fought over title 
    b. 870 treaty of Mersen
     i.Charles(Bald) & Louis(German) divide Lotharingia
    ii. divide cities & bishoprics 
   iii. area fought over by Germany&France since
  ii. Charles the Bald 855-75 got Provence
 iii. LouisII(the German)855-75got Italy&title emperor
 2. The Viking and Magyar Invasions
  a. Vikings (Norse)invaded from North
   i.Scandinavian king had small control over men
  ii. men expected to spend time at sea & trade
b.	trade could be raiding as well as commerce
iii. traveled up rivers throughout Europe 
    a. sacked, Paris, Hamburg & even Seville
  b. 850s Harald Finehair king of Norway 
   i. drove opposition to England & Iceland
    a. refugees formed Great Army in England
  ii. took over several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms 
 iii. Alfred of Wessex 872-99 stopped advance
    a. Norse remain in east now called Danelaw
  c.Normandy formed from Great Army's stop
   i. Charles the Simple898-922peace with Normans
    a. Rollo (viking leader) becomes Christian
     i. given title of count
    ii. defends kingdom against other vikings
  d. The Magyars came from central Asia 
   i. Byzantines set them on Bulgarians in 895
  ii. conquered Huns & avars in Hungarian plain
    a. continued to raid into Germany & Italy
 iii. Otto I of Germany defeats Hunn 955Augsburg
    a. settled into the Hungarian plain
D. The Origins of France
1.	Charles the Bald (840-77) and his Descendants
a.850s nobles rebel,ask Louis the German invade
  b. Charles grant important men lands for support
   i. king becomes strong with support from rich
  ii. long run weakened the kingdom
  c. Charles defended kingdom against Vikings
  d. Charles continued Carolingian renaissance
   i.supports arts,draw in manuscripts w/O.T.kings
  e. Louis II the Stammerer 877-79 slow died soon
  f. Louis III & Carloman supported by aristocrats
   i. Hugh the Welf supported Louis III
    a. thought he could control Louis
  ii. Gauzlin&Theudebert of Vermandois want divide 
    a. paid Louis the Younger(German's son)invade
    b.paid him to return after defeating Hugh Welf
 iii. Charles the simple is only 5
    a. Charles the Fat,Louis the Germans's son
     	i. ruled east & west Frankland for next 3 yrs. 
    ii. nobles ruled most of everything 
   iii. forced to abdicate in 887
    b.east Frankland nobles elect King Arnuf887-99
i.	an illegitimate son of Carolman
c. W. Frankland nobles chose Odo notCarolingian
  2. The Rise of the Capetians, Counts of Paris
   a. Odo 887-98 fought against Vikings 
    i. relied on Brother Robert count of Paris
   b. Robert count of Paris (Odo's heir & brother)
    i.now marquis,royal officer over regional counts
   ii. Odo died&Robert supports Charles the Simple
   c. Charles the Simple the son of Charles the Bald
    i. held back Vikings treaty with Rollo in 911
   ii.Lotharingia choose him king&he moved to region
  iii.Charles neglects W.Frankland aristocrats rebel
   iv. 920 Robert elected king of West Frankland 922
     a. Robert died in battle 923 w/Charles but won
   d. Ralph son of Richard the Justiciar of Burgundy
    i. elected king (r.923-36) 
   ii. awarded more lands and power to aristocrats
  iii. Hugh the Great Robert's son count of Paris
     a.Ralph dies&Hugh supports Charles son Louis IV
   e.Louis IV936-54 tried to regain power from nobles
    i. raised in Wessex after father's capture 923
   ii. unsuccessful in breaking nobles 
  iii. died in horse fall 954
f. Lothair954-86 Louis's son broke nobles power
    i. used one against the other in alliances
   g.Louis V. Lothair's son continued break nobles
    i. left no heir & ended Carolingian line 987
   h. Hugh the Capet 987-96 elected by nobles
   i.Capetian line ruled Paris&surrounding to 1789
  ii. allowed nobles to rule own kingdoms
E. The Rise of the German Empire
 1. Henry I (r.918-36)
  a.Louis the Child last Carolingian E. Frankland
  b.Duke Conrad of Franconia elected as king911-18
   i. tried to assert his authority 
  ii. named Duke Henry of Saxony as successor
  c. nobles controlled most of the land
  d. Henry's ducal power added to the kingdom's 
   i. pushed back northern Slavs 
  ii. expanded east through missions
 iii. Starts colonies near Poland & Czech rep. 
  f. developed a cavalry to deal with Magyars
  g. appoints bishops & abbots to support him
2.	Otto I son of Henry I (r.936-73)
a. continued policies of father in north & east
  b. stopped several serious rebellions 
   i. put family in government positions
  ii. family tended to rebel as well
  c. reestablished power to appoint bishops&abbots 
   i. trains church leaders in royal chapel
  ii. gave appointments, land & power for loyalty
 iii. made sure celibacy enforced
    a. stops dynasties of bishops
  d. the title of Emperor
   i.marries Italian heiress to stop Burgundy king
  ii. declares himself emperor
  ii. pope opposed it 
 iii. Otto returned to Germany to stop rebellion
  iv. 961 Pope John XII955-64 asks help /usurper
    a. Pope crowns Otto Emperor of Romans for help
   v. Otto tried to exert power over church 
    a.Pope objected & Otto drove him from Rome 963
    b. calls a council and elected two other popes
  vi. Byzantines recognized his claim to title 
a.	Theophano, Byzantine princess marries son
3. Otto III and Archbishop Gilbert
  a. Otto II 973-83 put down rebellions 
  b.Otto III son of Otto II an infant king983-1002
   i. Theophano&grandmother Adelaide run country
  ii. Otto III recognized as emperor in Italy
    a. but Germans need to be bribed
 iii.Otto dreamt of restoring Constantine's empire
    a. his tutor Gerbert influenced this dream
    b. Gerbert studied in Spain, Italy & France
	i. became the abbot of Bobbio in Italy 
      a. tried to revise abby's financial system
      b. nobles control finances & kicked him out
    ii. Made archbishop of Reims
      a.controversial appointment force resignation
   iii. Otto III appoints archbishop of Ravenna 
      a. made Pope Sylvester II 999
    iv. establish idea education a way to advance 
      a. brought Arabic numerals to Europe
      b. help start Renaissance in 12th cent. 
F. Anglo-Saxon England
 1. Anglo-Saxon Culture Beginnings of Renaissance
a. Venerable Bede (672-735)
   i. wrote commentaries on Bible & astronomy 
  ii.introduce new dating system Dionysius Exiguus
    a. BC & AD
 iii.wrote Ecclesiastical History of English People    b. earliest 
written versions of Beowulf (725)
     i. poems recited before
 2. Anglo-Saxon Government
  a. Alfred the Great stopped Viking in England
   i. build the Danlaw in the eastern half 
  ii. Royal house of Wessex united Anglo-Saxons
 iii. Kings of England used Benedictine monasticism 
  iv. divided country into Shire reeves,sheriffs
    a. divided again in 100ths 
    b. sheriffs managed lands,ran court,kept roads
    c.sheriffs can't gain power to be independent
     i. earls (who controlled several shires could)
G. Medieval Society: Growth of Feudal Institutions
 1.Feudalism-property held my one service to other
  a. primarily military services rendered to lord
   i.attend court,arrange marriage for Kings children
ii. give king advice about region & join in war
  b. land granted to man for life but not children
   i. by 10th century fief given to eldest sons
  c. eventually became known as vassals
  d. peasants(serfs)tied to land
   i. taxed both on labor & produce
  e. different land ownership (tenure) existed
   i. freehold (owning land outright)
  ii. leasehold (owning land for a limited time)
 iii. villeinage(own land at will of the landlord)
  f.Vassalage-legal system of service & protection
   i. beginnings in Roman system of commendation
    a. comitatus - the one promising service
  ii. vassal accepts lord, gave loyalty & service
    a. known as fielis faithful one, taken oath
 iii.757Pepin the Short made Duke of Bavaria a vassal
    a. Vassalage became a means of discipline
  iv.Vassals provided a source of income from land 
    a. new hierarchy develops between lord&vassal
    b. a king could be a vassal to another king
 2. The Medieval Military System
a. service for land(fief)usually 40 days a year
   i.fiefs provide expenses & payment for service
    a. a knight's fief (fee) was smallest fief 
    b. became unit of measure for men in service
  b. new technology & new soldier-mounted & armed
   i. stirrups allowed men to free hand to fight
  ii. horseshoes makes horse reliable in battle
  c. church also contributed to military service
   i. monasteries gave men for service 
  ii. bishops granted nobles fiefs
    a. required service in return
  3. Feudal Government
   a. military&civilian government combined
   b. vassals ruled domains in name of their lord 
    i. right to govern became associated w/estates
     a. Charlemagne let counts run districts
     b. covered expenses from estates & taxes
     c. ownership of estates meant right to govern
   c. feudal government was not uniform in Europe
    i. Viking raids France led defenders to govern
   ii. Magyar threat led strong government Germany
	a.freehold land tenure weakened feudal system
H. Life in Early Medieval Society
 1. disparity evident in health of population
  a. peasants struggle & work hard for little food
   i.most malnourished&stunted growth&intelligence
  b. food not moved easily to areas needed 
   i. famine in one area, bounty in another 
  ii. rich moved from escaping famine & plagues
 2. women in feudal society
  a. kingdom's dominated by men
  b. hereditary tenure passed land on to daughters
   i.lord had right to approve marriages of vassal
  ii. orphans became wards of lord 
  c.women could not buy or sell property on own
   i. husband managed what she brought to marriage
  ii. couldn't appear in court w/o male relative
  d. ladies of manor had some authority
   i.husbands often gone to court or other property
  ii. servants reported to her
 3. town life was dependent on local bishop 
  a. Bishop governs & protects town
  b. town depends on marketplace for livelihood
i.	bishops collected taxes from markets
c. kept gardens to supplement food supplies
  d. bishops collect tolls from bridges&town court
  e. lord of town repairs bridges&roads&defense
 
X REVIVAL AND REFORM IN WESTERN EUROPE
A.The Agricultural Economy and Society
 1. Village Agriculture
  a. villages were the center of medieval society
   i. villagers owed different type of service
    a. lord of village owns part of fields&pasture
    b. tenure dictates different obligations 
  ii.productivity of village depends on management
    a. lords built ponds, mills, smithies&industry
    b. millers & smiths paid rent to lords 
 iii. not completely self-sufficient 
    a. generally a stable economic unit
  b. diet
   i. bread & cereals with little meat & fish
ii.	lords held right to hunt woods
iii. great feasts in early spring & fall 
    a. equinox
    b. not enough grain to feed animals in winter
     i.only 4 kernels of grain for every 1 planted
    ii. now 25 kernels for each one planted
    c. too many animals born in spring to feed
 2. The Agricultural Revolution
  a. crop rotation throughout Europe
   i. first 2 field system 1 pasture other produce
  ii. 3 field rotation introduced by 13th cent.
    a. 2/3rds fields in production at all times
    b. legumes in summer planted, added nitrogen 
    c. used where a consistent summer rain
	i. not in mediterranean - too dry
    ii. not in Scandinavia-too rocky & too small
  b. the heavy wheeled plow
   i. tilled deep & bring nutrients to the top
    a. only good in a northern moist climate
    b. Mediterranean too dry&moisture lost easily
    c. Roman's used a simple scratch plow
    d. Celts or Romans invented heavy plow
i. only used in a few regions before now
    ii. rocks left behind by glaciers damage plows
      a. villagers band together to buy plowshares
      b. smiths repair tools also invented others
   iii. use of plow animals
      a. times teams of 6to8 oxen used to plow
       i. required cooperation of several families
      b. horses replace oxen pulling 2x the speed
       i. increased the amount of ground plowed
      ii. farms grow further away from town 
     iii. horses weaker & susceptible to disease
      c. horseshoe & harness
       i. horse's hooves are fragile
        a. break easily under pressure
        b. susceptible to rot in wet soils
      ii. old collars cut across horse's windpipe
        a. new one rests on withers allows pulling
B. The Revival of Trade and Towns
 1. Commerce and the Settlement of Jews in Europe
  a.Roman collapse led to decline of distant trade
b.	encourage Jews to move north from south 
c. Jews maintained friends in old homes
   i. used connections develop trade w/ mid east
  ii. Borrow from landlords 
    a. excess grain supplies used to buy goods
 iii. most trade done with luxury items
    a. silks, spices & jewels
  iv. Jews protected by local kings from robbers
   v. items stolen not easily sold 
  d. after Crusades, Jews begin lending money 
   i. knights borrowed money to travel east
  ii. used estates as collateral for loans
 iii. churches&monasteries borrow to build  
  iv. Jew eventually become bankers
    a. able to charge interest
 2. The Recovery of the Italian Cities
  a. Italians along Adriatic follow Jews north
   i. become merchants
  b. Italian cities a link to Byzantines & west
   i. Egypt also opens after Fatimid caliphs 969
  ii. further disruption of trade routs by Vikings
  c.corporations from Arabs help large scale trade
3. the Industrial Cities of Flanders
  a. trade slower than Italian cities
   i. trade in wood & wool
  b. wool industry required skilled craftsmen
   i. craftsmen drawn together
    a. created industrial center
  ii. largest producer of wool cloth 
 4. The Incorporation Movement
  a. new towns developed inland from coastal ports
  b. aristocrats sought new sources of wealth
  c. old cities controlled by monasteries, bishops 
  d. merchants travel to towns hindered by taxes
  e. 11th century kings devised royal charter
   i. incorporate towns
  ii. let local merchants govern themselves
 iii.merchants controlled taxes to encourage trade
  iv.in city 1yr&day is free of feudal obligations
  f. guilds develop over trades within cities
   i. control own trade - a crude start to unions
  g.guilds & merchants compete for control of city 
5. the Fairs and the Ways of Trade
  a. trade fairs enabled merchants to do business
  b. outside of towns sellers felt equal w/ buyers
  c. fairs allow larger groups to meet & sell
   i. travel from all over region
  d. the bill of trade
   i.originated in Fatimid Egypt a promissory note
  ii. always written on common monetary values
 iii.avoided traveling with large amounts of money
  e. new class of men developed 
   i.owing loyalty to others far away meant little
  ii. merchants became known by status
    a. bürger in Ger.,burgesses-Eng.&bourgeois-Fr.
    b. based on German Burg for fortified town
 6. Local and Regional Trade
  a. local & regional trade more important
  b. wealth brought power by 12 & 13th cent.
  c.cities develop power independent of local lords
 7. Urban Life
  a. incorporating towns 
i.	council & mayor elected by merchants govern
b. guilds develop in 11th century
   i. set standards and completion restrictions
  ii. elect own leaders, officers & councils
 iii.disability for members&widows&orphans pensions
  c. guilds also start banks for members
  d. most guilds restricted to walled cities
   i.teamsters travel to different towns so larger
  ii. stonecutters too specialized for one town
  e. apprenticeship
   i. first easy to enter later hereditary
  ii. later journeyman & then master with own shop
 iii. becomes member of masters house until master
  f. day laborers work on road,bridge,wall&harvest
   i. peaceful during expanding economy
 8. Family Life in the Cities and Towns
  a. family basic unit society, education&economy
  b. extended families
   i. old age not a condition, few grandparents
  ii. apprentices & journeymen live with masters
  c. women 
   i. not given many rights or freedoms
a. girls marry older husbands 10-30yrs older
    b. at times children as young as 7 married
    c.age of consent 14 1st time they could object
	i. no objection at 14 seen as passive consent
    ii. fertility higher in upper class
      a. better food & did not nurse
	 b. midwives
       i. rubbing baby with salt & honey in mouth 
      ii. swaddling & use of cradles
     iii. prechews food&taught child all but trade
    d. father provides marriage&business training 
     i. father older than wife & distant from child
  ii. work with textiles as spinners & weavers
 iii. expected to run household effectively
    a. wives of lords run large estates 
    b. patrons of arts
    c. involved in regional and kingdom politics
  iv. may succeed husband as master of trade
   v. widows&orphans struggle unless in business
  vi.prostitution common/concerns of health&morals
 vii. convents allowed upper class women to escape
    a.only accept women with money to defray costs
C. The Rural Nobility
 1. development of rural vs urban nobility
  a.towns&incorporation limit rule of aristocracy 
  b. lords remained in rural surroundings
   i. distanced themselves
 2. Chivalry
  a.developed in Peace of God movement 10th cent.
   i. church designate to protect:women,children
  b. code of conduct for nobility 
   i. knight an honorable man loyal to lord
    a. courteous to women, etc.
  ii. gentle with poor&less fortunate & generous
 iii.rule of combat come later:can't attack horse
 3.Rearing Knight:prepare noble sons to leadership
  a. at 7 yrs old start schooling in ways of class
   i. play games of war & learn to ride horses
  b. at 12-13 instruction on weapons & riding
  c. late teens-squire under knights tutelage
   i. took care of knights weapons, armor & stead
  d. knighthood granted in early 20s 
i.	squire pledges fealty to his knight lord
ii. ceremony more elaborate later 
  e. Knights-errant
   i. no land or ties, attached to landed men 
  ii. tournaments sharpen skill & give prestige
    a. held every couple weeks from spring to fall
    b. knights traveled distances to reach 
    c. mock battles could kill or injury opponents
    d. lords sponsored teams to fight battles
    e. ransomed captives 
    f. church disapproved & refused to bury dead
 iii.hoped to gain fief from lord or marry heiress
  iv.retire when old&manage estate or made bailiff
    a. many marry daughters of prosperous peasants
 4. Home Life of the Nobility
  a. castles
   i.estate manors:large houses may have palisade
  ii. motte-and-bailey castles
    a.motte:several acre mound palisade surrounded
    b. bailey:larger court yard connected to motte
    c.tower or keep:tall building center of motte
c.	all other buildings in bailey
iii. stone castles only belong to richest lords
  b. life in castles
   i. lord held court
    a. decided cases of fief holders & tenants
  ii. entertained men &listened to stories &poems
 iii. hunted & played games
  iv. after tournaments feasted often & grew fat
    a. gout common
D. Reform of the Church
 1. Condition of the Church in Eleventh Century
  a. German kings appoint secular abbots & bishops
   i. kings grant lands&rights to heads of church
  b. lords own & support private temples & shrines
   i. lords appoint priests&collect church income
  c. conditions of church scandalous
   i. many priests not educated or disciplined
  d.royal charters to church in 7th cen.complicate 
   i. land belongs to family not to a single man
  ii. lords can control & support church estates
    a. build church on estate & have charters
 iii.lord chooses heir to run church estates
2. The Establishment of the Reform Movement
  a. guilty William of Aquitaine starts monastery
   i. Asks monk Berno to start
  ii. founded the Culny monastery in Burgundy 910
 iii. Berno demanded authority over all monastery
  iv. William agreed and allowed major reforms
    a. gave authority to the pope 
  b. Berno set model of independent monasteries
  c. Pope protects when William's heirs challenge 
  d. Pope is tool of aristocratic families in Rome
  e. Culny cried for reform in Papacy
   i. Popes are corrupt & ignorant 
  f. Henry III of Germany marched on Rome 1046
   i. 3 Popes supported by different families
  ii. Henry called council and deposed all 3
 iii. Henry appointed German Pope 
    a. new pope crowned Henry emperor
    b.Pope died mysteriously when Henry left Italy
   v. Henry appointed Bruno Pope Leo IX 1049-54
  f. Pope Leo IX reforms church 
i.	held church councils to form church law
ii. no buying or selling ecclesiastical offices
 iii. no clerical marriage 
  iv. no lay interference in church affairs
   v. appointed Hildebrand archdeacon of Rome
    a. gained control of shrines within city
    b. controlled pilgrimage revenues
 3. The Investiture Controversy
  a. who should install clergy to positions
   i. 1059 Pope Nicholas II no lay investiture 
  ii. Popes elected by electoral college
    a. cardinals:clerics who say Mass in Rome 
    b. later became legates to provinces
  b.Henry IV 1066 made investiture central reform
   i. gave bishops ring and staff(crook)on fealty
  c. aristocratic opponents side with church
   i. give up control of private churches to pope
    a. loose income from churches
    b. retain right to nominate priests 
 4. Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand)
  a. Henry IV asserted right to investiture 1075
   i. Henry saw church part of his domain
b. Gregory threatened to excommunicate Henry
   i. unable to enter church 
  ii. all Christians must distance themselves
  c. Henry summoned German bishops to council
   i. threatened to depose Pope
  d. Gregory excommunicates Henry & deposes him
   i. aristocrats rebel & threatened Henry IV
  ii. Gregory traveled to Germany against king 
 iii.King repents to Pope outside Canossa castle
  iv. Pope must forgive & King regains control
   v. Gregory returns to Rome
    a. lost support of German aristocracy
  e. Gregory excommunicates Henry again in 1080
   i. largely ignored in Germany
 5. Consequences of the Investiture Controversy
  a. German kings invaded Italy several times
   i. threaten Popes  
  b. Pope fomented rebellion of German aristocracy 
   i. Prevent strong German monarchy
  c. compromise of 1122 ended controversy
i.	theory of dual authority
ii. church & state had limited authority 
 iii. one ecclesiastical & one secular
 6. Religious Life: New Monastic Orders
  a.papal legates brought reform throughout Europe
   i. established idea of priestly celibacy
    a. married clerics rare
  b. Cluniac monasteries grew in wealth & power
   i. required monks remain poor 
    a. institutions gained power
  c.believe God listens to holy men's prayers more
   i. men gave money & land for monks prayers 
  ii. monks spent most of day praying for patrons
 iii. monasteries spend money on buildings & books
  d. men left monasteries became hermits
   i. renounce wealth
  ii. a few monasteries devoted to manual labor
 iii.renounce owning property for monks&monastery
  e. priests followed the monastic orders
   i. began own institutions
  ii. orders of priests and nuns 
  f. preacher named Waldo renounced possessions
i. Waldensians wondered preaching simple life
  ii. no formal training & no authority recognized
 iii. critical of wealth & worldliness of church
  iv. never condemned by church but suspected 
E. Crusaders
 1.Moslem conquest of Jerusalem&Byzantine collapse
  a. 1095 Pope Urban II calls for crusade
  b. Council at Clermont, FR. 
   i. urged knights to take up fight
  c. thousands of knights took up cross to fight
 2. Beginnings of Chivalric code gives purpose
  a.protect women,children,&churchmen-Peace of God
  b.tried to stop fight on feast days-Truce of God
   i. not very effective
 3. some fighting in Moslem Spain, Italy & Sicily
 4. thousands of knights marched to Constantinople	
  a. undisciplined force descended on Constantinople
   i. no kings among force
  ii. several lords led force & fought among selves
  b. Emperor of Byzantium shocked & surprised 
   i. army would not follow Emperor
  c. Crusaders divided forces & attacked Turks
 5. Crusaders took Jerusalem & other cities 1099
  a.crusader states stretched throughout Palestine
  b. Moslems made headway into crusader states
  c. 1140s second crusade but little accomplished
 6. Saladin retook Jerusalem in 1187 & 3rd Crusade
  a. Frederick I of Germany died on way to crusade
  b. Richard Lionheart captured on way home 
 7. Egypt offered rich trade center
  a. upset trade with Venetians
  b. 4th Crusade aimed at rich Egypt (1202)
  c. Venetians divert transport to Constantinople
  d. Crusaders conquer Constantinople 1204-1261
   i. put own emperor on thrown but powerless
 8. Knights Templars
  a. French knights defend Holy Sepulcher 1119
   i. vow to protect & defend Holy Land pilgrims
  b. limited at first to nobles 
   i. must take vows of poverty & obedience
  ii. quartered in place at old Solomon's Temple
    a. "poor knight of the Temple"
 iii. follow Benedictine rule
iii.	wore white robes with red crosses
c. four classes
   i. knights & sergeants were fighters
  ii. farmers did worldly affairs of order
 iii. chaplains in charge of religious needs 
  d. Pope took knight under his protection 
   i. gained property all over Europe
  ii.local offices(Templars)in Christian countries 
    a. gain recruits and finances for pilgrims
    b. become bankers&influence throughout Europe
 iii. wealth made them envies of European kings
    a.1300s Philip IV(the Fair)investigate knights
     i. ordered all Templars in France in prison
    ii. tortured to confess accusations of heresy
   iii. French kings seized most of wealth & land
    b. England,Spain,Germany&Portugal investigate
     i. most acquitted
    c. Pope Clemet V abolished order 1312 
     i.most join Knights of St. John-Hospitallers
  e. Knights Hospitallers - fighting monks
   i. dedicated to John Baptist
  ii. start late 1000s in monastery at Jerusalem
iii. first limited to caring for sick & pilgrims
    a. later became fighters in crusades
    b. powerful rivals of the Templars
  iv.1312 took over most Knights Templars property
   v. move to Cyprus 1187-Saracens took Jerusalem 
    a. later moved to island of Rhodes 
    b. Turks took Rhodes late 1500s&moved to Malta
    c. continued to 1798 when Napoleon took Malta
     i. remained a religious order but lost power
 
XI MEDIEVAL CIVILIZATION AT ITS HEIGHT
A. The Medieval Church at its Height
 1. The Growth of Papal Government
  a. Cardinals used as papal agents 11th cent
   i. control wealth & policy
  b. ecclesiastical legal system 
   i. cases involving marriages,legitimacy&oaths
  ii. all crimes involving clergy or monks
 iii. papal courts (highest) 
    a. heard thousands of cases each year
c. use of councils continues
   i. 2 popes for eight years by 1171-1179
  ii. 3rd Lateran Council set up election of pope
    a. required 2/3rds vote to elect pope
 2. Pope Innocent III
  a. interfered in politics of Europe
   i. claims he crowned emperors
  ii. able to judge best qualified for position 
 iii. had to act when he detected sin in disputes
  b. supports Frederick II after Henry VI died
   i.civil war threatens stability of Germany1196
  ii. Frederick young & Pope hopped to manipulate
  c. Pope excommunicated John of England
   i. refused Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury
  ii. John repented & became papal vassal
 iii. Pope tried to support against Magna Carta 3. Cathars 
and the Inquisition
  a. Cult and heresy from 11th cent.(Manichaeans)
  b. combined Christianity & Zoroastrianism
   i. good god created spiritual things
ii.	evil god created physical things
iii. ousted by Caliph Al Mahdi 3rd cent.
  c. Innocent sent missionaries but rejected 
  d. Crusade against in southern France (1207)
   i. Crusaders from North support French king
  ii. Southern nobles join Cathars against north
 iii. north won, salt fields, incorporated south
  e. Cathars forced underground
  f. Innocent starts inquisition to weed heretics
   i. established rules for investigations
  ii. judge both investigated & decided case
 iii. used of torture to extract confessions
  iv. encouraged false accusers & informers
 4. The Franciscans & The Dominicans
  a. St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)
   i. renounced wealth became a mendicant
    a. wandering beggar
    b. preached Christ as he imagined apostles had
  ii. others followed as ministers to commoners
 iii. Innocent III approves order 1209
  iv. becomes powerful force 
    a. encourages learning in 13th cent. 
b. St. Dominic of Spain (1170-1221)
   i. saw heresy as an intellectual problem
  ii. creates mendicant order to refute heretics
 iii. Innocent III approves order 1215
  iv. start schools&influence first Universities
   v. develop preaching into an art (oratory)
    i.wrote manuals&approaches to differ audiences
  c. both orders subject to Pope 
   i. free to act as Pope's agents
  ii. Bishops complain can't control these priests 
    a.had authority over priests in their dioceses
    b. term friars from Latin fratres brothers
B. The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century
 1. reform of the 11th century stimulated growth
  a. recover the glories of ancient Rome
  b. educate clerics
 2. Monasteries & cathedral libraries copy books 
  a. used in academic centers
 3. Conflict of kings & Reformers spurred learning
  a. both sides searched books for precedents
   i. into Spain, S.Italy & Syria to Arab centers
  b. Jewish scholars copy Arabic texts to Latin
C. Romanesque and Gothic Art & Architecture
 1. Romanesque
  a. economic revival allowed new stone buildings 
   i. churches,castles, monasteries,&guild halls
  b. tried to copy Roman style buildings
   i. based on the arch (a Roman invention) 
  ii.cruciform plan w/ nave in west&alter in east
    a.vaulted ceiling express grandeur of heavenly
  c.murals of Christ's life use as bible of masses 
 2. Gothic
  a. new style around 1150 in St Denis near Paris
  b. Abbot Suger wanted light from God in church
   i. round arches require thick walls for support
    a. 12' or more
  ii. pointed arch allowed less pressure on walls
 iii. windows could be incorporated in walls now
    a. called Gothic for Germanic middle ages
  c. stain glass replaced painted murals & mosaics
  d. 13th cent. cities compete largest cathedrals
  e. flying buttresses built to support roof		
D. The Intellectual Renaissance
 1. Philosophy and Theology
  a. philosophy as a formal method of enquiry
   i. Gerbert of Aurillac interest in Aristotle
  ii. inferences from known to form new knowledge
  b. Peter Abelard (1070-1141) prodigy & genus
   i. established as teacher in Paris 
    a. married student Heloise
  ii. Uncle discovers secret had Abelard castrated
 iii. Abelard becomes monk, Heloise nun
  iv. Abelard studied church writings
    a. found contradictions within  
    b. proposes new use of logic to reconcile
    c. work condemned&expelled from St.Denis 1120
 2. Problem of Universals:Reason versus Revelation
  a. were terms used to denote something real
   i. terms denote ideas about general topic 
    a. dogs (all breeds)
    b. this differs from a dog we see 
  ii.realists-terms real vs. nominalists-name only
  b.is revelation real if humans can't corroborate 
i. argument about transubstantiation developed
    a. are body & blood real or only bread & wine
  c. Abelard argues universals had reality of own
   i. concept exists in human mind therefore real
  ii.God outside a concept or physical existence
 iii. Abelard condemned as heretic
    d.realists avoided question of God's existence
     i. use Abelard's argument of concept for God
 3. The Two Approaches to Intellectual Work
  a. Bernard of Clairvaux 
   i. claims intellect enhances the spirit
    a. Bible must be principal object of study
    b. study should concentrate on meaning of text
    c. Bible contains whole truth of God & world
  b.Abelard:two sources of knowledge-Bible&science
   i. refused job teaching in cathedral of Paris
  ii. set up teaching at a monastic house in city
 iii. students flocked to study
  iv. taught curricula of philosophy & science 
    a. did not need to train monks or clerics
    b.secular knowledge useful in service to kings
 4. Origins of Universities (Paris by 1200)
  a.many teachers in Paris start guild Universitas   i. 
each teacher offered a course for pay
  ii.guild regulate fees,rented room&set standards
 iii. exams given to teaching candidates
  b. at first controlled by bishops 
   i. later vied for freedom
  ii.conflict over appointment of rector by bishop
  c. each discipline formed own guild over time
   i. philosophy, theology, medicine, law, etc.
  d. Bologna Italy offered a different university
   i. Gratian published concordance of Cannon law
    a. students study all passages on issues
  ii. Bolongna became important for learning law
    a. students formed a new university
    b. teachers post bond once class started 
    c. established curriculum&regulated activities
    d.required to proceed orderly through material
 iii. start by students set role of teachers
    a. only functions in graduate school 
    b. students older & have more learning
  e. Medical schools start after exposure to Arabs
   i. 12th century Bolongna studies medicine
  ii. 1221 university in Montpelier 
  f. The Doctorate was the ultimate goal
   i. allowed student to teach at university
  ii. few reached before 40 years old
 iii. study finished answered questions in public
    a. passerby could ask question&teachers judged
 5. Aristotle's Scientific Treatises and
    Problem of Reason verses Revelation
  a. Aristotle believed world always existed
   i. scholars ignored difference in belief
  ii. scholars explain Aristotle's assumptions
 iii. scholars proposed 2 truths
    a. one through observation & other revelation
    b. Papal commission reviews Aristotle's works
     i. Appointed by Gregory IX 1231
    ii. they would purge any errors 
   iii. Bologna, Paris & Naples studied works 
iii.	Problems reconciling Aristotle w/ Church 
6. Saint Thomas Aquinas
  a. Dominican- doctorate at 27 professor 30 
  b.1268 recall to Paris for second professorship
   i.claims only partial knowledge through reason
  ii. revelation needed as well
  c. Summa Theologica 3 pts on general topics
   i.set up contradictions&explained in approach
    a.things change/no they can't- examined both
 7. The Revival of Science
  a. West learn of Arithmetic,Geometry & Astronomy
   i. Jewish scholars translate Arab works 
  b. Euclid's Geometry in Latin available (1126)
  c.Algebra(arab for Al Gebra)book of Al-Khwarizmi
  d. Ptolemy's Almagest (1160) round world
  e.Aristotle's work translated in Latin 13thcent.
  f. Oxford Univ. adds knowledge of Optics&lenses
   i. Roger Bacon 120-92 described eyeglasses,
      airplanes, self-propelled ships & gunpowder
 8. History and Vernacular Literature
  a. most medieval Latin literature was history
   i. search ancient precedents in controversies
  ii. legitimize rights to rule through lineage
 iii.importance of rulers to be known in histories
  b. vernacular poems are entertainment in courts
   i. The Song of Roland, Beowulf & Nibelungenlied    a. 
song of Nibelungs- Attila Hun & Burgundians
  ii. Romances start to appear
    a. stories of heroic quests & chivalric knights 
    b. women patrons encouraged genre
     i. first centered around Arthurian legend
 iii. Troubadours promoted chivalry & romanticism
    a. nonphysical devotion of man to a woman
     i. virtue of knight central to devotion
    ii.great feat or quest to prove worthy of love
    b. Chretien de Troyes wrote about Lancelot etc.
    c. stories of Parzival, Sir Gawain start
    d. Tristan&Isolde by Gottfried von Strassburg
  c. fabliaux stories that entertained commoners
   i. primarily crude 
  ii. full of examples of day 
    a.storekeeper with beautiful but dumb daughter
    b. evil hypocritical monk & priest
 iii. hero common & bright but not always ethical
 9. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
  a. wrote in Tuscan dialect establish language
  b.Divine Comedy epic poem of 3 parts
   i. Hell, Purgatory & Heaven and 100 sections
  ii. Vergil's hero Aeneas descends to underworld
 iii. Beatrice sends Vergil to guide Dante
    a. is escorted through Hell & purgatory
    c. damned & place of purging to get to heaven
    	i. his love but dies before fulfillment
  iv. Dante in tries to climb mountain to truth
    a. animals hinder way up (his sins)
    b.Vergil leads down to hell only way to truth
    c. after climbing down into hell climbs up
     i. lower levels of hell until Satan in ice
    d.Purgatory where souls ask forgiveness&suffer
     i. shed weight of sin higher up
    e. heaven is full of medieval imagery&science
     i. Ptolemy's view universe&concentric circles
    ii. saints greeting him(Augustine & Aquinas)
 10. The Significance of Vernacular Literature
a.	introduced romantic love
b. an effort to reconcile nature & man
   c. weakened Latin as universal language 
   d. some of Bible translated into French12thcent.
   e. French used in histories&official documents
 
XXII THE RISE OF THE SECULAR STATE
A. The Effects of Economic Change on the Church
 1. inflation and the those on fixed income
  a. rents fixed for perpetuity
  b. landlords took back land & farmed themselves
  c. farmers faced less land & rising prices
   i. farmers move to cities
 2. large increase in urban population 
  a. rapid reproduction 
  b. agricultural revolution causes 3-10x growth
  c. priests unable to minister to population
   i. Franciscans & Dominicans fill void
  ii. mendicants had reputation for holiness
 iii. people flock to churches&orders become rich
iv.	bishops resent wealth&independence of orders
d.pope claims ultimate authority&protects orders
  e. Church concerned about callousness of wealthy
   i. preach social responsibility
  ii. start charitable inst.-hospitals&orphanages
 iii. banking & charging interest forbidden
 3. Church income suspected
  a. multiple offices
   i. clerics taking title & privileges of office
  ii. hired substitutes to perform for low salary
  b. Church collecting income tax on clergy 
   i. start charging for services
  ii. mendicants encouraged to renounce wealth 
    a. orders become rich vested title to trustees
  ii.attempts at reform not very successful 
B. England 
 1. The Creation of the Anglo-Norman State
  a. Normans in northern France expand
   i. conquer S.Italy, into Spain & Crusaders
  b.Danish king Canute 1016-1035 took over England
   i. conquered Edward & forced him to flee 
a.	flees to Normandy home of his mother, Emma
ii. Scandinavian empire collapses in 1042 
    a. Edward returns
  c. Edward dies
   i.brother-in-law Harold of Wessex claims throne
  d.Edward's cousin,Duke William of Normandy upset
   i. invades claims throne
  ii. Battle of Hastings 1066 Norman conquest
 iii. William deposed old aristocracy 
    a. puts in new vassals
    b. all land in England held as fief to king
  iv. French enters English vocabulary & customs
 2. Henry II and the Origins of Common Law
  a. Henry I son of William died 
   i. daughter Mathilda inherits throne
  ii.William's grandson Stephen of Blois challenges 
    a. Stephen was son of Williams daughter Adele
    b. war & troubled reign 1135-54
 iii. Stephen's son dies 
    a.agrees to make Mathilda's son heir for peace
     i. Henry II inherits Anjou from Parents
  b. Henry II(1154-89)married Eleanor of Aquitaine
   i. rules Brittany, Anjou,Aquitaine&1/2 of France
c. Legal problems of ownership & fiefs
   i. Especially the case after civil war 
  ii. Stephen&Mathilda gave same fief to two men
 iii. Henry orders local sheriffs to settle matter
  iv. courts slow 
    a. questions of right settled by combat
  d. Henry's remedies and reforms
   i. Sheriff decide who possess land not owns
    a.(possession 9/10ths of law)other drop case
  ii. jury trial old but rarely used
    a. neighbors sworn to tell about land & rights
    b. juratus a person of the oath (jury)
 iii. king's writs were returnable
    a. you could contest a decision&trial heard
    b.if no precedent exist king would hear trail
    c. established series of decisions "case law" 
 3. John and Magna Carta
  a. Richard I "the Lionheart"1189-99 3rd Crusade 
  b. John(1199-1216)lost Normandy,Anjou&Aquitaine 
   i. needed money for campaigns to reconquer 
  ii. seized land & imposed fines on men
a.	accused men of treason or murder
iii. English barons rebel at Runnymede 6/15/1215
    a.force king to sign Magna Carta(great charter
  c. Magna Carta large document 63 chapters
   i. no taxes without "counsel with the kingdom" 
  ii. trial by jury & habeas corpus
 iii. no war without counsel of vassals & bishops
  iv. established a rule of law for English people
 4. Henry III (1216-1272) John's son
  a. reaffirmed Magna Carta in exchange for taxes
  b. Henry's problems & resentment by the nobles
   i. named relatives to high positions in France
  ii. permitted Pope to draw money from church
    a. Pope in war with German rulers of Italy
 iii. 1258 Henry in debt & foreign policy in ruin
  c. Barons form committee to dictate reforms
   i. United against Henry but split apart 
    a. afraid of one baron taking power
  ii. Simon de Montfort most able leads faction
 iii. 1265 Edward(Henry's son)fought&killed Simon
  d. establish idea of assemblies to support rule
i.	both sides called assemblies for war
5. The Origins of Constitutional Government	
  a. who runs area when no bishops or abbots there
   i. Roman corporation law allow ruled to decide
    a. collective rule took form from law
  b. state a legal community like a corporation 
   i. rulers called underlings for councils
  c.meeting for government in England=Parliament
   i. men who held fiefs from king met in council
    a. advised on ruling & heard appeals
  ii. king invited lesser lords to spread word 
 iii. Simon de Montfort called 2 rep. from towns
    a.lost support of Barons & needed town support
  iv. Henry III followed example w/towns & Barons 
 6. Edward & Development of Parliament
  a. Henry III's son Edward I 1272-1307
  b. needed support for wars with France & Scotts
   i. ruled with only aid of Barons & Bishops 
  ii. easier rule with more support for campaigns
  b. Edward controlled Parliament & used it 
   i.representatives saw role as passive hear&obey
b.	1297 tax"with common assent of whole kingdom"
i. Edward raised taxes without Parliament 
    a. tax pushed in council w/o knights&townsmen
    b. bishops demand assent of kingdom
    c. king agreed to terms
C. The Growth of Royal Power in France
 1. Louis VI and Louis VII
  a.Luis VI says bishops&abbots under protection
   i. some already protected by lords
    a. if they don't like lord look to king
  ii. Luis couldn't allegiance of all French 
   b. Abbot Suger of St.Denis 1122-1152
    i. all men subject to king direct or indirect
   ii.king only subject to St.Denis/patron of Fr. 
  iii. not accepted by most French nobles
   c.Louis VII to marry Eleanor of Aquitaine
    i. marriage was not a success & annulled 1152
	a. Louis claims wife & her cousin had affair
   ii. Eleanor married Henry II of England 
   d.Louis VII expands royal protection of Bishops
    i. 1/2bishops under king's protection by death
3.	Philip II Augustus 1180-1223
a. John of England mistreated a French vassal
   i. The vassal appealed to Philip of France 
  b. Philip called John to appear in court 1204
   i. John refused
  c. Philip declares John contumacious&took fiefs
   i. seized Brittany, Normandy, Anjou & Aquitaine
  ii. John's barons supported the King Philip
 iii. Philip allowed local lords to keep power 
    a. put in new districts with king's governors
 3. Louis IX 1226-1270 grandson of Philip II 
  a. peace with England by allowing 
   i. Allowed England to keep coastal Aquitaine
  b.just king is not involved in affairs of church
   i. avoided disputes among bishops & Pope 
  ii. let local courts judge disputes under law
 iii. only concerned with matters of crown
    a. obligations to maintain bridges or roads
    b. handled disturbances to the king's peace
  iv.everything become disturbance of king's peace
  c. Parliament of Paris (kings advisers)
   i. heard appeals 
ii.	established royal supremacy over subjects
d. Louis IX led two crusades against Moslems
   i. 1248 tried retake Jerusalem but retreated
    a. cut off from supplies 
  ii. 1270 attacked Tunis but most died of fervor
  e. Louis IX (the Pious) declared a Saint 1290s 
   i. Part of settlement with Philip IV & Pope
D. The Rise and Fall of Royal Power in Germany
 1. The Hohenstaufens
  a. Otto III died without heir 
   i. Dukes competed for throne
  ii. kings of Germany elected by dukes 
  b.Frederick I Barbarossa 1151-90(Hohenstaufens)
   i. married heiress of Burgundy 
  ii. crowned Emperor by Pope
  ii. took fiefs from Henry the Lion 
  c. Northern Italy resisted German control
   i.Italian cities Independent resisted taxes
  ii. son Henry VI marries princess of Sicily
    a. Henry VI 1190-97 inherited crown of Sicily
  d. Frederick died 1190 on 3rd Crusade 
   i. Henry succeeded but died young 
    a. infant Frederick II king
e. Civil war develops without an adult king
   i. Henry VI's brother Philip of Swabia
  ii. Henry the Lion's son, Otto of Brunswick
 iii. Pope Innocent III claims right to choose
    a. Pope supports Otto IV 1197-1215
    b. Otto invades Sicily & attacks Frederick
     i. Frederick was a papal vassel
    c. Pope supports Frederick & stirs rebellion 
   ii. Otto returns home 
     a. fights with John(England)against Philip II
     b. Philip II of France supported Frederick
     b. Philip wins Battle of Bouvines in Flanders
     c. Otto looses crown to Frederick 
   iii. Dukes force concessions from Frederick II
 2. Frederick II and the Papacy
  a. most of rule spent in Sicily securing throne
   i. let dukes run Germany with little opposition
  b. revived imperial claim to rule all Italy
   i.N.towns revive Lombard League fight Frederick
    a. Frederick crushed League at Cortenuova1237
  c.Pope Innocent III opposed strong king of Italy
   i. afraid of interference in Papal states
  ii. kept Italy in turmoil 
  d. Pope suspected Frederick
   i. As intellectual, magician, friend of Moslems
  ii. May have written a book  
 iii. The Three Impostors: Moses, Jesus & Mohammed
  e. Frederick shows orthodoxy by going on Crusade
   i. burned heretics at stake
    a. excommunicated for not going fast enough
    b. Holy land made peace with Moslems
     i. treaty gave west control of Jerusalem
    ii. Pope relinquished during war
   iii. re excommunicated him when he made peace
   iii. Pope Gregory IX 1227-41calls Roman council 
      a. Frederick intercepted & sunk pope's fleet 
  e. Pope InnocentIV 1243-54 council at Lyons 1245
   i. declared crusade against Frederick
    a.declared Frederick's land forfeit
  ii. Dukes refused to obey Frederick
    a. Germany remains separate states for years
 iii. Frederick remained in control of Italy 
iii.	Hohenstaufens held Sicily but Popes warred
v. Charles of Anjou helped popes defeat Sicily
    a. last of Frederick's heirs finally executed
 3. The Consequences of the Struggle
  a. Papacy lost moral prestige
   i. people questioned deposing of Frederick II
  ii. Frederick's heirs were no threat at all
 iii. Church uses spiritual authority for politics
  iv. pope taxes clergy for politics why not king
  b. Popes won victory by creating instability 
   i.church weaken in Germany&Italy by instability
    a. bishops fight off dukes & local lords
  ii.German king can't deal with 14thcent heresies 
    a. opens way for Martin Luther in 16th cent.
 iii. Italy unstable cities fought against another
  iv. Roman nobles fought for power & lands
    a. Popes entangled in petty feuds of nobles
E. England, France, & Papacy in Late 13th Century
 1. English Foreign Policy under Edward I
  a.more control in England,Scotland,Wales&Ireland
   i.replaces last prince of Wales with infant son
ii.	Imposed puppet king in Scotland
a. became independent
    b. rebel under William Wallace & Robert Bruce
    c. won independence at Bannockburn in 1314
  b. War with France over Aquitaine
  c. Hot tempered & loud 
   i.(Dean of St.Paul's Cathedral dead of fright)
 2. France under Philip IV the Fair (1285-1314)
  a. French barons struggle govern their holdings
  b. Philip tried enforce decisions in all France
   i.war with Count of Flanders&Duke of Aquitaine
    a. won land but failed to take Burges & Ghent
  ii. had difficulty raising money for war
    a. no general taxes in France 
    b. agents negotiate taxes with every noble
     i. played one state off the other
  c. French parliament(Estates General)fairly weak
   i. country ignored rulings 
  ii. king did not ask them for taxes
 3. The Struggle with Pope Boniface VIII
  a. Pope Celestine V (r. 1294)
i.	after difficulty picked hermit,Peter Murrone
ii.complex international politics&vast machinery
 iii. simple holy man could not handle the office
  iv. forced to abdicate (only pope to do so)
  b. Pope Boniface VIII (r. 1294-1303)
   i. leading cardinal 
  ii. sensed struggle with secular authority
 iii. people supported local civil leaders 
    a. Pope seen more as political leader in Italy
    b. separation of civil & religious authority 
  iv. Kings started to tax churches for war 
    a. Pope had done so in wars with Hohenstaufens
    b. France & England in war over Aquitaine 1294
    c. taxes granted until 1296 Boniface stops
    d. Edward I&Philip the Fair took church lands 
     i. rallied population against priests
    ii. outlawed money transfer to Rome
   iii. Pope rescinded ban & allowed tax in 1298
   v. Philip imprisoned a French bishop on treason
    a. Boniface demanded release&threatened Philip
    b. Philip rallied nobles&bishops against pope
    c. Philip accused Boniface of immorality
i. sent army to aid papal enemies Anagni 1303
    ii. captured pope but soon freed by Italians 
   iii. shock killed Boniface a few months later
  vi. Cardinals fear Philip elected Pope Clement V
    a. Clement yielded to Philip almost every time
    b. claim Philip justified to attack Boniface
F. The Popes At Avignon
 1.Clement archbishop of Bordeaux can't reach Rome
  a. Italian city-states at war with Papal states
   i. journey unsafe
  b. Clement stopped at Avignon waiting for safety
 2. Exile in France continued 70 years(1305-78)
  a. known as the Babylonian Captivity
  b. kept under close eye by king of France
  c.Papacy grew in size&power, prestige diminished
   i.authority rests as bishop of Rome not Avignon
XXIII EASTERN EUROPE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
A. The Slavs
 1. Appear between Vistula and Dnieper rivers
 2. Between 3rd and 6th cent. move south & west
3. like Germans allied at times to Rome
  a. control outer empire 
  b. threatened Constantinople in 7th cent.
B. The Southern Slavs
 1. Heraclius(Byzantium) needs allies for Persia
  a. sends missionaries to Serbs in Greece
  b. asks pope to send missionaries to Croats
 2. Khan Kurt 605-65 creates Great Bulgaria
  a. move in from north under pressure
   i. Part of Hunnish horde?
  b. settle mountainous areas of N.E.Greece
C. Moravia and the Central European Slavs
 1. Slavs between East and West
  a. Moravians fight among selves 
  b. played Franks against Avars & remained free
   i. Franks beat Avars & under Franks in 796
  ii. Learned to play Franks & Byzantines 
 iii. Charlemagne conquered Bohemia & Moravia
  c. Mojimir of Moravia takes Cristianity
   i. Convinced tribal leaders to accept
  ii. Hoped for independent state
d. Rastislav inherits from Mojimir
   i. Keeps franks off balance supporting revolts
  ii. Seeks help from Michael of Constantinople
    a. sent missionaries & influence culture
    b. Slavic culture tied to east
 2. Mission of Constantine(St. Cyril)& Methodius
  a. Constantine an expert on language&philosophy
   i. Methodius (brother) came along to help
  b. develops alphabet for Slavic
   i. Later abandoned for Cyrillic
  ii. Translated Bible & church services into
 iii. Objections of cannon in common tongue
 3. The results of the Mission
  a. Rastislav cannot retain independence
  b. captured by Louis the German 870
   i. Blinded and put in monastery
  c. Sventopolk rules & connects to Roman church
   i. Magyars take over when Sventopolk dies 894  
D. Bohemia
 a. centered in Prague a rich mining district
c.	conquered by Celts & converted to Christianity
c. under Frankish domination 
 d. eventually part of Austrian Empire by 1400s
E. Poland
 1. Polish Society and the German Colonization
  a. location as large plain makes vulnerable 
  b. Piast dynasty under control of Germans
  c. Germans' more advanced 
  d. Polish lords ask German peasants to enter
  e. locators bring in hundreds of peasants
   i. Given village, job as mayor & estate
  f. also encouraged Jews into area for trade
 2. The Reunification of Poland
  a. Kazimierz III enlarged & unified Poland 1340s
  b. codified Polish law 1347
  c. University of Cracow 1364 
F. Lithuania-Poland
 1. The Teutonic Knights
  a. Order of St Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem
  b. subjugate & convert Pomeranians & Prussians
   i. Attacked Baltic coast 1226
  ii. Invited German peasants into area
iii. allowed natives to adopt modern agriculture
  c. claimed monastic life but violent & ruthless
 2. The Lithuanians
  a. King Mindaugas controlled a vast empire 1263
   i. From Baltic to Black Sea
  ii. Believed in ancient pantheon 
    a. saw Christianity as a German Religion
  b. Jagiello become Christians in 1377 
   i. Marries Jadwiga princess of Poland 
    a. unites two countries 
  c. remains united until 1548 
   i. Lost to Russians, Bohemians, Austrians 
  ii. Sweden eventually controls until late 1600s
G. Russia
 a. Vikings sail up Dnieper and settle in Kiev
  i. Threatened Constantinople in 860
 ii. Byzantines sent missions with mixed results
iii. Prince Vladimir I becomes Christian 988
 b. Mongols conquered Russia and demanded taxes
  i. Russian princes subjugated the peasants
   a. needed serfs to pay taxes
c. Prince of Moscow rebelled against Mongols 1378
  i. Beaten and Moscow burnt
 ii. Ivan III (the Great) annexed Novgorod 1500
   a. took over Mongol territory on Volga
   b. by 1600 the largest Empire in Europe
   c. Ivan married Zoe of Byzantium & claims Tzar
 d. Ivan IV the Terrible named Tzar 1533 
  i. Bloodiest tyrant in history
 ii. Murdered son in a rage
iii. Allowed no dissent an absolute monarch
 iv. Russian remained backward rural 
H. Hungary
 1. Huns, Avars and Magyars made this plain home
 2.Stephen 966-1038 imposes Christianity on people
  a. becomes vassal of pope
  b. remained independent under pope for years
 3. No male heirs left country in dispute
 4. A few revivals 
 5. Habsburgs bring into Holy Roman Empire 1500s
XXIV THE LATE MIDDLE AGES
A.Troubles of 14thCent.:Climate,Economy,& Decline
 1. 11th-13th cent. population tippled in Europe
  a. some regions had 1000% population growth
  b. agricultural revolution&trade encourage 
 2. middle of 13th cent. global cooling period
  a. Icelanders in Greenland abandon villages1258
  b. widespread famine affected Europe by 1300
  c. limited supplies triggered inflation
  d. people on fixed incomes especially hurt
   i. civil&religious officials depend on bribes
  ii. corruption rampant&moral authority declined
 3. Bubonic Plague 1348
  a. started in southeast Asia & spread by trade 
  b. named the Black Death 
   i. killed 1/3 rd of Europe in 2 yrs.
  ii. continued in spurts until 1700
  c. conditions improved for a few years 
   i. lack of labor drove labor prices up
  ii. land prices deflated from lack of ownership
 iii. many could buy land of dead peasants
d.	England established price controls
i. Statue of Laborers 1351
  ii. fix price at 1348 levels labor, food& etc.
  e. prices continued to rise in the countryside
   i.peasant&landowner clash over rent&obligation
    a. rents paid in kind or cash
    b.peasant want to pay rent&let out land again
     i. hoped to find work for cash elsewhere
    ii. craft guilds closed to outsiders
  f. inflation&economic turmoil encourage revolts 
B. The Avignon Papacy and the Great Schism
 1. Papal Government at Avignon
  a. Avignon was a papal province in France 
  b. Clement appointed more French cardinals 
  c. they elected French Popes
 2. The Great Schism
  a. Gregory VI 1370-78 returned to Rome
   i. fails to establish Papal authority in city 
  ii. planed on returning to Avignon but died
  b. mob force cardinals to elect Italian Pope
   i. Urban VI 1378-89
b.	Cardinals claim election invalid, duress
i. elect French Robert of Geneva Clement VII
 3. 2 popes & twice the bureaucracy
  a. each claimed the other was a fraud
  b. papal prestige declined & schism scandalous
  c. no one seemed able to stop schism
   i. each pope should resign & elect another 
  ii. no one knew how to call a council to choose
 iii. finally both men died
  iv. two colleges elected two separate popes
    a. Benedict XIII of Avignon (r. 1394-1423)
    b. Gregory XII of Rome (r. 1406-1415)
 4. Council of Pisa met 1409 to discuss problem
  a. 500 prelates deposed both popes 
   i. elect Alexander V (1409-10)
  b. Benedict & Gregory denounced new pope
  c. Alexander died while council in session
  d. elected John XXIII (r. 1410-15)
   i. John declared council ended and dismissed
 5. Council at Constance (1415-17)
  a. the council deposed all three popes
  b. Gregory abdicated awaiting council decision
c. John XXIII was forced to abdicate 
   i. never acknowledged as the legitimate pope
  d. Benedict refused to step down&left to Spain 
   i. claimed to be the true pope until his death
  e. Elected a new pope Martin V (r.1417-31)
   i. claimed power over councils 
    a. slowed conciliar movement
  ii. councils claimed authority over all men
    a. including the pope
 iii.Martin&successive popes controlled councils
  f.weakened by schism papacy lost prestige&power
C. England in the Later Middle Ages
 1. The Hundred Years War, 1st Phase
  a. Edward III claimed to be king of France
   i. Philip VI also claimed thrown
    a. Edward was one degree closer but by female
    b. French court would not recognize Edward
  ii. First part English win several victories
    a.Black Prince Edward(son)captured John of Fr.
	   i.John II son of Philip VI & father of Charles VI
b.Ransom king for land lost by King John Eng.
    c. battles won by English long bow
     i. 15,000 Eng.bowmen killed 60,00 Fr.knights
    d. France in economic ruin, revolts & bandits
 2. England after Edward III
  a. Black Prince died & Richard II king 1377 
  b.Barons command & recruit for the war king pay
  c. Richard exiled barons who oppose him
   i. Seized their lands
  d. Richard's cousin Henry of Lancaster rebelled
   i. Returned from exile&sought aid of Parliament
  ii. Henry IV king and Richard dies in prison
 3. Hundred Years War, 2nd Phase
  a. Henry V unites Barons against France
   i.1st to use siege artillery on walled city
  ii. Henry allies to Duke of Burgundy
 iii. Forces Charles VI to disinherit his son
  iv. Forced Charles' daughter marry Henry's son
   v. son of union Henry VI 9mo.old King Fr.&Eng.
  vi. Charles VII flees to south renounces treaty
 vii. Joan of Arc turns tide 
    a. England captures Joan & burns as witch
    b. later canonized saint 1929
viii. France won back everything except Calais
 4. War of the Roses
  a. Henry VI died 1461 & civil war starts
   i. Duke of York claims over the Lancasters
  b. Henry VII (Tutor) takes throne 1485
   i. Illegitimate grandson of Edward III
  ii. Encourages immigrants from Flanders
    a. starts woolen industry in England
 5. Development of Government Institutions
  a. Justice of the Peace
   i. Edward III instituted to help sheriffs
  ii. Members of Parliament tax collectors&judge
    a.arrest criminals enforce laws report to king
    b. become strongest local government
  b. Parliament gains power 
   i. Edward III & Henry IV asked for succession
  ii. Taxes needed to be approved through
 iii. 1340s House of Commons starts
    a. knights & burgesses of towns form 2nd house
  iv.By 1500 important government acts need assent
    a.Parliament doesn't make policy just approves
c. independent judiciary 
   i. Roots in Magna Carta 
  ii. Built upon precedent 
 iii. Justices claim not political
    a. policy comes from king
  iv. 1340 Edward III tried to fire had revolt 
D. France in the Late Middle Ages
 1. The Defeat of England
  a. Joan of Arc appeared in 1429 from country
   i. Claimed to hear voices
  ii. Reinstituted idea of a holy country
    a. religion and state tied together
    b. people fought for idea of France  
  b. English had offended Duke of Burgundy
   i. Sided with Charles VII against England
 2. The Restoration of Royal Power
  a. country was in ruin after war needed leader
  b. Charles VII levied taxes right away
   i. People supported if order brought
  c. estates general rarely called
   i. power resides in local assemblies
a.	king overcomes any local opposition
E. Spain in the Late Middle Ages
 1. Leon,Aragon,Castile,Navarre&Portugal in north
 2. Emirate of Cordova in south
 3. Aragon & Castile join leaders
  a. Isabella of Castile&Ferdinand of Aragon 1469
  b. Kingdoms separate until death 
  c. Allow local customs and rule
  d.War against Granada&defeat Moors in south 1492
  e. Force conversions in 1492
  f. Maintain Catholic empire with Inquisition
F. Germany in the Late Middle Ages
 1. Swiss gain independence from Habsburgs
  a. train infantry with pikes to stop cavalry
   i. others will hire Swiss guard 
  b. Swiss Confederation of Cantons develop
   i. governed by local burgesses or democracies
 2. Burgundy fights for Belgium & Netherlands
  a. richest and most urbanized part of Europe
  b. fought over until present day
 3. Rise of Habsburgs
  a. lesser nobles elected emperor
i.	did not want to give powerful lords title
b. Counts of Luxembourg gain countries & power
   i. replaced Habsburgs as emperors
  ii. line died out in 1438 and Habsburgs inherit
    a. control Empire for five centuries 
G. Art, Literature, and Science
 1. Art
  a.new heights of Gothic architecture(Flamboyant)
  b. illuminated manuscripts for rich
   i. Book of hours (prayer book) powerful
  ii. Calligraphers & illustrators hired by rich
  c. Portrait painting 1st time in w.Europe
   i. New styles in landscapes 
  d. Flemish school of painting late 14th cent.
   i. 1st to paint in oils 
  ii. Rival early Renaissance in Italy
 2. Literature
  a. stories written instead of narrative poems
  b. Nicolas Oresme translates Aristotle into Fr.
   i. 1325 adds words to French&enriches language
  c. Geoffrey Chaucer writes Canterbury Tales 
c.	religious writing also prevalent
i. Thomas a Kempis Imitation of Christ    a. a guide to 
simple life of devotion
  ii.The Vision of Piers Plowman, William Langland  
    a. written in English not Anglo-Saxon
    b. criticized men of all classes
    c. problems of church to meet spiritual needs
  3. Science
   a. Little know about science during time
   b. Nicolas Oresme considered earth's rotation
   c. Columbus based beliefs on writings of period
   d. Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler built on as well
   e. challenged ideas of Thomas Aquinas
  4. Technology 
   a. stole inventions from east
    i. stirrup, horseshoes & paper
   ii. Gunpowder invented by Chinese
     a. both Europeans and Chinese built cannons
     b. Europeans made improvements
      i. Castles no longer secure 
     c. made improvements in guns & metals
   b. inventions in cylinder pumps to drain mines
   c. Johannes Gutenberg and printing press 1453
    i. movable type because of improved metallurgy
     a. exact copies of molds
   d. advances in sailing lead to exploration 
   
XV. SOUTH AND EAST ASIA CA. A.D. 600-1600
A.India
 1. Divided into 2 sections
  a. north eastern coastal region and the south
  b. The Cholas controlled the coast 844-1279
   i. Governed through brahman assemblies
    a. priest who had dies to peasants & farming
    b. tied local deities to Hindu pantheon
     i. Wrote hymns and created excitement 
    ii. Devotion rises
   iii. lessens appeal of other religions
  c. Political fragmentation symilar to Europe
   i. The Rajputs (Sons of the Kings) 
    a. northern warrior rulers
    b. owed the king's fielty but ruled on own
b.	helped keep north independent from Arabs
1. The Moslem Invasions and the Delhi Sultanate
  a. Arabs annexed Sind (Indus delta region)
   i. Placed under the Umayyad Empire
    a. Hindus made Dhimmis (protected people)
     i. Forced to pay taxes 
  b. 11th cent. Turkic people of Afghanistan raid
   i. Seen as a holy war against pagan people 
  ii. For decades raided and returned home
  c. 1206 Turko-Afghans raid and stay 
   i. Establish the Delhi sultanate
  ii. Destroyed Buddhist temples&learning centers
    a. almost completely disappeared until 1956
  d. Genghis Khan almost invaded in 1221
   i. Mamluk dynasty responded by building army
  ii.refugees flood India bringing education & art
 iii. Persian influence extensive
    a. language used by upper class
  e. Moslem missionaries 
   i. Sufis - mystics varry greatly in personality
    a. some rich, some poor, some warriors etc.
  ii. Most moslems converted in peace not war
a.	lowest Hindu casts converted 
b. Hindu devotion similar to Islamic mysticism
 2. The Mughals
  a. Bakbur 1483-1530 & grandson Akbar 1542-1605
   i. Control dynasty at height
    a. Iranicized Turko-Mongols & Persian culture
  ii. Religious tolerane and reconciliation
    a. stops taxes of Hindus & slaughter of cows
  b. divided their empire up among governors
   i. Mansabdars-military rank governs districts
  ii. Jagirs-support mansabdars (fief)
    a. collect taxes and expenses from land
    b. land under their control is temporary
     i. Not heredity can be redistributed
 iii. No strong lords to rival king
    a. rulers had no interest in best for people
    b. people tied to families & custom 
    c. given much autonomy 
B. Southeast Asia
 1. Mongols ruler Khublai Kan built armada to Java
  a. had little effect after conquest
b.	Burma remained divided 
2. Islam becomes permanate force in region
  a. merchants brought religion to area
  b. conversion slow & uneven but majority by 1500
C. The Cosmopolitan Civilization of China
 1. The Tang Dynasty, 618-907
  a. last age for hereditary aristocracy
   i. Pervious dynasty instituted civil service
    a. kept exams but allowed aristocracy as well
  b. known for being cosmopolitan 
   i. Allowed influence from west, India & arabs
  ii. Sets model for rest of S.W.Asia
 iii. open for trade & scholarship
  iv. Manichean,Nestorians&Zooastrians temples
    a. believes were mostly foreign
   v. Height of Daoism & Buddhism in China
    a. Buddhist temple are mills,oil presses&banks
     i. Some even function as hospitals&theaters
    b.wealthy men avoid taxes by supporting temple
     i. Similar to private chapels in Europe
    ii. Wealthy gain form services of temple&land
  vi.Chinese sculpture reached classical highpoint
c. decline because of greed
   i. rulers took Buddhist lands 
  ii. forced nuns & monks into civil life
 iii. Bandit gangs rampage country
    a. Decline of order leads to discontent
  iv. rebellion spreads and empire falls  
 2. The Song Dynasty, 960-1279
  a. controls only southern half of Tang dynasty
  b. new elite replaces the aristocracy 
   i. Prestige based on literacy & learning
    a. helped to gain office
  ii. Power based on office holding
 iii. Wealth based on land gained from office
  c. civil service exams reach height
   i. Exams done on several levels and locations
  ii. Impartiality and anonymity of examinees
  d. growth in industry&agriculture in 11th cent.
3. The Mongol Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368
  a. Khubilai Khan new capitol to Beijing
   i. not to rely on Chinese employs foreigners
  b. slow to reinstitute exams
i.	Scholars looked to medicine&theater for jobs
4. The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644
  a. expanded borders explored oceans 
  b. developed the novel & short stories
D. Japan
 1. Chinese influenced Japan 
  a. language and religion remained distinct
   i. Shinto
  ii. Chinese characters used for Japanese
  b. emperor retained religious identity
 2. Kamakura & Ashikaga Shogunates
  a. Kamakura became the first Shogun 1185
   i. Name of a village far from capitol Kyoto
  ii. Kept warriors there to for discipline
 iii. Unable to pay with spoils of war
  iv. Needed to fight back the Mongols
  b. Ashikaga family in Kyoto controls throne
   i. Although emperor ruler he becomes a puppet
  ii. Use of Samurai code (knighthood) 
 iii. Cultural blooming occurred
    a. drama, tea masters and Zen aesthetics 
c.	pottery and Japanese gardens 
XVI. THE REVIVAL OF EUROPE
A. The Background of the Renaissance
 1.Plagues led to decline population & depression	
 2. Kings try to control prices & privileges
  a. England, Spain&France build strong monarchies
  b. nobles establish parliaments&control kings
 3. Papacy reclaims power ends conciliar movement
 4. Italy remained open to new ideas
  a. Trouble between Pope&German monarchy
   i.(no central power)
  b. trade with Byzantine&Islamic Empire&Europe
 5. Recovered from plagues & famine quickly
B. The City-States of Northern Italy
 1. International trade central to Italian economy
  a. 1/3rd population of Florence in woolen trade
  b. rich cities soon control smaller nearby towns
 2.class divisions form on economy&social position
  a. merchants & bankers gain new respectability 	
   i. wealthy guilds support hospitals & churches
  b.middleclass=shopkeepers,craftsmen&bourgeoisie
d.	day laborers made up lowest class 
3. struggle between emperor&pope crossed class 
  a. Hohenstaufen supporters known as Gibellines
  b. Papal supporters known as Guelfs 
  c. 13th cent. names remain but struggle changed
   i. struggle over political control of the city
  ii. elections determined political leadership
 iii.challengers promise reform but rarely deliver
  d. occasionally despots gained power by revolt
   i. dictators maintain support by public works
  ii. established public security&equitable taxes
 iii.rarely raise armies,didn't trust armed forces
  iv. hire mercenaries loyal to captains who paid
 4. War and Diplomacy
  a.constantly at war or allied with other nations
   i. sent ambassadors to other courts 
    a. start modern diplomacy
  b. balance of power maintained
   i.Florence,Milan,Venice&PapalStates check other
  c.mid.16thcent. diplomacy used throughout Europe
 5. Milan, Venice & Florence
  a. Milan built on manufacturing & trade
   i.despot Gian Galeazzo Visconti controls 1300s
b. Venice the most stable government in Italy 
   i. established republican constitution
  ii. feudalism never practiced within city
 iii. built on trade with Egypt & Constantinople
  iv. council of merchants run city with Doge
    a. Doge is the head of state
  c. Florence 
   i.republican government repels Milan's invasion
  ii. bankers considered best in world 
    a. textiles finest
 iii. subject to political intrigues&conspiracies
    a. stability 1434-1492 with the Medici family
    b. Cosimo de'Medici1389-1464 son Piero 1416-69
       Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-92)
    c. not actual despots 
     i. ran government through others
    d. strengthened city defenses&patron of arts
    e. support Florence,center Italian Renaissance
    f. allied family to wealthy
     i. two Medici become Queens of France
C. Italian Urban Civilization
1. Cortiers & the self made man
  a. Renaissance man-chivalric virtues&knowledge
   i. strong,courageous,warrior,graceful,& smart
  ii. had characteristics associated with nobility
  b.said to have virtue(both virtuous&successful)
 2. Individualism
  a. wealth dependent on trade & allowed mobility
  b. talent & courage to start out on own valued
 3. Secularism
  a. interest in commerce and leisure important
   i. preoccupied with worldly affairs
  ii. value intelligence over old fashioned ethics
  b. distrust hypocritical clerics
   i. contempt for false spirituality
 4. Humanism
  a. studied classical literature 
   i. to portray highest ideas of human behavior
  ii.honored study as indication of true gentility
  b. rediscovered the liberal arts 
   i. many studied at university
  ii. train men for court not clerics
D. Family Life
 1. men married late to younger women
  a. male heads of household
  b. widows & widowers common
  c. purpose to have children & continue business
 2. women were to be faithful
  a. promote husband by being graceful, beautiful
     & virtuous
   i. discouraged to remarry after husband's death
  b. complications arose from step children 
   i. sometimes children older than wives
  ii. expected to live with illegitimate children 
  c. expected to run household when husband leaves
 3. children
  a. infants sent out to be nursed by a peasant 
   i. up to two years
  ii. problems of alienation when returned to home 
  b. mother cared for child until about seven
  c. father began business education at seven
   i. boys study in boarding school 3-4 yrs
  ii. learn latin & vernacular
iii. study 2-3 yrs accounting&business practices
  iv.apprentice afterward under banker or merchant
   v.girls learn household arts, reading & writing
    a. expected to marry with a dowry 
    b. parents invested at girls birth for dowry
E. The Renaissance
 1. Literature, Philosophy, and Scholarship
  a. drew on classic style of Greeks&Romans
  b. developed the essay & sonnet as well
  c. tried to reconcile Plato with Christianity 
   i.Tomas Aquinas reconciles Aristotle to Christian
  d.Lorenzo Valla 1405-57compares Greek to Vulgate
   i. found several errors
  ii. discovered Donation of Constantine a fake
 2. Social and Political Thought
  a. Niccoló Machiavelli (1469-1527)
   i. combines knowledge of classics w/ politics 
  ii. Florence's ambassador to France
 iii. studied political history at time
  b.The Prince   
i.	shows strengths & weaknesses of constitutions 
ii.stress personal control of one head of state
    a.some believe him a proponent of dictatorship
    b. claimed a constitutional government best
 3. The Arts
  a. architecture tried recapture Roman elements
   i. St. Peters in Rome
  ii. architects,Bramante,Michelangelo&Bernini
  b.painting of frescos w/ sense of volume&emotion
   i. no longer adjunct of architecture
    a. had its own expression
  c.painters create works on easels hung on walls
   i. studied human anatomy & proportion
  ii. Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519)The Last Supper  d. 
classical models used in painting&sculpture
   i. Donatello 1368-1466 
    a. 1st free standing nude since Rome
  ii. Michelangelo(1475-1564 David&Sistine Chapel
  e.human qualities,character&emotions dramatized
   i.Judas last supper,Moses+Golden Calf,Creation
  f. Science advanced from arts as well
ii.	physicians share & learn from artists
ii. perspective helps study of mathematics
 iii. astronomy - effects life & health? 
    a. new instruments used to study stars
F. Economic Growth in Northern Europe
 1. wealth based on agriculture & mineral deposits 
  a. rivers made movement of goods easy & cheap
 2. Capitalistic enterprises start in 15th cent.
  a. wealth invested in business & make more money
   i. rarely done before, buy goods to resell
  b. created labor pools from country & towns
  c.agricultural changes as farmland to raise wool
   i. social unrest in England farmers turned out 
  ii. Sir Thomas More (chancellor) 
    a. claimed it created "vagabonds"
 iii. England was growing again in population
    a. towns&governments create workhouses&prisons
  d. financial power began to shift from Italy
   i. Goes north with capitalism
  ii.Germany,Austria,Antwerp,Lyons&Amsterdam-banks
G. Political Consolidation and Centralization
 1. France
a. Charles VII 1422-61
   i. known as the well served for able assistants
  b. gained tax on property from Estates General
  c.Louis XI (1461-83)spider for webs of intrigue
   i. kicked last of English troops out of France
  d. Charles VIII 1483-98reassert claim to Naples
   i. heir of Charles of Anjou and invaded Italy
  ii. Spain claims also&fights France&wins Naples
 2. Spain
  a. Ferdinand of Aragon&Isabella of Castile 1469
  b. pushed to Granada reconquered Peninsula 1492 
  c. ready to expand out and trade with China 
 3. England 
  a. Henry Tudor (Henry VII 1845-1509)
   i. ended War of the Roses
  b. eliminated all rivals to throne, kept peace  
  c. placed loyal men in thinned aristocracy, 
   i. restored royal revenues
  d. Henry VIII (1509-47)inherited united kingdom 
   i. married Catherine of Aragon 
iii.	older brother Arthur invalid&Papal annulment
iii. only one daughter Mary & dynastic crisis
  iv.Pope refused divorce in 1532
    a. Henry passes the Act of Supremacy
    b. King is the head of the church in England
   v. Thomas More refused to follow king & retired
    a. tried for treason and beheaded 1535			   
 4. The Consolidation of Royal Power
  a.monarchs overcame nobility&church by 16th cent. 
   i. nobility weakened by war or disease
  ii. some can't afford new military technology	
    a. cannons & small guns
 iii. kings created new bureaucracies 
    a. hope to replace the role of nobles in court
    b. representative assemblies gained power 
     i. kings needed support without nobles
    ii. 14th cent. wars kept assemblies useful
      a. 15th cent. declined
   iii. Henry VIII used to establish rule&policies
      a. England maintained use of assemblies
      b. rest of Europe assemblies lost power
c.	power over church grows slowly
i. power to tax clergy
      ii.later power to appoint important positions 
	   a. England&Act of Supremacy 1534 
         i. complete control over church
 
XVII.RELIGIOUS REFORM&REVOLUTION WESTERN CHRISTENDOM
A. Efforts to Reform the Church
 1. Late Medieval Reform Movements
  a. problems with church Avignon& Great schism
   i.people stop rely on church spiritual needs
  b. Brethren of Common Life flourished low lands 
   i. Support education&devotion through mystical
  ii. remained orthodox yet suspect
  c. John Wycliffe (1320-84) 
   i. believed church corrupted by wealth 
  ii. state should take over control
 iii. encouraged followers to translate bible 
    a. had fellow monks read it publicly
  iv. followers started reforming as well
    a. this led to revolts
     i. Great Peasant Rebellion of 1381 
    b. although defeated radicals went underground 
i. power to tax clergy
      ii.later power to appoint important positions 
	   a. England&Act of Supremacy 1534 
         i. complete control over church
 
XVII.RELIGIOUS REFORM&REVOLUTION WESTERN CHRISTENDOM
A. Efforts to Reform the Church
 1. Late Medieval Reform Movements
  a. problems with church Avignon& Great schism
   i.people stop rely on church spiritual needs
  b. Brethren of Common Life flourished low lands 
   i. Support education&devotion through mystical
  ii. remained orthodox yet suspect
  c. John Wycliffe (1320-84) 
   i. believed church corrupted by wealth 
  ii. state should take over control
 iii. encouraged followers to translate bible 
    a. had fellow monks read it publicly
  iv. followers started reforming as well
    a. this led to revolts
     i. Great Peasant Rebellion of 1381 
    b. although defeated radicals went underground 
B.The Papacy's Triumph over Conciliar Movement
 1.Council of Constance ends Schism but no reforms
  a.Martin V 1417-31ends council before any reform
  b. demanded council every 5 yrs. 
   i. Martin ignored decree
  c. Church lost power in England, France & Spain
   i. kept power to appoint & tax in Germany 
 2. Renaissance Papacy
  a. Nicholas V 1447-sacking of Rome by Spain 1527
  b. many popes humanists & artist, well educated
  c. Nicholas V (1447-55)founded Vatican library 
  d.Julius II 1503-13 started rebuild St. Peter's
 3. Only 2 nonItalian pope's elected since Schism
  a. 1522 & 1979 
  b. papacy embroiled in Italian politics&culture
C. The Problems of the Renaissance Church
 1. most Bishops,noble birth appointed for service
  a. not known for piety or administrative ability
  b. paid substantial part of salary to appointer
  c. incentives to take as much as possible
i.	in some cases held a number of positions 
2. priests ignorant and immoral
  a. appointed by local lords 
  b. paid taxes to lords & bishops 
   i. tended to be as corrupt as supervisors
  ii. priest started charging for services
    a.  baptism, marriages & burials
 3. monasteries lost prestige as well
  a. shortages of priests forced monks to do work 
  b. wrestled money from congregations 
   i. similar to parish priests
  c. sought power&wealth living rich secular lives
 4. Selling indulgences
  a. a remission of the temporal penalty for sin
  b. confess sins & do penance 
   i. prayers to pilgrimages or crusades
  ii.depends on severity & condition of sinner
  c.commuting penance for money common in mid ages 
  d. 14th cent. "treasury of merits" 
   i. extra credits given by popes 
  e.Sixtus IV 1471-84 power to free from purgatory
   i. selling of indulgences boomed 
ii.	money going for war, and ostentatious living
f.people see church selling salvation for profit
D. Responses to Corruption
 1. Criticism & Reform of Church in 15th  Century
  a.pious&conscientious cleric difficult defending
  b. careers in business,politics&art better
   i. More ethical than church jobs
  c.low class practice questionable popular piety
   i. cults of the saints & veneration of relics
  d. Savonarola a dominican preached reform
   i. claimed church divinely instituted 
    a. could never be reformed nor does it need to
  ii. but secular & religious leaders grew corrupt 
 iii. burnt at take for heresy
 2. Christian Humanism
  a. European scholars interested Church authors
  b. studied new testament & early church fathers
  c. try to revive original texts of Christianity
   i. Bible only read with aid of commentaries
  ii.cumbersome&full of jargon lacked simple truth
  d.called for translation Bible into vernacular
i.	believed in spiritual capacity of all men
3. Erasmus of Rotterdam (1469-1536)
  a. believed knowledge would help save the church
  b. produced first critical edition New Testament
  c. hoped to make translations based on text
  d. too intellectual for general population
E. Luther's Revolt (1483-1546)
 1. 95 theses submitted on Wittenberg door 
  a. outraged over indulgences for St. Peter's 
   i. collected by Tetzel a Dominican friar 
  ii. 1/2 went to archbishop of Mainz & Fugger bank 
  b.Theses printed and debated throughout Germany
 2.Conflict over church law&obedience verses Faith
  a.Luther sought spiritual solace though penances
  b. found no comfort or security in ceremony
  c.made parallel between Jewish law & church
  d. claimed man is saved by Faith 
   i. Roman epistle by Paul
 3. Declared indulgences worthless
  a. sales dropped in Germany
  b. Dominicans - chief sellers of indulgences
   i. denounce Luther
c. Pope Leo X (1513-21) condemns Luther 
   i. Luther denies authority of Pope
 4. Diet of Worms April 1521- Emperor Charles V
  a. summons Luther 
  b. Luther defends self with scripture&conscience
  c. promised protection & allowed to return 
   i. Frederick of Saxony protects
  d. remained in Wittenberg until death
   i. married former nun & had 6 children
F. Luther's Work
 1. 3 closely related principles evident in work
  a. Salvation through faith not good works
  b. Bible is the ultimate authority
  c. Priesthood of all believers 
 2. Translated the Bible into German 1534
 3. Appealed to German Nationalism as well
  a. Princes eager to confiscate church property
   i. joined Luther
  b. merchants&business men unhappy with church
   i. Don't have to pay taxes or obey church laws
d.	pious men shocked by church corruption join
4. did not intend to start another church 
  a. Luther only wanted to reform the church
  b. only 2 sacraments instead of 7
  c.German not Latin&congregation participate more
G. The Spread of Lutheranism
 1. printing press (Gutenberg) allows spread 
  a. 1523 Luther publishes 400 books & pamphlets
 2. Humanists supported return to original texts
  a. now support Luther
  b. many of them were reformers as well
 3. Luther's followers known as protestants 1529
  a. presented a protest at imperial diet(worms)
 4. Lutheranism established as state religion 
  a. Lutheran churches exempt from papal taxes
  b. peasants joined movement but lost interest
   i.used beliefs for Peasants' Rebellion 1524-5
  ii. put down & lost support
 5. Charles V did not stop Lutheranism right away
  a. warred with France until 1547 
   i. attacked Luther's supporters afterward
  ii. Luther died 1546
b.civil war to 1555&Religious Peace of Augsburg
   i.free cities & principalities choose religion
  ii. rulers of principality decided for people
    a. if you disagreed you moved somewhere else
H. Other Protestant Movements
 1. Bucer and Zwingli
  a. Martin Bucer of Stasbourg (1491-1551) 
   i. Dominican friar left&married nun like Luther
  ii.excommunicated 1523 tried to reform church
    a. introduced changed in liturgy
    b. hoped to reconcile Lutheranism&Catholicism
    c. hoped to reconcile new Protestant movements
  b. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) a Swiss scholar
   i. became people's priest in Zurich 1518
  ii.1522 some citizens violat Lent dietary laws
    a. Council appointed commission to investigate
    b.Zwingli claims conscious superior church law
 iii. 1523 Zurich city council call public debate
    a. Zwingli prepared 67 conclusions
     i. on doctrine morals & church discipline
iii.	questions about painting&stain glass arouse
a. Zwingli want slow removal, crowd inpatient
    b. 1524 striped church & whitewashed walls
    c. city council did away with mass altogether
     i.Zwingli read scripture around last supper
 2. Calvinism 
  a. John Calvin 1509-64 born in Noyon France
   i. studied at Paris Univ.
  ii. became a Protestant & moved to Basel 
  b. visited Geneva in 1536 & stayed 
   i. help Guillaume Farel
   i. Farel converted town to Protestantism 
  c.1538 catholic majority elected to city council 
   i. Farel & Calvin forced to leave
  d. 1541 council invited Calvin back
   i. He remains there to death in 64
  e. Geneva became a theocracy governed by clergy
  f. Predestination central to beliefs
   i. sovereignty of God 
  ii. denies wining salvation by good works
  g. 1559 Calvin established the academy in Geneva 
i.	1,500 students gathered from all over Europe
ii. studied law, medicine & theology
 iii. helped spread Calvin's religious views
  iv. systematic theology adopted by reformers
  h. Believed in local leadership of the church
   i. each church run by ministers & elders
    a. presbyters
  ii.regularly met at councils with other leaders
    a. synods
 iii. resistant to secular control & independent 
  iv. became dominant church in Geneva & Scotland
    a. influence Puritans in England, 
       Huguenots-France & Dutch Reformed church
I. The Radicals 
 1. radical movement away from organized religion
  a. claimed true church is voluntary association
   i. no leaders but all believers
 2. Anabaptists
  a. claimed baptism is outward sign of belief
   i. most be done as an adult decision
  ii. decried as rebaptisers (anabaptists)
  b. believe simple liturgy&literal interpretation
c. refused to take an oath
   i. won't serve in army or accept public office
  d. persecuted by protestants & Catholics 
 3. influence others by 17th century 
  a. Become modern Baptist (adult baptism)
  b. Congregationalists autonomy of congregations
  c. Quakers ("inner light" of believer)
J. Anglicanism
 1. Henry VIII 
  a. confiscated monasteries 
   i. sold to pay debts
 2. Edward IV continued church
  a. Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury
   i. wrote Book of Common Prayer 1549
    a. translated Catholic liturgy to English
    b. tried to satisfy both Catholics&Protestants
     i. neither happy 
    c.revised many times becomes Anglican standard
 3. Bloody Mary
  a. tried to return country to Catholicism
  b. married Philip II of Spain
b.	English clung to Protestantism as patriotic
4. Elisabeth 
  a. moderate policies but needed claim to throne
  b. allowed Catholics as long as they were quiet
  c. stopped Catholics from holding office
K. Catholic Reformation & Counter Reformation
 1. Catholics see only reformation from within
  a. saw Protestants as rebels
 2. The counter reformation
  a. used torture & imprisonment to turn wayward
 3. Order of Divine Love&Brethren of Common Life
  a. designed to encourage simple life of laymen
  b. also to reform clergy
 4. Council of Trent 1548, 1551 & 1562
  a. Salvation from God alone
  b. good works demonstrated faith & God's mercy
  c. authority in the Bible and tradition
  d. called for seminaries to train clergy
  e. clerics cannot hold multiple offices
 5. Society of Jesus 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
  a. order of militant knights for Christ
  b. swore oath of allegiance to pope
c. spies into protestant kingdoms for pope
  d. run best schools in Europe
 6. Imprimatur started throughout Europe
 7. Inquisition spreads to rest of Europe
L. The Results of the 
 1. divided Christendom into two camps
 2. stops trend towards secularism
XVIII. THE AGE OF DISCOVERY
A. America  
 1. 50 million to 300 million in Americas
 2. Theories of Arrival 
  a. 11,00 -  9,000 BC?
  b. Land Bridge Theory 
  c. Other theories 
  d. evidence
   i. Clovis, NM 11,500  (Clovis points)
  ii.  Monte Verde, Chile  12,500 years ago
 iii. 14,250 Medocraft Rock Shelter in PN? 
 3. Hunters and Gatherers
a. stone age technology
  b. some knowledge of metals & agriculture
  c. Domesticated AnimalsB. Civilizations 1. Incas  AD 
1438-1541 2. Meso America  a. Olmec   1000 BC to 400 AD
  b. Mayan   AD 250 - 900
  c. Aztec   AD 1428-1521  3. Mound Builders   AD 900-1450  
a. Mississippi  b. no records  c. Cahokia (near St. Louis) 
4. Iroquois   a. Hiawatha (1570s)   i. Confederacy5 tribes
C. First European Discoverers
 1. Lief Ericson 1000AD
 2. Northern European Fishermen 
  a. Continental Shelf
  b. Indian reactions and legends
D. Marco Polo and Trade with the East (1291)
 1. Merchant Class and Mercantilism
 2. Muslims and Middle East
  a. Control and Tax
  b. Crusades 1096-1270?
E. Portugal  (1385 becomes a nation)
 1. Early Advantages
  a. Ptolemy (150 A.D.) (round Earth)
  b. Triangular sails 
  c. King Henry the Navigator (1440s)  d. 
Quadrant(1450s)latitude,sun higher at equator 
  e. Trade along African coast (1460s)
f. Map World 
 2. Discoverers
  a. Barthaleme Dias (1487) Mossel Bay
  b. Vasco Da Gama (1497)
F. Spain
 1. Christopher Columbus
  a. Rejected
  b. 3,000 miles to East?
  c. 90 men& 3 ships Pinta, Niña, & Santa Maria
  d. after 70 days reaches San Salvador
  e. Reef off Hispaniola, Santa Maria sunk, 
   i. 40 men left at fort
  f. Columbus on Niña and storm
G. Dividing up the Spoils
 1. Portuguese fears of competition
  a. Africa
  b. Columbus a fake?
2. Spain's claims
 3. Pope and Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
H. Spanish Reasons for Exploration
 1. Glory
  a. Reconquista AD 750-1492
  b. land
  c. Encomienda
   i. horses, cattle, & sheep introduced
  ii. disease and germ pool theory
 iii. slavery introduced             
 2. Gold 
  a. Silver
  b. mining concessions
  c. royal 1/5 th
 3. God
  a. Civilize
  b. Barthome de las Casas 
c. Cultural conflict - Corn Mothers & Berdache
 4. Myth
  a. Ponce de Leon
   i. Fountain of Youth
  ii. El Dorado
 iii. Florida & St. Augustine (1565)
  b. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
   i. 7 Cities of Cibiola
  ii. Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado
 iii. Grand CanyonI. Spanish Caste System
 1. Developed from Reconquista
 2. Problems with Emigration