World History since 1685

World Civilization 1685 to Present

I. Western European Colonization
	A. Marco Polo and Trade with the East (1291)
		1. Merchant Class and Mercantilism
		2. Muslims and Middle East
			a. Control and Tax
			b. Crusades 1096-1270?
	B. Portugal  (1385 becomes a nation)
		1. Early Advantages
			a. Ptolemy (150 A.D.) (round Earth)
			b. King Henry the Navigator (1440s)
			c. Map World
			d. Triangular sails
			e. Quadrant (1450s) latitude, sun higher near equator
			f. Trade along African coast (1460s)
		2. Discoverers
			a. Barthaleme Dias (1487) Mossel Bay
			b. Vasco Da Gama (1497)
	C. Spain
		1. Internal Problems 
			a. Marriage (1469)
				1. Ferdinand of Aragon
				2. Isabel of Castile
			b. Grenada and expulsion of Jews (1492)
		2. Christopher Columbus
			a. Rejected
			b. 3,000 miles to East?
			c. Isabel gives 90 men & 3 ships Pinta, Niña, & Santa Maria
			d. after 70 days reaches San Salvador
			e. Reef off Hispaniola, Santa Maria sunk, 40 men left at fort
			f. Columbus on Niña and storm
	D. Dividing up the Spoils
		1. Portuguese fears of competition
			a. Africa
			b. Columbus a fake?
		2. Spain's claims
		3. Pope and Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
	E. Spanish Reasons for Exploration
		1. Glory
			a. Reconquista
			b. land
			c. Incomienda
				i. horses, cattle, & sheep introduced
			    ii. disease and germ pool theory
			   iii. slavery introduced
		2. Gold 
			a. Silver
			b. mining concessions
			c. royal 1/5 th
		3. God
			a. Civilize
			b. Barthome de las Casas
			c. Black Legend
		4. Myth
			a. Ponce de Leon
				i. Fountain of Youth
			    ii. El Dorado
			   iii. Florida & St. Augustine (1565)
			b. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
				i. 7 Cities of Cibiola
			    ii. Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado
			   iii. Grand Canyon
	F. Spanish Caste System
		1. Developed from Reconquista
		2. Problems with Emigration

II. ENGLAND MOVES WEST
	A. Giovanni Caboto (1497)
		1. New Foundland
		2. Henry VII (£10 the miser)
	B. Religious Delays
		1. Early Reformation
			a. John Wycliffe (England 1350c.)
			b. John Huss (Prague 1400c.)
			c. Martin Luther (Germany 1500c.)
			d. Henry VIII
				i. English Reformation
			    ii. Catherine of Aragon
			   iii. Edward
			    iv. Bloody Mary
				v. Elisabeth
					a. compromises with Anglican Church all are members
	C. Political Delays and the Conquest of Ireland (1565)
		1. France, Spain and Portugal
		2. Pagan beliefs
		3. Irish rights?
		4. Model for conquest
	D. Elisabeth
		1. Francis Drake (1578) (followed Magellan's route of 1519-22)
		2. Sir Humphrey Gilbert 1583
			a. Newfoundland
			b. 2 yrs. 200 people 
				i. rocky and cold
			c. Gilbert is lost at sea during a storm
		3. Walter Raleigh
			a. Roanoke (1585)
				i. Indian troubles
			    ii. colonist kill Chief Wingina (beheaded like Irish)
			   iii. Drake rescued before retaliation
			b. Roanoke II (1587)
				i. John White
			    ii. Chesapeake and Capt. Simon Ferdinando
			   iii. Elinor and Ananias parent Virginia Dare
			    iv. White returns to England with Ferdinando
				v. Armada (1589)
			    vi. "Croaton" ?
	E. Jamestown
		1. Virginia Company Charter (1607)
		2. The Starving Time
		3. Tobacco
			a. Indentured Servants
			b. High Mortality
			c. 1619
				i. head right system
			    ii. virtuous women
			   iii. house of Burgesses
					a. 2 representatives
					b. 10 settlements
			    iv. 1st slave ship (Dutch)
		4. Competition with Native Americans
			a. Allies die 
				i. Pocohontas dies (1617)
			    ii. Chief Powhatan dies (1618)
			b. Opechancanough new chief of Chesapeake (1622)
			c. Virginia Co. goes bankrupt defending colony (1624)
	F. Puritanism
		1. Unhappy with Reforms in English Church
		2. Social unrest and increased Religious participation
		3. opposed priesthood and monarchy - equality of believers
		4. James I
			a. divine rights of kings
			b. closes House of Burgesses
			c. a number of Puritans in Parliament
			d. Persecuted 
		5. Charles I (1625)
			a. banned Parliament from 1629 to 1640
			b. continues policies of his father
		6. Pilgrims seek Religious Freedom in Amsterdam (1608)
			a. also known as separatists, wanted to leave Church of England
		7. North America and London Co. (1620)
			a. Charter for rocky ground of northern Cape Cod
			b. Mayflower Compact
			c. 60 non puritans sent
			d. Great Puritan Migration (1630) Puritans outnumber Pilgrims
			e. Massachusetts Bay Colony (1691)
		8. Puritan beliefs
			a. all powerful unknowable vengeful God
			b. man is depraved
			c. extreme predestination - some elects others damned
			d. covenant theology - mutually binding contract
			e. signs demonstrate the elect
				i. successful in calling
			    ii. conversion experience & expected from 15 to 17 yrs. old
			   iii. pious (devout) & self critical
					a. Day of Doom, Michael Wiggelsworth a self reflection
		9. Puritan towns and society
			a. selectmen and town structure
				i. layout and importance 
			b. church and state united
				i. church leaders run government - electmen
			    ii. only male church members vote - meetings
			   iii. religious crimes punished
			    iv. dissident religious opinion not tolerated
			c. Education
				i. first printing press in new world
			    ii. first compulsory elementary and secondary schools
			   iii. first college, Harvard (1636)
	G. The Commonwealth
		1. Charles I raised taxes, increased power disbanded Parliament
		2. Civil War (1642)
		3. Cromwell and roundheads v. Charles and Cavaliers
		4. Charles I executed (1649) but family escapes to France
		5. Oliver Cromwell, Lord High Protector
			a. good administrator
			b. war against Dutch and wins their positions in North America
			c. Expands into Jamaica and richness of Caribbean
			c. three sons unsuccessful
	H. The Restoration
		1. Charles II back on the condition he will not ban Parliament
		2. New Englanders disillusioned in efforts to reform by good example
	I. Puritan Decline
		1. 2nd generation not as dedicated
			a. preachers called Jeremiads & sermons on glories of the past
		2. Infant Baptism of member's children only
		3. worried grandparents
		4. "Half-way Covenant" formed at synod of 1662
			a. baptism of children who are baptized not just members
			b. 1/2 members could not take communion
			c. 1/2 members could not vote in church matters
			d. eventually they vote in civil matters
			e. leads to decline of church

III. OTHER COUNTRIES EXPERIMENT WITH COLONIES IN AMERICA
	A. France
		1. Northwest Passage
		2. Samuel De Champlain
			a. Acadia (1604) (Nova Scotia)
			b. Quebec (1608)
		3. French Fur Companies
			a. Indians
			b. Settlers
		4. Louis XIV 1638-1715 reign started when 4 yrs old.
			a. His mother Anne of Austria & Cardinal Mazarin till 1661
				i. "I am the State"
			    ii. 1685 revoked Edict of Nantes & persecuted Huguenots
			   		a. around 200,000 left France
					b. many of richest, industrious & educated
			   iii. the Court at Versailles
			b. Expanding colony and Preparing for War
				i. Larger Navy
					a. more timber
					b. more fish for slaves in south
			    ii. Furs for gold
			c. Expand and explore
				i. Louis Jolliet & Fr. Jacques Marquette (Jesuit) 1670s
					a. Mississippi and Missouri Valleys
					b. Encircle English
			    ii. Bring technology to interior
	B. The Netherlands comprised both Holland and Belgium 
		1. gained independence from Spain late 16th centrury
		2. East India Co. (1609)
			a. Ceylon, North Eastern Brazil, Cape Cod and Sumatra
			b. drove out Portuges from S.E. Asia
				i. controled spice islands (the Moluccas) S.E. Indonesia
			c. gained exclusive rights to trade with Japan
			d. bases in India China and S.Africa
		3. Sailing up Hudson River 
		4. Ft. Nassau (1614) (Albany)
		5. New Amsterdam (1624)
			a. Peter Minuit bought Island of Manhattan
			b. only 1/2 Dutch, rest primarily German, French or Scandinavian
			c. 18 different languages spoken
			d. primary interest in trade
				i. 18 taverns only one church
			    ii. back Iroquois in fight against French backed Hurons
		
	C. Swedish
		1. Small colony in lower Delaware Valley (1638)
		2. Controlled Fur Trade as well
		3. launched attack against Dutch
		4. Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant
			a. Defeats Swedish and forces them to join Dutch (1655)
			b. while Dutch at war, Algonkians attack and weaken Dutch
	D. English at war with Dutch 1650-1675
		1. While Dutch are weak the English attack and take colonies
		2. Retained Curacao & Tobago in west indies and Surinam
	E. Spain
		1. Charles II 1665-1700 last Hapsburg King incompetent & neglectful
		2. Spain's Colonies and problems with the Indians
			a. Popé's Rebellion 1680
	F. Portugal
		1. 1640 John IV of Braganza kicked out Spanish
		2. loosing power to English and Dutch
		3. Brazil treated as equal in empire, not a colony
	
	G. Holy Roman Empire
		1. Thirty years war 1618-48 
		2. Divided up by German and Austrian princes
		3. Frederick William pulled Prussia together from ruins
		4. Prussian nobility (Junkers) helped establish absolutism there
	H. Russia
		1. Peter the Great took control 1689 from regent sister Sophia 
		2. 1697 tour of western Europe
		3. Returned and supressed revolt of Royal Guards in 1698
		4. Westernize and cntroled boyars

IV. ASIA AND AFRICA ON THE EVE OF COLONIAL EXPANSION
	A. India
		1. Mughal rule for three centuries from 1527 w/Babur(1/2turk1/2mongal)
		2. Hamayun (driven out then reconquor with Persian army)
		3. Akbar (tolerant with Hindu & Muslim officials)
		4. Shah Jahan (2 capitols at Agra and Delhi)
		   (Taj Mahal at Agra for Mumtaz Mahal died in childbirth)
		5. Aurangzeb (r.1658-1707) absolutist later on
			a. tried to crush all independent states in India
			b. lost support of allies and weakened state
			c. Allowed French and English to set up East India Co.
	B. China
		1. 1644 starts the Manchu or Ch'ing Dynasty
			a. Absolutists (forbade interracial marriage forced
			   chinese to shave forhead & wear que like Manchurians
			b. Civil Service exams
		2. Portugese raided Chinese ports but given base on Macao
			a. restricted all foreigners
	C. Japan
		1. Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1867) controled Japan through 
		   military power, kept Emperor secluded & claimed divinity
		2. Let Europeans in to trade and missionize til 1637 revolt
		   (peasant revolt led to Christian revolt and persecution)
		3. limited trade with west but government could not control
	D. Africa
		1. Coastal states gained power and wealth from European trade
		2. Gold, Slave, Ivory Coasts lost control to European traders
		3. Portugese lost influence to Dutch
		4. Islamic revival in 17th century and

V. SLAVERY
	A. One of oldest institutions, other civilizations
	B. Association with race
		1. African slave market developed through Moorish and Arab Traders
		2. Mediterranean trade
	C. African Market for Slaves Established 
	D. Indians died in Caribbean after enslavement
		1. Sugar
			a. tried in Islands off Africa by Portuguese
			b. Spain and Portugal both used slaves to grow sugar
	E. Holland, Portugal, Spain & England all competed for slave market
	F. In English Colonies
		1. Same as indentured servants (1618 Dutch slaves)
		2. little or no tradition, worked along side servants
		3. grew tobacco & rice but not much cotton (until 1793)
		4. more slaves than indentured servants after last 1/4 of 17th cent.
			a. free property in America
			b. conditions in Europe not as bad
			c. Religious persecution not as bad
			d. English merchants brought down price of slaves
			e. Bacon's rebellion 1676
	G. Triangular Trade
		1. Slaves
		2. Sugar Cane
		3. Rum 
		4. Rice, Gold and other variations
	H. Progressive restrictions on African Americans
		1. Indentured servants 
			a. served a contract for a number of years
			b. married whom they choose
			c. children free
			d. own land
			e. move around freely
		2. Restrictions begin
			a. 1640 virginia colony forbade Afro-Americans firearms
			b. 1660s miscegenation viewed as social outrage
			c. 1660s many start believing in perpetual bondage for Blacks
	I. Resistance
		1. Rebel with violence
		2. Work slow downs and feigned sickness
		3. Sabotage
		4. Run Away
		5. Commit suicide
	J. Escape Societies
		1. Pernambuco
		2. Haiti (1791-1804 independence movement)
		3. Indian nations, Seminoles

VI. THE ENLIGHTENMENT
	A. Ideas Start in Europe
	B. Ideas start from Reformation but Challenge Religious Reforms
		1. Education for Bible reading leads to other works
	C. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) believed faith and knowledge different
		1. Regligion and science should remain separate
		2. experimentation leads to greater truths
	D. René Descartes	
		1. God created two kinds of reality, mind and matter
		2. Man has mind the rest is matter
	E. Enlightenment or Age of Reason
	F. Rationalization Key word
		1. Human mind can solve all problems
		2. Voltaire (1694-1778) (Francois Marie Arouet)
			a. father of the Enlightenment
			b. Exiled to England during Glorious Revolution
			c. Saw events from French point of view  
			d. brought back practical empirical reasoning to France
			d. Noted how people limited king in evil but allowed to do good
			e. Candide satire & contempt for aristocracy, religious leaders
		3. Isaac Newton Principia Mathematica (1687)
			a. laws of gravity on earth and space
			b. rejects idea of divine intervention in nature
		4. John Locke, English philosopher
			a. Essay Concerning Human Understanding
			b. Tabula Rasa theory
			c. society could change
			d. using reason people could better themselves & improve society
			e. ideas including religion are acquired by investigation
	G. American Enlightened Thinkers
		1. Benjamin Franklin
			a. publisher of Poor Richard's Almanac
			b. scientist 
				i. pot bellied stove
			    ii. bifocals
			   iii. Experiments and Observations on Electricity (1751)
			c. established the first abolition society in U.S. 1775
		2. Cotton Mather, Boston clergyman
			a. noted effects of inoculation for small pox
			b. 15% victims died
			c. 3% of inoculated died
			d. urged congregation to inoculate against disease
	H. Enlightenment and Religion
		1. Believed the best evidence of God was the Harmony of Nature
			a. God is rational 
		2. If Bible conflicts with reason, People should follow Reason
		3. Deism - Once God created a perfect world he no longer interfered
			a. Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin both Deists
	I. Religious Reaction in 13 colonies
		1. Ministers felt threatened
		2. People profess Christianity but believe in Rationalism
			a. disbelieve religious fanatics
		3. The First Great Awakening 1720-1760
			a. Congregational minister Jonathan Edwards
				i. 1734 Northampton, Massachusetts
			    ii. revivals
			   iii. Diphtheria Epidemic 1/10 children ? 16 N.H-Penn.
			    iv. 1741 "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
			b. George Whitfield
				i. fiend of Wesleys in seminary
			    ii. crossed social boundaries
			   iii. 30,000 at one revival
			    iv. signs and wonders, healings
				v. membership increases (in a Conn. church 630 to 3,217) 
			    vi. after revival 1/5 of all colonists are born again
			c. John and Charles Wesley
				i. prayer groups in seminary
			    ii. in colonies led revival
			   iii. noticed lack of ministers
			    iv. filled need rather than follow Anglican Church policy
				v. break from Anglicans to start Methodist Church
			d. Division of "Old" and "New" light churches
				i. ministers with no spirit
			    ii. churches split and ministers left denominations
			e. Colonists start questioning authority
				i. Baptists in New England separate from Congregationalist
			    ii. Congregationalist supported by taxes in Conn. and Mass.
			   iii. "Old" light refused "New" lights to start
			    iv. Taxes and Tithes still go to "Old" light churches
				v. Forbid revivalists to preach
			f. Afro-Americans encouraged in "New" light churches
				i. some believe they had no soul
			    ii. New lighters cross social boundaries.
			g. New Universities
				i. Before Harvard(1636) William & Marry(1693) & Yale(1701)
			    ii. Presbyterians - College of New Jersey 1747 (Princeton)
			   iii. Baptists - College of Rhode Island 1764 (Brown)
			    iv. Dutch Reformed - Queen's College 1766 (Rutgers)
				v. Eleazar Wheelock 1769 Dartmouth College for
				   missionaries to Native Americans
			    vi. Anglicans - King's College 1757 (Columbia)
			   vii. College of Philadelphia (University of Pennsylvania)
				   1st secular college in colonies allows any male entry
			h. New light preachers 
				i. Tolerated one another
			    ii. Preached in each others churches only requirement was
				   belief in Jesus and repentance
			i. Questioning Authority & Rights, helps to start revolution
VII. SEVEN YEARS WAR (1756-1763)
	A. Great War for Empire, French and Indian War or Seven Years War
		1. involved almost every section of the globe,
			a. Fought in Europe, Africa, India, the Philippines, the
			   Caribbean and North America. 
			b. English allied to Prussians
			c. French allied to Austria and Spain.
		2. Started in North America
			a. By middle of 1700s English expansion ran into the French
				i. 1740s Pennsylvania fur traders set up posts up Ohio R.
			    ii. George Croghan, Irishman led group to trade with
				   Miami and Huron.
			   iii. In 1748 he built fort a fort at Pickawillany deep
				   within Miami territory in Western Ohio area.
			    iv. Virginia land speculators , Ohio Co. and Loyal Land
		 		   Co. tried to sell land to settlers in Ohio Valley.
			b. French retaliated and attacked fort ran English off.
			c. French built more forts from Lake Erie along Penn. line
		3. Pennsylvania chose to ignore action
		4. Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie 
			a. investor in Ohio Company
			b. dispatched young surveyor, warn French trespassing on VA.
				i. George Washington went to Fort Le Boeuf in fall 1753
			    ii. returned with message French wanted all Ohio Valley.
			c. Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel
				i. gave him 150 men to take fort at three rivers.
			    ii. Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers make the Ohio.
			d. Washington inexperience and illequipped
				i. out numbered four to one
			    ii. surprised a French reconnaissance party. 
			   iii. defeated small force but whole French army came
			    iv. withdrew, built Fort Necessity as defensive position
				v. French surrounded him
			    vi. French tricked Washington to sign a confession
			   vii. claimed Washington murdered French officer.
			  viii. let Washington and men leave.
			    ix. Washington returned a hero as first one to strike
				   against French.
	B. English had the advantage
		1. over 1.5 million English in America to 90,000 French = 16 to 1
		2. English disorganized and divided
		3. French disciplined and united.
		4. Most Indians join with French.
		5. English tried to convince Iroquois to help them.
			a. one of six nations, Seneca fought against English
			b. Delaware a peaceful tribe forced from homeland also fought
			   against English in Pennsylvania
			c. most of the Iroquois remain neutral until the end of the war
	C. English Crown could not allow local authorities to run war
		1. failed to make use of local resources
		2. mismanaged the war, stumbling from defeat to defeat
		3. 1755 General Edward Braddock took charge
			a. 1,400 redcoats and militia marched on Fort Duquesne
			b. French ambush and kill General
			c. Washington took control and led retreat bring 500 men back
		4. 1756 war starts in Europe
		5. After several defeats King George II lets William Pitt take over
			a. Pitt puts all of British forces and treasury into fight
			b. Pitt cuts off communication between France and Canada
			c. Pitt promoted young talented men over influential officers
				i. started winning for first time
	D. Spanish tried to stop British advances
		1. British captured Manila and Cuba in 1762.
		2. British take French Sugar Islands of West Indies.
		3. British forces in India defeat French outposts there.
	E. Treaty of Paris 1763
		1. Victory so decisive French forced to abandon almost all claims
 		2. French keep only two small islands on St. Lawrence River
		3. British take over Canada and eastern half of Mississippi Valley
		4. French get back possessions in West Indies, Guadeloupe,
		   Martinique and some of possessions in India and Africa.
		5. Spain given French claims west of Miss. R. and New Orleans.
		6. Spain negotiates a separate treaty to regain Philippines & Cuba
 			a. they give up East and West Florida.
			b. but regain it again in 1783 after the Revolution.
	F. Social and economic effects of the war
		1. economy highly inflated, high demand for most goods
		2. Almost all production geared towards war effort
		3. many merchants became privateers for reward on French ships
		4. 1/3 rd able bodied men in colonies died in conflict.
		5. increased amount of widows and orphans on public assistance.
		6. decrease in demand after war and small depression putting some
		   men out of work.
		7. large army without a job, a threat to the peace
		8. large war debt.
			a. colonies forced to sell bonds
			b. English treasury depleted and needed to raise taxes
		9. England would not bear burden of defending the colonies alone.
			a. 10,000 regulars left in Canada to police area
			b. this expense could not come from England
			c. English people taxed far more than Americans
	G. Social unrest and Economic Depression led to setting for Revolution
VIII. EVENTS LEADING TO REVOLUTION
	A. George II dies on Oct. 25, 1760 his son George III is king
	B. George Grenville was George III's minister 
		1. changed way England dealt with colonies
		2. felt colonies should shoulder own responsibilities in growing
		   Empire.
		3. The End of Salutary Neglect
			a. Revenue Act of 1764 (Sugar Act)
				i. cut tax on sugar in half
			    ii. added numerous items that could only go to England.
			   iii. strengthened vice-admiralty courts
			    iv. required Americans to post bonds guaranteeing
				   compliance
				v. smuggling very difficult
			b. Currency Act of 1764
				i. forbade colonies from printing money
			    ii. depression increased and trade restricted even more
			c. Stamp Act of 1765
				i. required almost all printed material to have a stamp.
			    ii. small tax, effected many, inc. newspapers & printing.
			   iii. already in effect in England
			    iv. England asked colonies for suggestions on raising money
				v. after no suggestions stamp act started one year later.
	C. Virginia House of Burgesses first official body to react to new laws.
	D. Massachusetts citizens protested in mob action
		1. Aug. 1765 they hung in effigy, stamp distributor, Andrew Oliver
		2. Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson, ordered sheriff to remove
		3. crowd will not let him
		4. that night crowd took effigy through streets in mock funeral
		5. ended at Oliver's office destroyed it and his house
		6. destroyed the homes of several other British officials.
	F. Other riots started in New York, and Rhode Island
		1. groups formed to protest called themselves the "sons of liberty"
		2. In Massachusetts the assembly calls others to a Stamp Act Congress
		3. Parliament eventually revokes tax in March of 1766
			a. as consolation put in Declaratory Act
			b. stated Parliament had right to impose any law on colonies.
	G. England has social problems as well
		1. England had high unemployment as well
		2. England dependent on other nations for food supply
			a. crops in Europe destroyed because of war
			b. few crops for export
		3. English government needed to supplement economy and food supply.
		4. expected America to do her part
	H. Parliament passed Townshend Act to replace Stamp tax
		1. put tax on paper, lead, painters colors, and tea.
		2. most colonists simply objected.
	I. 1773 Parliament tries to protect East India Company
		1. allowed company to ship tea directly to colonies
		2. got around English middle men and import taxes in England
		3. Boston Tea Party
			a. Samuel Adams led group 
				i. pressure merchants to return tea to England
			    ii. Governor Hutchinson refused to clear ships for return
				   unless empty.
			b. Held meeting in Old South Church on Dec. 16, 1773
				i. some men disguised as indians 
			    ii. boarded ships flung £10,000 tea in harbor
		4. Parliament passed Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
			a. closed Boston Harbor until colony paid for destroyed tea
			b. English soldiers & officials given immunity from local
			   courts when acting to suppress civil disturbances
			c. Parliament changes Massachusetts constitution
				i. upper house no longer elected by lower house
			    ii. appointed by governor
			d. Governor give power to stop all town meetings except annual
			   election meeting.
			e. Crown replaced governor Thomas Hutchinson with Gen. Thomas
			   Gage, the commander and chief of British forces in America.
		5. At a Boston town meeting 
			a. called for letters to other colonies
			b. Asked other colonies to boycott English goods.
			c. asked meeting in Philadelphia with delegates from colonies
	J. First Continental Congress September of 1774
		1. debated issues only discussed by individual colonies before
		2. wrote a declaration of American rights
			a. base their resistance on "immutable laws of nature"
			b. and principles of English Constitution (common law)
			c. If intolerable acts not rescinded by Dec. 1, 1774
			d. colonies will stop all imports & exports to England
		3. Congress agreed to meet again in May of 1775
IX. ACTS OF TREASON
	A. after Congress delegates start taking action
		1. form alternate governments replacing assemblies suspended by
		   governors
		2. by 1774 all but 3 colonies have alternate governments 
	B. April 1775 England started violence.
		1. Crown felt most resistance centered in Massachusetts
		2. asked General Gage to arrest principles.
		3. sent 700 soldiers to Concord by night to siege ammunition 
			a. stored by Provincial Congress
			b. traveled across Back Bay in boats
			c. sexton in Christ Church in Boston's North End hung 2
			   lanterns
			d. signaled riders to warn minutemen
				i. ready at a minute's warning
			e. 70 minutemen met English along road in Lexington at dawn
			f. on the green fought lost 8 men and 10 were wounded
			g. British temporarily delayed and continued
			h. at Concord another battle started.
				i. 3 companies looked for arms
			    ii. 3 other companies found arms in hands of colonists
			   iii. after initial losses regroups and retreated to
				   Boston
			    iv. rebels fired on soldiers from every hiding place
				v. 273 British killed only 95 Americans died.
	C. Second Continental Congress met in May 1775
		1. made moves to secure Native American neutrality
		2. issued paper money
		3. set up a postal system
		4. authorized a continental army of 20,000 men
		5. chose George Washington as commander and chief
		6. declared reasons for taking up arms
		7. sent king "Olive Branch Petition"
			a. begging him to remove obstacles to reconciliation
			b. claimed parliament and advisors were guilty
	D. Violence Escalates
		1. Ethan Allen and Green Mountain boys from Eastern New York
		   captured Fort Ticonderoga and controlled Champlain Valley
		2. King rejected Olive Branch sent 20,000 troops to stop rebellion
		3. Nov. 1775 Virginia's Lord Dunmore took action
			a. offered freedom to slaves who joined British
			b. frustrated, shelled Norfolk, Virginia on January 1, 1776.
		4. March 1776, Washington force British to evacuate Boston.
X. THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR
	A. Second Continental Congress sought allies
		1. asked West Indies
			a. too dependent 
		2. asked Canadians to attend Continental congress 
			a. new colony 
			b. Seven years War enough for them
			c. did not want to ally with one set of British against other
	C. British Army strongest in World and brought to America
		1. 50,000 regulars
		2. 30,000 Hessian mercenaries
	D. Americans Untested in War
		1. 16,000 troops to start with
		2. Congress feared standing army and idealized the Citizen Soldier
		3. September 1776 Congress set 3 yr. enlistments and state quotas
		4. men offered 100 acres a cash bonus and yearly clothing allowance
XI. MILITARY CAMPAIGN
	A. Washington's victory at Boston a fluke
		1. General William Howe replaces Gage as head of British land forces
		2. Howe orders removal from Boston
		3. Washington occupies Dorchester Heights, March 1776
		4. British discover American artillery and hurry retreat
	B. British wage conventional war and attack New York
	C. British troops defeat political purposes
		1. Quartering troops in New York brought shortages
			a. food, housing
			b. resentment
		2. Hessians far worse
			a. pillaged countryside
			b. stole everything they wanted
			c. kidnaping and raping local women
		3. Armed bands of citizens formed to raid British patrols by winter
	D. Gen. William Howe takes Philadelphia summer of 1777
		1. Hopes to goad Americans into a final decisive battle
	E. Saratoga The Turning Point of the War
		1. British General John Burgoyne leads march from Quebec to N. York
			a. 9,500 men, 2,000 women and children
		2. Colonial General Horatio Gates fortified Bemis Heights & waited
		3. Benedict Arnold leads attack
		4. British lead retreat back to Canada
		5. Burgoyne decides to surrender on Oct. 17, 1777
		6. Victory gains support for Americans over seas
			a. Congress trying to gain support from French
				i. French wanted vengeance for French and Indian War
			    ii. Could not afford to loose.
			   iii. worried about American commitment to war
			    iv. supplying colonies covertly since 1776
			b. May 1778 Treaty of commerce, friendship & alliance w/ France
				i. Both agree to settle only for complete independence
			c. British declare war on France
			d. Spain joins France 1779 to win back some territory
			h. Another European war with little interest in colonies
	F. Winter of 1777-1778 Washington camped at Valley Forge
		1. Conditions poor
		2. Congress lacks money to pay and equip troops
		3. Baron Friedreich Wilhelm von Steuben, a poor titled Prussian
	G. General Nathanael Greene
		1. Cornwallis chases after Greene
		2. Washington meets with French ally, Comte de Rochambeau in Conn.
			a. Rochambeau wanted to coordinate a land-sea assault of VA
			b. Washington wants to take New York
			c. Clinton receives Hessian reinforcements in New York
			d. French fleet under Comte de Grasse headed to Chesapeake
			e. Washington tricks Clinton to believe he is attacking N.Y.
			f. 5,700 Continentals, 7,800 French and 3,200 militia surround
			   Yorktown and Cornwallis, British surrender Oct, 17, 1781
			g. Cornwallis surrender story
	H. Victory
		1. Victory at Yorktown just at the right time
			a. Beginning in 1782 British loose several battles 
				i. India
			    ii. West Indies
			   iii. Florida
			b. French and Spanish challenge British everywhere in Europe
				i. British fight navel battles in the English Channel
			    ii. Spanish attempt to retake Gibraltar
			c. British decide to cut losses in America
		2. Treaty of Paris, September 3, 1783
			a. American diplomats John Jay, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams
			b. Congress orders them to listen to French 
				i. French diplomat Charles Vergennes wants America weak
			    ii. subject to France
			c. Americans disobey entered direct negotiations with British
				i. British told good settlement might loosen ties to French
			    ii. Told French needed to remain united against the British
			   iii. French persuade Spanish to settle for Florida & Minorca
			d. British concessions to America
				i. recognize American Independence
			    ii. recognize present border with Canada till Mississippi R.
				   and 31st parallel on the south
XII. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
	A. Reasons for Revolution
		1. Debt from 7yrs war and American Revolution
		2. Class structure in France
			a. 1st estate - clergy also exempt from taxes 
			b. 2nd estate - aristocracy exempt from a number of taxes
				i. robe (bought titles of judges etc.) & sword (born)
			c. 3rd estate - wealthy merchants, shop owners, 
			d. privilege, tithes & taxes.
		3. 1780s poor harvest and bread prices soared, 1/2 income of poor
		4. Ideas of enlightenment
		5. Lack of leadership from Louis XVI
	B. The Estates General (hasn't met in century & 1/2)
		1. New taxes violated the privileges of the aristocracy 
		2. To stop Bankruptcy needed to call the 3 estates together
		3. Third estate demanded more representation, double the 1st & 2nd
		4. Without a decision from King broke to from a national assembly
		5. Oath on Tennis Court (bind together to form government) 6/20/89
	C. The revolution starts
		1. Peasants and lower class riot in streets over rumors
		2. Third estate electors organized malitia and municipal government
			a. stormed Bastille July 14, 1789 to get arms
			b. governor of Bastille refused and opened fire on crowd
			c. 98 killed and mob takes fortress
		3. Revolt spreads and mobs take action across country 
			a. fear of aristocracy and crown counter revolution
			b. raided manor houses and monasteries
		4. Women riot at Versailles over bread, force king to return to Paris
		5. Assembly abolishes most privileges of the 1st & 2nd estates
			a. all equal under the law
			b. Rights of Man and of the Citizen (September 1789)
				1. Property, liberty, security, "resistance to oppression,"
				   speech, religious toleration, & freedom of the press
		6. Assembly confiscated Church property & sold to pay national debt
			a. Priests & Bishops now elected
		7. National Assembly Constitution
			a. benefitted the electorate who drafted it.
			b. 1/2 the men in France can vote (based on taxes paid)
			c. only the electorate can hold office (based on land holdings)
	D. Radical Revolution
		1. Poor outraged over being left out of government
		2. Inflation wild rampant
		3. June 21, 1791 King escapes to Vanennes & caught there
			a. becomes a prisoner of the assembly for now
		4. War with other European countries over the Revolution
		5. Leaders of the assembly were moderate merchants (Girondists)
		6. Jacobins take over after Austria & Prussia invade
			a. they claim to represent the poor
			b. called for universal suffrage (except women)
		7. September massacre of 1792
			a. after rumors about prisoner attempting to escape
			b. over 1,000 political prisoners executed
			c. Sept 21, 1792, France declared a Republic
			d. by December the King is on trail
			e. in January the King faces the guillotine
		8. Constitution reshapes French society
			a. no more debtors prison, no more primogeniture, no more slavery
			b. adopted the metric system
	E. The Reign of Terror (9/1793-7/1794)
		1. The 12 member "Committee of Public Safety" ran France
			a. all Jacobins, centralized power because of invasion threat
		2. maintained power through terror
			a. as many as 20,000 executions during reign
		3. slowed down industrialization 
			a. put land in hands of poor & removed incentive for capitalism
		4. July 1794 Maximilien Robespierre shouted down in assembly
			a. country tired of sacrifice for war effort
			b. Robespierre tried to gain Jacobin support & overthrow assembly
			c. caught and executed
	F. 1795 Constitution
		1. moderates in control
		2. Wealthy able to shape government for themselves
		3. a 5 man "Directory" chosen by legislature as the executive branch
		4. elections in March 1797 constitutional monarchists in office
		5. Directory with army nullified elections 9/1797
		6. Two years of uprisings and purges
	G. Napoleon Bonaparte
		1. Became brigadier general after defeat of British at Toulon 1793
		2. October 4, 1795 saved convention from opponents to constitution
			a. fired shot of grape shot on mob
		3. Attacked British colonies in North Africa and Mid East
		4. Fought to stalemate but cut off by defeat of French Fleet
			a. Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats fleet at Abukir Bay in 1798
		5. Declared "Temporary Counsul" Nov. 9, 1799
		6. 1799-1804 ruled as First Counsul (dictator)
			a. new constitution & use of the plebiscite
			b. put all tax collecting under central control
			c. did away with all privilege
			d. controlled government spending and curtailed inflation
			e. established high schools to teach teachers in every major town
			f. brought military & technical schools under central control
			g. established national university
		7. Code Napoleon
			a. past privileges abolished 
			b. uniform code of law
			c. outlawed trade unions but protected individual entrepreneurs
		8. The Catholic Church and the Pope
			a. 1801 Concordat
			b. Pope can depose French bishops and disciple French clergy
			c. confiscated church property remains in hands of middle class
			d. clergy would receive guaranteed income from state
				i. both Protestant and Catholic
		9. 1802 elected council for life
	    10. Continental System 1806
			a. After defeat of Spanish and French fleets at Trafalgar 1805
			b. England cut continent off from colonies
			c. Napoleon sought to cripple Britain economically 
				i. opened ports to any other country including U.S.
			    ii. British Essex Decision 1805 said that was illegal
			d. Berlin Decree-seize ships that stop at British port
			e. British Orders in Council ships to continent stop England 1st
			f. Milan Decree seize ships that submit to British search
			g. Continent couldn't support self (not enough food)
			h. Britain controlled seas and intercontinental trade
	    11. Spain under Napoleon
			a. Charles IV joined England & others against France 1793
				i. lost war by 1795
			b. 1807 Portugal refused to obey Continental System 
				i. Napoleon invades Spain to attack Portugal
			    ii. Charles IV gives permission French occupy Spain
			   iii. French attack Portugal but royal family escape to Brazil
			c. Loyalist Spaniards rebel under French occupation
				i. forced Charles IV abdicate in favor of son Ferdinand(VII)
			d. Napoleon offered to mediate dispute between father and son
				i. both candidates go to France
			    ii. Napoleon forces both abdicate in favor of Joseph Bonaparte
			e. May 2, 1808 Madrid rebelled against France
				i. country joined in revolt against France
			    ii. juntas controlled country until 1810 when Cádiz surrounded
			   iii. British guns protected Cádiz from French army
			    iv. National Cortes approve liberal constitution 1812
					a. constitutional monarchy
					b. freedom of speech & assembly
					c. abolished the Inquisition
			f. Spanish colonies in Americas revolt in name of Ferdinand VII
			g. 1813 British under Wellington drove French out of Spain
	    12.The Russian Campaign
			a. Tzar Alexander needed British manufactured goods
				i. Russia mostly farm land w/ little industry
			b. Spring 1812 France invades Russia	
			c. Russians refuse to meet French army and withdraw from Moscow
				i. capitol burnt and little shelter against winter
			d. October 1812 Napoleon eventually leaves Moscow but too late
				i. Winter snows, mud and swollen rivers stopped army
			    ii. Cossacks attack army while retreating
			   iii. 600,000 men started only 300,000 escape
	    13. Defeat and Exile
			a. October 1813 the Battle of the Nations and Leipzig 
				i. British, Prussia, Austria & Russia defeated Napoleon
			b. March 31, 1814 Napoleon defeated in Paris and exiled to Elba
	H. Restoration
		1. King Louis XVIII now on throne brother of Louis XVI
			a. Louis XVII died under care of revolutionary captors
		2. less than a year Napoleon returned and gathered forces to Paris
		3. King retreated and allies rallied in Vienna
		4. Allies met at Waterloo in lowlands June 18, 1815
		5. Napoleon sent to St. Helena in South Atlantic 
			a. died there in 1821
	G. Congress of Vienna 1814
		1. Tsar Alexander I of Russia, Klemens von Metternich of Austria
			a. divided up Europe in their own interests
			b. established monarchies much as before the revolution
			b. Alexander I feared as strongest power in Europe
		2. Talleyrand as foreign minister under Napoleon & bishop of Louis XVI
			a. showed the danger of the Tsar 
			b. France could maintain much of its old borders in 1795
			c. Lowlands (inc. belgium) now ruled by House of Orange
			d. Prussia takes new kingdoms of Saxony, Bravaria, & Würtemberg
			e. Britain got French holdings in S. America, S. Africa & Ceylon
XIII. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1780-1880
	A. Starts in England 
		1. abundance of food & capitol
			a. large tracts of land in private ownership = excess production
			b. England defeated Dutch for supremacy at sea and trade
		2. willingness to invest 
			a. gentry class needed to find profit
			b. class conscious society did not destain making money
		3. English woolens in high demand around the world
			a. Spanish silver purchased and promoted English textiles
			b. tariffs on East Indian cotton goods promoted English cotton
			c. cotton - stronger than wool worked better in rough machinery
		4. Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin 1793 
			a. revolutionized cotton industry
			b. revitalized slavery in North American South
			c. Machinery cheap for home production 
			d. By 1815 water power machinery outproduced home production 
			e. Spinning and Weaving under one roof cuts cost
		5. James Watt refined the Steam Engine 1763
			a. 1800 started producing the engine with a partner
			b. Other industries follow lead of textile manufacturing 
				i. water power makes lumber, cures hides, processes wheat
			    ii. Factories start in most towns with at least 200 people
	B. Geography plays a major role
		1. Water power and raw materials
			a. swift running water to turn wheels
			b. proximity to raw materials
			c. abundance of surplus labor
		2. War in Europe slowed the industrial revolution 
			a. also lack of resources, waterways for transportation
			b. tariffs and trade restrictions between countries
		3. Transportation
			a. Canals
				i. Water still the cheapest form of transportation 
			    ii. links between bodies of water increase speed, lower costs
			   iii. 1825 Erie Canal
					i. Started by New York in 1817
			         ii. linked New York city by Hudson River to Lake Erie
				   iii. Opened Ohio Valley to the east coast
			b. Steam boats
				i. by 1830s cheapest & most plentiful form of transportation
			    ii. steam engine and plentiful wood supply in Europe promoted
			   iii. In U.S. used extensively on slow moving rivers & canals
			c. Roads
				i. Most rivers run from mountains east west or north south
			    ii. travel in same direction as altitude becomes difficult
			   iii. entrepreneurs invest in building private roads
					a. hope states or federal government will buy them out
					b. toll booths to cover cost, but rarely make profit
			d. Railroads
				i. 1825 first railroad from Durhan to Darlington in England
			    ii. cheaper to build than canals yet still expensive 
					a. construction, right of ways, stations & switches
					b. cost of machinery & labor
			   iii. Private individuals could build railroads for profit
					a. most had government support in Europe
					b. England and U.S. individuals & corporations started
					c. much of investment money came from Eruope for U.S.
					d. Labor from Irish "Navvies" in England, & U.S.
					e. Chinese labor on U.S. west coast in 1860s
			    iv. 1830 started taking passengers (Liverpool to Manchester)
					a. concern over speed up to 15 mph and tunnels
	C. Specialization
		1. Before improvements in transportation specialization was limited
		2. each local grew what they used, subsistence agriculture
		3. farmers always grew extra of something for cash
	D. Education
		1. By 1800 several countries using tax money to supplement education
		2. Business needed educated and disciplined workers 
			a. Clocks change the world
				i. farmers and artisans went to work whenever they wanted
			    ii. factories needed workers to show up and work together
			   iii. clocks advance work culture but oppressive to workers
			b. Laborers in the factory
				i. Child labor important in some areas
			    ii. young unmarried women for short time
			   iii. labor and management relations
					a. job discrimination practiced 
						i. men only ones with supervisory positions
					    ii. women accepted division without complaints
					c. Strikes
						i. only when wages or jobs threatened
					    ii. usually during economic depressions
					   iii. management needed to layoff large numbers 
					    iv. no labor shortages, 
						v. Irish take lower paying jobs 1840s
		3. Increase in published materials
			a. power machinery used to make paper
			b. Libraries before 1830 a sign of prestige
			c. by 1850 common people could buy books and magazines
				i. magazines dealt with practical and intellectual issues
	E. Urbanization
		1. People start moving to the cities as industrialization takes place
		2. Larger than before and districts develop
			a. center is older and industry there
			b. laborers lived close to their jobs
				i. semi-skilled and unskilled crowd together to share rent
			    ii. no indoor plumbing, privies in backyards
			   iii. garbage collected in streets
			c. middle class moved away from dirt form precursors to suburbs
				i. cleaner air away from industry
			    ii. wealthy neighborhoods clean streets 
			   iii. larger houses built in new neighborhoods
					a. had gas lighting
					b. separate washing & cooking facilities
			    iv. some garbage removal 
				v. however, some disease because of proximity to city
			d. rich and upper middle class
				i. best living conditions furthest away from city center
			    ii. can afford railcars to work everyday
			   iii. indoor plumbing & large living space
			    iv. in some cases even had live in servants
		3. City transportation
			a. Horse drawn street cars in 1850s 
			b. cable cars in 1860s & 1870s
			c. subways start in 1880s London & then Paris
		4. Most cities grew larger than a 4 mile radius
		5. Cities were  dirty
			a. coal burning caused air pollution
			b. indoor oil lamps & coal furnaces
			c. disease prevalent with dirt
				i. dysentery, small pox, tuberculosis
			    ii. yellow fever was so prevalent known as American plague
			   iii. 1870s germ theory & connection to disease
					i. Louis Pasteur (France), Joseph Lester (England),
					   Robert Koch (Germany) all developed at same time
			d. in late 1870s New York cleaned up sewage and garbage
			e. 1880s New Yorkers are concerned about clean drinking water
		6. Ethnic Neighborhoods
			a. first develop during the 1840-1870s
			b. Immigrants gather together for support
				i. stores reflect customers
			    ii. churches develop around religious beliefs
			c. Institutional completeness
			d. some refusal to assimilate but usually only in first generation
		7. Stratification of wealth
			a. Factory owners made large profits during this period
			b. not a large amount of suffering due to increase of wealth
	F. Family Structure changes within the Upper Classes
		1. Woman's Sphere
			a. Women in agricultural societies view themselves as equals 		
	b. Women loose their identity with city life not as much to do
			c. Writers depict women as the guardians of culture & morality
				i. man's better half not subject to passions and temptations
			    ii. men only seek material gain no matter the cost
			d. Women bond, claiming they share common characteristics
				i. many women build stronger friendships then marriages
		2. Woman's role too demanding to be achieved
			a. new technology brought new standards of cleanliness
			b. women are expected to be perfect, men are given leeway
			c. women expected to stay at home & provide proper environment
			d. society discourages women from working
				i. many do piece work for a fraction of the pay
		3. Children
			a. middle class children no longer needed to help with income
				i. Childhood viewed as a preparation for adulthood
			    ii. to acquire values from mother & skills for business
			   iii. Children's literature also abounds during period
					a. usually full of heavy handed moral messages
			b. Contraception practiced widely, large families not needed
				i. varies from abstinence & withdrawal to abortion
					a. abortion wasn't outlawed until 1860
					b. women start to refrain as identity of pillars of
					   virtue and control with little passion or desire
					c. doctors claim sex is harmful to men
			    ii. birth rate dropped especially in urban areas
XIV. Liberalism
	A. Reaction to Napoleon and the French Revolution
		1. Vienna conference
			a. Brittian, Russia, Prussia, Austria
			b. put Louis XVIII on throne of France
		2. Holy Alliance
			a. Tzar Alexander headed with Russia, Prussia & Austria
			b. dedicated to Christian Charity, Justice & Peace
			c. Wanted to stop Revolutionary movements in Latin America
			d. Britain & France didn't want to get entangled
				i. Britain had trade interests with Latin American countries
			e. Carbonari young radicals many army officers started in Naples 
				i. spread revolutionary ideas and movements in Europe
			    ii. forced kings in Spain & France to promise constitutions
			f. France sent 200,000 men to Spain and stopped liberals 
			g. Revolutions in Latin America continued
				i. Monroe Doctrine 1823 written by J.Q. Adams
		3. Greek Independence
			a. Alexander Ypsilanti (soldier) rebelled against Turks
				i. wanted to start a Greek Empire (1821)
			b. Independence won in 1827 with British, French & Russian support
				i. combined navy defeated the Turks at Navarino 10/20/1827
			    ii. liberal ideas many based on British middle class values
		4. British middle class liberalism
			a. British support status quo & monarchy during French Revolution
			b. Wars of late 1700s & early 1800s caused British large debts
				i. unemployment, food shortages, & a depression
			    ii. at Manchester 80,000 demanded more representation 
			   iii. government hired spies to infiltrate agitators
			    iv. soldiers fired on crowd, killed 11 injured 400
				v. parliament passed more restrictive measures
				  a. stamp tax on newspapers, restricted public meetings
					outlawed seditious literature, searched houses for arms
			c. British ministers realized liberalism helped economic interests
				i. monarchies restricted trade w/ mercantilism
			    ii. Adam Smith and Wealth of Nations supply & demand
					a. only works with liberal trade policies
					b. laissez-faire
			   iii. Parliament protected British exports & restricted imports
					a. corn laws restricted grain imports
					b. landlords controlled parliament and protected 
interests
					c. northern industrial areas demanded more 
representation
					d. population demanded lower grain prices
			   iv. Working class and middle class formed alliances for change
					a. 1830 organizations over England demanded change
					b. middle class merchants threaten to withhold taxes
					   and form malitias if necessary
					c. Parliament rescinds and changes representation
						i. remained exclude based on property ownership
					    ii. 3% increase but still most held by upper class
			d. British concern for economic growth
				i. poor and destitute because of own fault
			    ii. laws required people to travel to find work
			   iii. could only collect government subsistence in place of birth
			    iv. each district started workhouses for unemployed
					a. conditions so terrible force people to leave
					b. take whatever job or live on charity of relatives
			e. Australia
				i. After American Revolution British colonize
			    ii. Jan. 26, 1788  11 ships of convicts start Sidney
			   iii. 1793 free settlers started colonizing the continent
			    iv. 1868 British stop sending convicts (168,000 sent by then)
					a. stop sending them to east first in 1852
					b. gold discovered in south east in 1851
					c. convicts would compete with free successful settlers
		5. Russian attempts at liberalism were not as successful
			a. Decembrists - army officers supported Constantine 2nd in line
			b. Constantine refused to usurp throne and Nicholas I ruled
			c. Decembrists could not gain enough popular support
			d. Nicholas created a political police force & remained autocratic
			e. Liberals in Poland also tried for Independence but Russian 
troops 			   stopped their attempts
		6. Reactionary policies in France
			a. Louis XVIII gave in to some of the liberal demands of his time
				i. legal equality, careers open to talent, 2 house parliament
				   and the vote for property owners
			b. Charles X succeeded his brother Louis XVIII in 1824
				i. reactionary refused the changes of the liberals 
			    ii. ordered assembly reimburse aristocracy that lost land
			   iii. the church reasserted right to teach in classrooms
			c. the Chamber of Deputies 1830 voted no confidence 
				i. Charles dissolved chamber and called for new elections
			    ii. elections went against king's candidates
			   iii. king dissolved new chamber before it met
			    iv. censored the press, restricted suffrage to exclude upper
				   middle class and called for new elections
			d. Revolution again threatens France
				i. mobs take Paris streets
			    ii. three days of fighting with army & police
			   iii. Bankers, merchants & industrialists crown Duke of Orleans
			    iv. Louis Phillipe of the French abide by constitution of 1814
			e. Louis Phillipe grew more conservative 
				i. administration was full of corruption
			    ii. by 1848 revolution again gripped France
					a. censorship of press
			   iii. middle class demanded representation (was based on wealth)
			    iv. demonstration meeting 2/22/1848 forbidden but mobs acted
				v. Louis Phillipe abdicates
			f. committee of 10 run France for a few months 
				i. tried to implement employment projects with 50% 
unemployment
			    ii. public works projects but too many asked for as assistance
			   iii. eventually closed and men between 18-25 sent to army
			    iv. mobs formed barricades demanding jobs again
				v. committee calls for an election of a president for 
stability
			g. Napoleon III  (Napoleon II son of Napoleon died Vienna 1832)
				i. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte elected on name alone nephew of N.
			    ii. takes control by courting the middle class
					a. introduces old-age insurance
					b. promotes laws encouraging business
			   iii. declares an emergency to protect rights of masses
					a. declares himself temporary dictator
					b. new constitution of 1852 makes him permanent dictator
					c. continued reforms that helped the working class
					d. allowed labor unions & free medical insurance
		7. Belgium broke away from the Dutch republic established by Vienna 1815
	B. Reaction to the Industrial Revolution brought another form of Liberalism
		1. Transcendentalism- a secular movement longing for uncomplicated past
			a. Writers, Henry David Threau, Ralph Waldo Emerson
				i. believed truth was beyond experience in intuition
			    ii. encouraged men to return to nature, leave the city
			b. Objected to evils of the world, war, slavery growing materialism
		2. Separatist Communities
			a. Seeking utopia and brotherhood away from cities
			b. many were religious communities with unconventional ideas
				i. Oneida of New York
					a. believed only spiritual males should have sex
			    		b. only reason to have sex, procreation
					c. eventually developed into industrial society, forged
					   iron made silverware
			   ii. Shakers believed sex was sinful depended on conversions
					a. started around 1706 in England but not very popular
					b. broke off from Quakers
					c. 1774 Sister Ann Lee brought religion to America
					d. no personal property & complete democracy
					e. invented circular saw, a washing machine, flat broom,
					   but known for fine furniture 
			  iii. Mormons
					a. Polygamy
						i. practiced until 1890s, 1896 statehood
					    ii. expensive, difficult to maintain
					   iii. 10%-20% of all adult males, rich & prominent
					b. Joseph Smith killed 1844 Nauvoo, Illinois
			   		c. split after death of leader
					d. Brigham Young 4/1847 leads a group on an exodus west
						i. 143 men, 3 women, & 2 children to Salt Lake City
					    ii. by 1860 over 30,000 Mormons in Utah territory
					e. Church-State government
			    		f. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought Utah into U.S.
						i. leaders change constitution, civil government
					    ii. Church leaders still hold government positions
			 		g. Indian policy 
						i. lost tribes of Israel
					    ii. enlightened?
			   iv. Millerites, followers of William Miller, obsessed with
				  second coming of Christ, predicts it several times
					a. Seventh Day Adventists break off the Millerites
						i. vegetarianism, sabbath day, and second coming
XV Nationalism
	A. Romanticism
		1. an intellectual movement opposed the rationalism of the enlightenment
		2. belief in sensory experience and innate sensibility (genetics)
			a. Transcendentalism in U.S.
		3. Johann von Herder(1744-1803)Ideas for the Philosophy of Human History
			a. traced history from Greeks to present
				i. civilization not product of artificial international elite

			    ii. the Volk or common people created civilization
			   iii. each civilization has unique culture because of own Volk
			b. The Brothers Grimm eds. Grimms Fairy Tales (1812)
			c. Sir Walter Scott Ivanhoe
			d. Frederick Jackson Turner 1890
				i. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
		4. Genius worshiped as the individuality & uniqueness that makes culture
			a. Ludwig von Beethoven (1749-1827) 9 symphonies
			b. Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) Faust
	B. Jeffersonian Democracy
		1. The United States started as a Republic
			a. M. & C. Beard An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
			b. Idea of social betters, natural elite
			c. Protect personal property from masses
		2. Jefferson's Democratic Republicans oust Federalists from government
			a. midnight judges & Marbury v. Madison John Marshall chief justice
			b. strict interpretation of constitution
			c. yeoman farmer anti business & special interests
			d. Malthus & Louisiana Purchase 1803 $15 million
			e. Meriwether Lewis & William Clark 1804-06
		3. Jacksonian Democracy 
			a. Andrew Jackson first President from common men
			b. increase democracy most restrictions gone
			c. western expansion 
	C. Regionalism in the U.S. and Civil War
		1. Reform Movements
			a. Women in early 19th century had more free time
				i. not as many domestic chores, no farms to work on
			    ii. not as many children as before 
			   iii. new identity, turn to social issues, alcohol, health, poor,
				   disabled, criminals, education, slavery, mentally ill, etc.
			b. the Temperance movement
				i. a direct result of the second great awakening
			    ii. culturally important to immigrant groups
			   iii. some groups shunned strong drink, others preached
				   moderation extremists called for total abstinence
			    iv. people joined for different reasons
			c. Abolition
				i. 1800 British abolish international slave trade
			    ii. 1833 British abolish slavery in colonies
			   iii. U.S. Necessary evil at first Northwest Ordinance 1787
			    iv. Missouri Compromise 1830 & Compromise of 1850
				v. supported on several grounds
					a. Bible used to defend slavery - Cush, Philemon
					b. historical argument, there has always been slavery
					c. Constitution upheld slavery
					d. "scientific methods" polygenesis theory, phrenology
					e. Paternalism - care for slaves like children
			    vi. Uncle Tom's Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe
			   vii. Dred Scott Decision, 1857
			  viii. Election of 1860 & Republican Abraham Lincoln 
		2. U.S. Civil War
			a. destruction of Agricultural South
			b. over 1/2 million killed on both sides 1/4 million maimed
			c. slavery ends 13th amendment, 14th due process, 15th voting
	D. Nationalism in Latin America
		1. Venezuela, Columbia & Ecuador
			a. Venezuela
				i. Francisco de Miranda (creole) 1806 with Americans & British
			    ii. 1811 revolutionary assembly declares independence
			   iii. Miranda comes back from England to head cause
			    iv. Earthquake - Spanish priests God's judgement rebellion 
fails
				v. Simón Bolívar believed Miranda traitor helped in capture
			b. Columbia
				i. Bolívar goes Columbia till 1813 returned & captured Caracas
			    ii. 2nd Venezuela republic & Bolívar declared "Liberator"
			   iii. Spaniards retake country within 6 ms & Bolívar to Jamaica
			    iv. 1819 with 4,000 British mercenaries takes Columbia
				v. 1821 Bolívar takes Venezuela
			c. Ecuador
				i. Antonio José de Sucre takes Ecuador in 1822
			    ii. The three countries form the Republic of Gran Columbia
		2.Argentina, Chile & Peru
			a. Argentina
				i. José San Martín, soldier fought against French 
			    ii. Local quarrels between Buenos Aires & Tucumán 
					a. Buenos Aires in 1810 overthrew viceroyalty
					b. enjoyed free trade with British & revolt against 
French
					c. question complete independence or rule for Spain
					d. In Tucumán 1816-outlying provinces declare 
independence
			   iii. San Martín becomes governor of Cuyo & gathers army
			b. Chile
				i. Martín leads army over Andes & takes Santiago
			    ii. Bernardo O'Higgins (Irish immigrant) helps Martín
			   iii. Martín gives credit to O'Higgins  1817
			c. Peru
				i. 1821 Martín takes Lima took title of "Protector"
			    ii. Martín wanted to establish a monarchy but lost control
			   iii. Bolívar drew up constitution 1824 and president for life
			    iv. southeastern section broke off to become Bolivia
					a. Bolíar's friend General de Sucre becomes president
					b. Martín returns to Europe in self imposed Exile
		3. Brazil
			a. Napoleon invades Portugal and Royals flee to Brazil (1807)
			b. Prince John gained aid from Britain to modernize country
				i. hospitals, schools, colleges, a bank, an art museum
			    ii. removes colonial restrictions on manufacturing
			   iii. returns to Europe as King John VI 1821
			    iv. constitutionalists and reactionaries cause trouble in rule
			c. Dom Pedro left behind and on first move to independence is head
				i. exiled José Bonifacio who helped him gain throne
			    ii. Uruguay declared independence 1828
			   iii. abdicated to his son Dom Pedro II 1831
		4. Mexico
			a. Father Miguel Hidalgo (creole priest) led revolt 1810
				i. led indians against elite
			    ii. took Guanajuato & Guadalajara & led 80,000 on Mexico City
			   iii. defeated and captured, executed by inquisition
			b. José Morelos continued 4 more yrs but defeated & executed
			c. Augustín Iturbide  - independence & racial equality
				i. September 1821 entered Mexico City without battle
			    ii. Mexican congress declared him emperor Augustín I.
			   iii. 1823 lost support of army and exiled
			    iv. 1824 liberal constitution modeled after U.S. ex. Catholic
			d. Conservatives and Liberals fight over constitution and 
government
				i. Liberals want federalism similar to U.S. 
			    ii. Conservatives want monarchy or tight central control
			   iii. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna revolts against conservatives
			    iv. Santa Anna elected (1833) and retires Vice Pres. Farias
				v. Santa Anna retakes presidency as conservative 1836 
			    vi. Santa Anna looses Texas (1837)
			   vii. Mexican American War (1846-48)
					a. fight over southern border of Texas & U.S. expansion
			  viii. Santa Anna in and out of power until 1855 then retired
			e. Benito Juárez a Zapotec Indian born in adobe hut, becomes 
justice
				i. elected governor of Oaxaca led movement of "La Reforma"
			    ii. liberal constitution 1857 ended military & church 
privileges
			   iii. The wars of Reform from 1858 to 1861
			    iv. religious orders suppressed, church land nationalized, 
civil
				   marriages
				v. government needed money and sold church land to landlords
			    vi. large foreign debt payments suspended
			f. Napoleon III intervenes and sends army to Vera Cruz
				i. Spanish, English & French to Vera Cruz 
					a. Spanish & English given assurances for loans
			    ii. French army marches north to Puebla expect to liberators
					a. May 5, 1862 beaten back at battle of Puebla
			   iii. 30,000 French reinforcements takes Mexico City, 
			    iv. offer throne to Archduke Maximilian
				v. Maximilian enlightened liberal but wife Carlota absolutist
			    vi. French involved in Europe pulled out support
					a. 1862 Otto von Bismark became minister-president 
Prussia
					b. 1854-56 Crimean War weakened Russia & Turks
					c. 1864 Austria & Prussia v Denmark (Schleswig & 
Holstein)
					d. after war the victors squabble 7 Weeks War (1866)
					e. Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 
					f. France defeated & gives up some territory
			   vii. Juárez took capitol and firing squad for Maximilian
			  viii. Juárez tried to reform & run country without graft
			g. Porfirio Díaz 
				i. country in deep financial trouble Juárez's successor ousted
			    ii. Díaz a one time supporter of Juárez now dictator 1877-1911
			   iii. Díaz ruthless modernizer of Mexico uses foreign capitol
			    iv. rich foreigners profit over poor indigenous population
				v. 90% of country landless ejidos almost gone
			    vi. country ripe for modern revolution and 1910 it starts 
			   vii. 1911 Díaz leaves country for France 
	E. European 
		1. German Empire forms under Otto von Bismark
			a. 1870 Napoleon III captured 
			b. 1871 Hall of Mirrors in Versailles declared Bismark Kaiser 
		2. Italy before 1848 
			a. three kingdoms
				i. Sardinia in north
			    ii. Papal States in central region
			   iii. Two Sicilies in south
			    iv. Lombardy and Venetia held by Austria
					a. Prussia forces Austria to give up Venetia 7 weeks war
				v. Habsburgs ruled Tuscany, Parma, and Modena
			b. all proposed reforms and some parliamentary governments
		3. Sardinian aggression
			a. Count Camillo di Cavour secretly met with Napoleon III 
			b. Franco-Austrian war 1859 & conquers Lombardy
				i. France pulls out rather than anger Catholics in France
			    ii. Italians are anti-clerical
			c. Cavour annexed Lombardy, Tuscany, Parma, & Modena
		4. Giuseppe Garibaldi & the red shirts
			a. Francis II a bourbon king disliked by Italians
			b. Garibaldi & 1,000 red shirts led revolt on island of Sicily 1860
			c. revolt in southern Italy and united under Sardinia
		5. Pope Pious IX controlled central Italy with French troops
			a. France pulls out to fight Prussians
			b. Sardinia invades Rome & unites Italy
			c. 1871 Italian parliament tries to regulate Pope's role
			d. Pope withdraws to Vatican until 1929 Pius XI ends imprisonment
XVI Second Industrial Revolution 1870-1914
	A. Steel replaces Iron
		1. Steel production Bessemer Converter & open hearth Steel production
			a. Developed in Britain & Germany - cheap & efficient 
			b. by 1914 Germany 2 x as much as Britain, U.S. 2x Germany
		2. railroads
			a.  rails no longer flatten and split
			b.  steel railroad engines held more steam & pulled more freight
		3. high rise buildings started using steel
		4. suspension bridges
		5. New steel Navy (after battle of the ironclads Virginia & Moniter)
		6. fencing, nails, hinges, needles, etc. all made with steel
	B. Industry shifts focus & power source
		1. late 19th century U.S. manufactured goods for manufacturers
		2. early 20th switch & manufacture for consumers
		3. change from water to coal & now electricity in late 19th century
			a. Alexandro Volta (Italy) develops 1st chemical battery 1800
			b. Michael Faraday (G.B.)electronic induction & generator 1831&66
			b. Thomas A. Edison & George Westinghouse 1880s develop
			   electric generators to drive machinery 
			b. 1882 Edison opened first commercial power station in N.Y.
			c. by 1900 over 3,000 stations in U.S.
		4. transformation slow to electricity
			a. 1902  2% of business uses by 1929 over 80% use electricity
			b. Edison's light bulb replaces gas lights, cleaner & safer
			c. by 1929 2/3rds homes in U.S. use electricity
	C. Automobile changes everything
		1. invented in late 19th century but 1920 price cut to affordable
		2. Model T
			a. a team of engineers invented assembly line Ford first to use 
			b. in 1913 used for Model T reduced time from 14 to 1 1/2 hrs.
			c. in 1912 coast $600 by 1924 only $290
			d. light weight, easy to repair & most popular in history (V.W.)
			e. stays the same year after year with little change (V.W)
		3. Automobile spurs economic growth
			a. manufacturing end
				i. Thousands of tons of steel needed for production
			    ii. glass, rubber, cloth, other raw materials
			b. maintenance end
				i. gas stations, garages replace livery stables & troughs
			    ii. traffic lights, paved roads, billboards, parking lots
			c. off shoots of industry
				i. trucking improves local delivery & remote access
			    ii. tractors revolutionize farming
		4. Cities grow bigger
			a. almost anyone can afford 
			b. independence from rail lines & street cars
			c. decline of corner store, local church & one room schools
				i. people could go further distances for better services
			d. growth of the suburbs
				i. no longer the domain of wealthy alone
		5. Cultural changes brought by Automobile
			a. courtship practices change
				i. couples escaped chaperoning parents
			    ii. Necking in back seat fashionable & new morality
			b. Advertizement changes
				i. Automobile is symbol of good life, freedom, power & sex
			    ii. one of first products offered on credit
					a. Toledo, Ohio 1915 group of businessmen offer
					   installments on payments of cars
					b. so successful others followed suit & extended
 					   credit to almost everything
		6. Communication
			a. Alexander Gram Bell introduced telephone in 1876
			b. Edison's Phonograph in 1877
			c. Guglielmo Marconi (Italy) wireless telegraph 1895
				i. 1901 Marconi received signal across Atlantic in U.S.
			    ii. 
			d. Edison's Kintoscope displayed in New York 1894 
				i. 1896 1st theatrical presentation of moving pictures
			    ii. 1902 1st motion picture theater opens  (Los Angeles)
			   iii. 1903 1st movie The Great Train Robbery
			    iv. 1922 color, 1927 sound, 1928 the Oscars start (1927-8)
	D. Business Expansions
		1. Vertical 
			a. put all phases of an operation under one roof
			b. companies expand in all phases of their industry
			c. Andrew Carnegie built up the steel industry
				i. backward expansion
					a. coal
					b. iron
			   ii. forward
					a. transportation - railroads
					b. shipping lines
		2. Horizontal
			a. most railroads expand this way buy up competition
			b. John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil of New Jersey
				i. controlled 84% of country's oil production by 1898
			    ii. Robber Barons or Industrial Giants
		3. Cartels - Trusts in U.S.
			a. a natural result of free enterprise and capitalism 
				i. supported in Britain and Germany
			b. reduction of competition 
				i. Railroads in U.S. first trusts
					a. much opposition especially from Agricultural sector
			    ii. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
					a. attempt to discourage large business combinations
					b. Supreme court took literal interpretation only
					   broke up business or combinations that restrained
					   trade or commerce did nothing about businesses
	E. Changes in the Labor Market
		1. No more 12 hr. work days only 10 hr. but still 6 day work week
		2. many factories pay workers by the piece
		3. no washing or drink facilities in factories
		4. few safety precautions
			a. open belts to run machinery
			b. 3 times the injury rate as other European factories
				i. tens of thousands each year injured on job
			    ii. once injured workers lost livelihood, no insurance
		5. salaries not equal to amount they contribute to economy
			a. no or few benefits
			b. no unemployment 
			c. no disability
			d. few retirement plans
		6. New technology opens new jobs many demanding special training
		7. Professions start to demand college education
			a. no more training on the job
			b. doctors and lawyers apprenticeships before 1850
				i. after 1893 both American Medical Association started
				   and the American Barr Association 
			    ii. both require college and grad school
		8. Apprentice system dies out
			a. Engineers build using new technology
			b. Historians Economists, sociologists, psychologists, political
			   scientists all become professions		
		9. Education responded to new demands
			a. more high schools opened
			b. colleges respond to the need
				i. twice as many colleges started with increased enrolment
	F. Social thought turns to rationalize the wealth of some
		1. Social Darwinism developed in 1870 by Herbert Spencer
			a. influenced by Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest
			b. adapted this theory to the business environment
			c. Andrew Carnegie was a prime example
				i. a poor scottish immigrant
			    ii. he died one of the richest men in America
		2. Poverty and slums were inevitable
			a. they resulted from the wealth concentrating in the hands
			   of the fittest
			b. any government support would upset the balance of nature
			c. if rich help the poor they could infect the gene pool
		3. reached common culture through Horatio Alger Jr.
			a. rages to riches stories
			b. millions of books sold
			c. myth of social mobility easily accepted
				i. much economic prosperity & people wanted to believe
			    ii. middle class & college educated prospered
XVII. IMPERIALISM
	A. Continued Expansion of Colonialism
		1. Western Hemisphere & colonial conquest continues
			a. newly independent countries now exploited for trade & labor
			b. Great Britain, France & United States compete for control
				i. good source of raw materials
			    ii. a market for new industrial goods
			   iii. invisible exports - capitol, insurance & shipping
			c. United Fruit Company
				i. large investments throughout Latin America
			    ii. imported exotic tropical fruit (bananas & coconuts)
			   iii. paid workers slave wages
			d. Singer sewing machines found world wide market 
				i. other companies followed their lead
		2. Patriotism another factor for expansion 
			a. western europeans were expanding into foreign markets
			b. social darwinism promoted expansion
				i. "advanced" and "backward" peoples
					a. Theodore Roosevelt - civilized & uncivilized people
					b.. Rudyard Kipling, wrote of "the white man's burden"
			    ii. belief in the supremacy of their political system
					a. moral prerogative
					b. moral light of the world
					c. democracy and capitalism made them successful
					d. American character superior
					e. American technology superior 
					f. all these things needed to be shared
		3. American expansion in the South Pacific
			a. By 1875 sugar interests influenced the Hawaiian monarchy
				i. placed prominent men in palace
			    ii. eliminated import duty to U.S. on Hawaiian sugar
			b. 1877 gained permission for naval base, Pearl Harbor on Oahu
			c. Hawaiian resentment grew
				i. sugar companies imported Japanese workers
			    ii. native population dying from diseases
			   iii. 1891 Queen Liliuokalani assumed throne
					a. abolished constitution 
					b. led nativist movement against white domination
					c. 1893 white interests with American gunboats and
 					   marines staged palace coup and took over government
					d. Grover Cleveland in office, stopped annexation
					e. McKinley annexed the islands in 1898
		4. European expansion into Africa
			a. British fear of Russian power in decline of Ottoman Empire
				i. French start Suez Canal 1859 Egypt lets run for 99 years
			    ii. Egypt near bankrupt sells 44% of Canal to G.B. 1875 
			   iii. Two French & two British officials oversee financial 
affairs
			    iv. 1881 nativist revolt by Army 
				v. Alexandria and bloody rioting is shelled by British
			    vi. British put Ottoman Khedive of Egypt under their protection
			b. Berlin Conference of 1885 
				i. Congo declared a free state under Leopold II of Belgium
			    ii. European countries with costal possessions had first claims
			   iii. territorial claims if occupied by troops or administration
					a. rush to mission and explore interior 
						i. David Livingston hoped to spread Christianity 
						   end slavery and bring modern medicine to Africa
					b. France army into west Africa and Sudan
					c. Germans, British & Portuguese send private armies
					d. private enterprise too slow French & British armies
						i. exploit Africans replace slavery with alliances
						   requiring laborers
					e. Portuguese in Mozambique & Angola
					f. Italians in Somaliland and Eritrea
						i. Ethiopia resists with 80,000 troops
			c. Cecil Rhodes in South Africa 
				i. 1806 British seize Cape from Dutch to protect Indian trade
			    ii. 1836 Boers (Dutch Speaking Europeans) start great trek
					a. move to Orange River, Orange free state & Transvaal
			   iii. 1866 Boers discover diamonds 
			    iv. 1871 British seize territory and annex Transvaal
				v. 1880-81 First Boer War  British loose
			   vii. British promote a Cape Town to Cairo railroad afraid of
				   German railroad to South West Africa or Mozambique
			    vi. 1890 Rhodes is premier of Cape Colony 
					a. encourages Rhodesian troops to attack Transvaal 1889
					b. Rhodes resigns and Boers attack
					c. 1899-1902 Boer War and British win Rhodes dies of 
T.B.
			d. India and the great rebellion
				i. 1857 Sepoy (Indian Soldiers) refuse to bite bullets
					a. cartridges are greased with hog or cow fat
					b. Moslems cannot eat pork, Hindus cannot eat beef
			   ii. Rebellion spreads throughout country 
			  iii. British take over control from East India Company
			   iv. British negotiate treaties with local princes 
					a. Indian civil servants taught in British schools
					b. justice administered fairly brought British standards
					c. sanitation & modern medicine - population out grows
					   resources
		5. Spanish American War
			a. Cubans sought some autonomy
			b. American press
				i. World Joseph Pulitzer & Journal by William Randolph Hearst
			    ii. "just bring back the pictures and I'll print you a war."
			   iii. U.S.S. Maine blows up in Havana Feb. 15, 1898, 262 killed
			c. Theodore Roosevelt ordered Dewey to attack Philippines
				i. in Hong Kong, while sec. of Navy out of office.
			    ii. resigns to join Army, Kettle Hill
			d. Congress declares war 4/11/1898 and passes Teller Amendment 
				i. U.S. has no intention of annexing Cuba
			    ii. Cubans have right to self determination
			e. Islands of Guam and Puerto Rico taken without a shot
				i. Dewey's Pacific Fleet trapped the Spanish in Manilla
			    ii. sunk large portion and the rest remained in Spain
			f. Once U.S. gains Philippines, inhabitants seek freedom
				i. Aguinaldo a guerilla fought with U.S. against Spain
					a. hoped to gain independence
			    ii. over 1/4 million Americans served in War
			   iii. 4,234 Americans died, 2,800 wounded
			    iv. cost $400 million
				v. 18,000 Filipinos killed, 200,000 died of famine & disease

	G. Marxism
		1. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
			a. German philosophers wrote Communist Manifesto 1848
				i. presented in London to congress of Communists
			b. claimed that workers do not recieve fair share of profits
				i. bourgeoisie - business owners get richer & reinvest
			    ii. proletariat - working class get poorer as rich cut cost
			c. eventually workers would revolt and sieze control
				i. believed it would happen in England first 
					a. very class conscious & most industrial of day
			d. Das Kapital history is determined by economic forces
				i. believed the state should control industry
			    ii. dictatorship of the proletariat in a classless socity
			   iii. leading to utopia with no police or government at all
		2. Marx leads communist movement
			a. 1842 edits liberal newspaper in Colone Germany 
			b. 1843 paper suppressed Marx goes to Paris
			c. 1845 French drive him out and goes to Belgium
			d. 1848 returns to Germany and leads workers revolts
			e. 1849 exiled from Germany goes to Paris and then London
			f. 1864 starts International Workingman's Association 
			g. 1869 helps to found Social Democratic Labor party in Germany
			h. 1883 Marx dies in London

XVIII World War I
	A. War starts in Europe
		1. by early 1900s European countries struggling over empires
			a. Britain & Germany building large navies
			b. both sides forming complicated secret alliances
				i. Britain, France & Russia formed Allied Powers
			    ii. Germany, Austria-Hungary formed Central Powers
		2. June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip a Serbian nationalist displeased
		   with a plan to create a separate kingdom of Croatia assassinated
		   Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary
			a. Austria blamed Serbia and declared war
			b. Russia & France allied to Serbia and mobilized support
			c. Germany declared war to protect Austria & invaded Belgium
			d. England allied to France entered war with new Japan alliance
		3. Germans hoped for easy victory & sweep across Belgium into France
			a. French stop Germans at the Battle of the Marne 9/1914
			b. each side dug trenches and started a new type of warfare
		4. Technological advances changed warfare forever
			a. barbed wire, machine gun nests, rapid firing rifles,
			   smokeless bullets & improved explosives added to tolls
			b. wireless radios directed artillery fire
			c. airplanes spotted enemy positions & by 1918 had machine guns
			   & bombs & began dog fights
			d. both sides used gas before they developed a gas mask defense
			e. first time tanks used in war
			f. military leaders and strategies lagged behind technology
				i. officers still led calvary charges
			    ii. tried to use horses against machine guns
	B. American attempts at Neutrality
		1. most Americans want to remain neutral with few exceptions
			a. a few worked on an international plan to end the war 
			b. a few volunteered to form ambulance units
				i. Ernest Hemingway, E.E. Cummings
			c. a few rich men volunteered with French Army in special
			   division of the Air Force called the Lafayette Espadrille
			d. German & Austrian decedents support Central powers
			e. Irish support enemies of England
			f. Swedish-Americans support enemies of Russians 
			g. most Americans felt kinship & cultural ties to England
		2. Americans imported and exported to allied forces more than central
		3. Newspapers supported the views of readers and advertisers
			a. most support Allied forces & launch a propaganda war in U.S.
			b. news from Germany cut off by England so very one sided
		4. Wilson discouraged American loans to warring countries & insisted
		   on rights to remain neutral and trade with both sides
			a. British mine North Sea and seized American ships 
			b. prevented Americans from trading with Italy or Netherlands
			   both neutral but might trade with Central powers
			c. Wilson decides against opposing British control of seas &
			   discouraged business with central Europe
		5. Germany responded with a submarine blockade of Britain on 2/4/1915
			a. most countries viewed U-boats (Unterseeboot) with contempt
			b. protocol at time demanded a war ship warn a merchant or
			   passenger ship before attacking
			c. In March, German U-boat sunk British liner killing 103
			   including one American
			d. May 7, 1915 U-boat sunk British luxury liner the Lusitania
				i. ship was not armed but sank in only 18 minutes
			    ii. 1,200 passengers died including 128 Americans 
			   iii. American papers called it murder of innocent civilians
			    iv. ship carried war supplies using passengers as shield
			e. Wilson objected and wrote demanding reparations and a stop
			f. in late 1915 Germans sink British steamer Arabic
				i. two Americans die 
			    ii. German ambassador signs Arabic Pledge, 
			   iii. promised ships would not attack any more ocean liners
				   without warning
	C. Americans prepare for War
		1. National Security League forms to lobby for bigger military
		2. American Union Against Militarism fears growing military
			a. worried about war or imperialism
		3. Wilson concerned over European aggression increases army &
		   incorporates National Guard into national defense structure
		4. Wilson uses increased military to maintain American Imperialism
			a. summer 1915 Marines landed in Port-au Prince, Haiti to
			   support pro-American government
			b. 1916 America invaded Dominican Republic to prevent civil war
			c. keeps troops in Nicaragua sent by Taft
			d. Mexico ousted Porfirio Diaz and entered a long civil war
				i. Wilson refused to recognize president Victoriano Huerta
					a. had previous president Francisco Madero killed
			    ii. Wilson invades Vera Cruz to protect American interests
			   iii. almost backfired, Huerta gains support but can't hold on
			    iv. three factions vied for power
				v. Wilson supports Venustian Carranza and send him arms
			    vi. Pancho Villa upset 3/1916 invades Columbus, New Mexico
			   vii. Wilson sends General John Pershing to find Villa
			  viii. Villa evades capture, hiding in northern Mexico
			    ix. one of Pershing's patrols attacks a Mexican garrison
				x. Mexican government upset over Americans in Mexico
			    xi. Wilson removes troops January 1917 war in Europe coming
		5. Wilson won reelection in 1916 on keeping America out of War
		6. Wilson tried to settle an honorable peace but Germany refused
		   without victory and renewed blockade of England against all ships
		7. Zimmermann letter
			a. German foreign secretary, Authur Zimmermann gave instructions
			   to minister in Mexico in case of war with U.S.
			b. if Mexico joined against U.S. Germany promised all territory
			   lost in 1848 to the U.S. 
			c. America intercepted telegram & released it to press 3/1/1917
			d. Many Americans demand war with Germany
		8. Russian Revolution
			a. citizens grow upset over involvement in war
			b. food riots in Petrograd
			c. Czar called out army to put down riots but army revolted
			d. Czar called in navy but they join army and Revolution begins
			e. new Russian government pulled Russia out of war
		9. Wilson alarmed over shift in balance of power
	    10. 4/2/1917 Congress declares war with very few members objecting
	D. Russians sign separate peace treaty (Brest-Litovsk Treaty)
		1. Germans launch new offensive moved front to 50 miles from Paris
		2. Fall 1918 Allies push Germans back to Belgium
		3. Austrians believed war was over and surrendered
		4. Germans ask for armistice to regroup
			i. believed war going against them
	     5. Wilson announced would only talk with democratic government
	     6. Germany has brief revolution forced Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate
	     7. three days later 11/11/1918 signed Armistice
	E. Politics of the Peace Treaty
		1. When Germany signed the armistice they hoped for equitable peace
		2. Wilson hoped for the same thing but allies wanted revenge
		3. January 1919 Wilson proposes 14 points to allies in Paris
			a. open covenants, freedom of high seas, equality of trade,
			   self-determination of all peoples, and a League of Nations
			b. plan was idealistic and naive
			c. some acceptance on self-determination but not much
		4. Delegates reshaped Europe
			a. Austro-Hungary divided into Austria, Hungary & Yugoslavia
			b. created Poland, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia &
			   Lithuania (baltic states to slow down spread of Bolshevism)
			c. France gained industrial Saar region of Germany for 15 years
				i. plebiscite after that time for self-determination
			d. Italy gained port city of Trieste
			e. Germany forced to pay $56 billion and admit guilt for the war
			f. France & Britain divided German claims in Middle East
			g. Japan took the German colonies in the Pacific
			h. the League of Nations decided on the German colonies in
			   Africa and handed them over to other member countries to run
		5. League of Nations becomes model for United Nations
			a. council of 5 great powers (security council)
			b. elected delegates from smaller countries
			c. a World Court to settle disputes
		6. Problems with the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war
			a. smaller nations not invited, resented decisions made for them
			b. Germany could not pay reparations & felt betrayed
			c. Wilson brought experts but not Republicans so treaty rejected
XX. World War II
	A. Preparing for War
		1. Russia
			a. 1919 U.S., Britain, France & Japan invaded Siberia
			b. hoped to destroy Bolshevik army & end Russian Communism
			c. heavy losses on both sides
			d. 1922 Lenin has a stroke and dies in 1924
			e. Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin) takes control over Leon Trotsky
				i. 5 yr plan to industrialize Russia started in 1928 
			    ii. high taxes, country needed more food stuff 
		        iii. government forced collective farms 
			    iv. failures blamed on "kulaks" (rich pesants)
				v. farmers refuse to grow anthing more than they need
			    vi. Stalin confiscated needed gain and starved farmers
			f. U.S. refuses to recognize Russia until Roosevelt in office
				i. Roosevelt hoped to sell excess grain to Russia but they
				   were in the same depression 
			    ii. Soviet Union did agree to pay old debt of Russian
				   government incurred during WWI
		2. China
			a. Manchu Dynasty overthrown in 1912 
			b. Kuomintang party takes over north under Chiang Kai-shek 1928
			c. united rest of China under dictatorship in 1931
		3. Japan 
			a. universal male suffrage in 1925 
			b. limited democratic control of imperial government emerged
			c. country grew more industrial but needed resources
		4. India
			a. Mohandas Gandhi organized first civil disobedience campain 1920
				i. demaned share in government but was imprisoned
			    ii. British give up authority execpt defense & foreign policy
			b. Indian National Congress demand complete independence 1930
				i. Gandhi organized 2nd civil disobedience campaign
			    ii. Moslems feared a Hindu rulled society
			   iii. Moslem League headed by Mohammed Ali Jinnah
					a. demanded separate Moslem state
		3. Mexico threatened war in 1938
			a. U.S. oil was unresponsive to government & exploitive
			b. after years of breaking agreements, Mexico nationalized them
			c. U.S. choose not to act militarily but refused to sell
			   replacement parts for oil machinery
			d. Mexico eventually agrees to pay for machinery confiscated
			e. Mexico grew closer to Germany & Japan who supplied parts
	B. Fascism begins
		1. 1922 Benito Mussolini introduces Fascism to Italy
			a. previously a socialist, renounces old ties
			b. based new party on supremacy of old Roman Empire
			c. May 1935 invaded Ethiopia
				i. Britain sent fleet to Mediterranean but did not fight
			    ii. League of Nations condemned action but was helpless
			   iii. Congress passed Neutrality Act of 1935
					a. prohibited all arms shipments to warring nations
					b. advised citizens to avoid travel in belligerents
					c. trying to avoid causes that led to WWI
		2. Adolf Hitler in Germany
			a. corporal during WWI and started National Socialism party
			b. German police imprisoned him in 1923
				i. wrote philosophy of Nazism in Mein Kampf (my struggle)
			    ii. wrote about racial purity & hatred of Jewish people
			   iii. proposed way of gaining political & economic control
			c. January 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany
				i. People hoped he would end depression & unite Germany
			    ii. by March declares himself dictator 
			   iii. 1934 starts plan of rearmament of Germany (violation of
				   treaty of Versailles)
			    iv. set out to conquer Europe in a new German Empire 
		3. Spanish government collapsed in 1936
			a. new socialist government took over
			b. Gen. Francisco Franco led civil war with help of Catholic
			   Church & land owning elite
				i. Germany & Italy supported Franco
					a. Germany tried new weapons & strategies
						i. air force gained experience
					    ii. hand held machine guns & grenades 
					   iii. experimented with total war & bombed Guernica
			    ii. Soviet Union supported rightful government at first
			   iii. Americans fought on both sides, caused Roosevelt concern
					a. Roosevelt extends the Neutrality Act to cover Spain
			c. Communist party pulls out support & Franco wins
		4. German aggression
			a. with knowledge learned from war started expansion in 1938
				i. annexes Austria in March 1938
			    ii. September occupies Sudetenland part of Czechoslovakia
			   iii. continued his aggression & took the rest of the country
			    iv. August 23, 1939 Russia enters secret treaty with Germany
					a. Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact, planned to divide
					   Poland between the two
				v. P.M. Neville Chamberlain of Britain offered appeasement
			    vi. Britain & France entered treaty to protect Poland
					a. a week later Germany & Russia invaded Poland
		5. Japanese aggression
			a. isolated industrial island needing natural resources
				i. 1931 Japan invades Manchuria 
			    ii. 1937 Japan launches full invasion of China
			b. July 1939 U.S. canceled 1911 commercial agreement with Japan
				i. exerted political pressure on Japan to withdraw
	C. World War II
		1. U.S. refused to enter another European war
			a. attempts at home with social progams to end depression
			b. Roosevelt worried about German aggression
			c. sold Britain & France arms on cash & carry basis
				i. avoid upsetting U.S. economy with loans
			    ii. avoided Germany attacking U.S. cargo shipments
			d. 1939 learnt Germany developing an Atomic Bomb
				i. Roosevelt authorizes the Manhattan Project
		2. the "Phony War"
			a. Britain sent a few divisions to France after Poland
			b. nothing happened for another year
		3. Blitzkrieg (lightening war)
			a. April 9, 1940 Germany invades Norway & Denmark
			b. a few weeks later, Belgium, Luxembourg & the Netherlands
			c. a week later they marched into France
				i. France defended against a frontal assault with the
				   Marginot line
			    ii. large line of cannons facing Germany with subway
				   railroads connecting them with supplies & troops
			   iii. Germany avoided it by invading Belgium first
			    iv. Maginot line was useless, cannons faced wrong way
				v. Germany advanced to a few miles from Paris
			    vi. a few weeks later France surrendered
		4. Roosevelt expands help to Britain
			a. P.M. Winston Churchill asked for aid from U.S.
			b. Roosevelt gave Britain 50 old destroyers for navel and air
			   bases in several British territories
			c. Congress gave $4 billion for new warships 
			d. Congress passed Selective Service Act, first peace time draft
			e. Germany bombs Britain in preparation for invasion
			f. Russia invades Finland
			g. Roosevelt wins reelection for third term
				i. Congress lends Britain war supplies in Lend-Lease Act
			    ii. Roosevelt declares national emergency closes Italian &
				   Germany consulates
		5. Hitler makes first big mistake and attacks Soviet Union
			a. U.S. needs Soviet ally so Roosevelt extends them Lend-Lease
				i. Americans were sending the supplies to allies
			    ii. Germans were attacking American supply ships & might
				   have started a war just like WWI
		6. Japanese involvement
			a. U.S. exerts more pressure on Japan to stop aggression
				i. Sept. 1940 stops shipments of airline fuel & scrap metal
			    ii. March 1941 increases embargo to everything except oil
					a. worried that if they cut oil Japan may declare war
			   iii. American volunteers join Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek
				   in an attempt to stop Japanese (Flying Tigers)
			b. Japan decides to invade French Indochina & head south
			c. July 1941 Roosevelt freezes all Japanese assets in U.S.
				i. diplomatic relations break down
			    ii. U.S. deciphers Japanese diplomatic code
			d. Japanese launch well orchestrated campaign in Pacific
				i. Dec. 7, 1941 attack Pearl Harbor, the Philippines, Guam,
				   the Midway Islands, Hong Kong & Malaya
			    ii. new U.S. aircraft carriers on maneuvers out at sea
			e. Dec. 8, 1941 U.S. declares war on Japan
			f. Dec. 11, 1941 Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.
	D. U.S. in WWII
		1. Arcadia Conference, Dec. 22, 1941
			a. Churchill comes to D.C. discusses war with Roosevelt
		2. Roosevelt mobilized resources with War Production Board
			a. gave contracts to businesses with guaranteed profits
			b. ordered Justice department not to prosecute anti-trust cases
			   in war related industries
			c. profits increased in almost all businesses & farms
		3. National War Labor Board 
			a. sets wages & hours & monitors work conditions
			b. President could seize any plant that did not cooperate
			c. allowed some wage increases because of war time inflation
			d. 1943 John L. Lewis called national coal strike
				i. Roosevelt orders nationalization of mines
			    ii. Lewis reevaluates position & calls off strike
		4. Roosevelt started Office of Price Administration (OPA)
			a. regulated all resources needed for war
			b. set rations & checked inflation of rare commodities
				i. rubber, sugar, gasoline, silk & meat
			    ii. every family received coupons but encouraged not to use
			c. rush to create new synthetic substitutes for natural products
		5. Roosevelt and Japanese American citizens
			a. animosity towards Japanese spread to those in U.S.
			b. West coast urged investigation of Japanese Americans
				i. worried about fifth column
			    ii. War Department investigated & found no real threat
			c. President listened to public opinion & issued Ex. order 9066
				i. authorized evacuation of all Japanese Americans in west
			    ii. set them to concentration (relocation) camps
			   iii. 110,000 of the 127,000 in U.S. moved
			    iv. little or hardly any warning
				v. lost businesses, homes & possessions
			    vi. could take only what they could carry
			   vii. Hawaii only exception, upset economic balance of islands
			d. Japanese did not resist, showed patriotism
				i. some joined special 442nd infantry combat team
					a. served only in Europe but some of toughest fighting
					b. most decorated unit in the war
			    ii. 1960s Supreme Court ruled President had the power to
				   deny these people their rights because of emergency
			   iii. 1990s Congress gave each one interned $20,000
	E. The War
		1. U.S. could not concentrate on two fronts at once
			a. Roosevelt let Japan advance through the Pacific
				i. Japan controlled almost everything except Australia
			    ii. Japan captured American & British in the area & put them
				   in concentration camps
			b. Germans pushed into Russia almost capturing Moscow
				i. captured Russian industrial region & oil fields
			c. German Africa Corps under Erwin Rommel capture North Africa
				i. dessert fox, buried gas tanks in dessert
			d. German submarines sunk American & British ships faster than
			   they could be replaced
		2. Joint effort
			a. Churchill wanted to postpone invasion and bomb troops
			b. Stalin suffered heavy losses and wanted relief in west
			c. 1942 Roosevelt calls for invasion in North Africa first
				i. weakest part of German defenses
			    ii. Stalin resented the decision
		3. Roosevelt takes lead
			a. negotiated with resistance groups
				i. gave arms to Gen. Tito in Yugoslavia & Ho Chi Minh in
				   Indochina
			    ii. dealt with Franco & gained safe passage to Mediterranean
			b. Roosevelt learnt of Nazis extermination of Jews 11/1942
				i. did little to stop it
					a. only allowed 21,000 Jews to enter U.S.
					b. refused to bomb gas chambers at Auschwitz
			    ii. may not have stopped Holocaust but could have slowed it
			   iii. Jews in U.S. upset with President's inaction
		4. Allied success
			a. to stop Japanese advances America devoted some men to a navel
			   war in the Pacific
				i. May 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea America prevented the
				   invasion of New Guinea & Australia
					a. first navel battle that no guns on ships fired
					b. battle fought by planes & aircraft carriers proven
			    ii. June 1942 the Battle of Midway America turned tide &
				   gave Japanese first defeat, sunk 4 carriers & destroyed
				   over 300 planes
			   iii. U.S. realized it was easier to defeat islands than hold
				   them & started a policy of island hopping skipping some
			b. Dwight D. Eisenhower moved across Africa to meet with British
			c. July 1943 allies invaded Sicily then headed into Italy
				i. Italians upset at the loss of Sicily rebelled 
			    ii. Hitler took over Italian government & put in Mussolini 
			   iii. June 1944 after fierce resistance allies capture Rome
			e. June 6, 1944 Operation Overlord
				i. combined British & American invasion of Normandy
			    ii. invaded over a month with over 1 million troops
			   iii. bombing softened up continent
					a. Americans by day & British by night
					b. allies also bombed civilian targets
						i. February 1945 Dresden fire bombed
			f. Industry played a major role
				i. Germany had better equipment, planes, tanks & rockets
			    ii. Americans better artillery & better trained men
					a. almost all had mechanical knowledge and used it 
					   kept their machines running
			   iii. Americans produced two weapons for every German one
			g. By 12/1944 victory looked almost complete
				i. Allied forces marched across Europe and into Germany
			    ii. Just before Christmas Germany launched counter attack
					a. Battle of the Bulge pushed back allies 50 miles
					b. Allies over extended with little support
					c. Eisenhower nervous, offered prisoners pardon &
					   Black troops opportunity to leave support units
			h. Victory in Europe 
				i. British distrusted Russians wanted to take Berlin first
			    ii. Eisenhower decided lives more important than politics
					a. heads south & cuts off German retreat into Alps
					b. May 1945 Hitler commits suicide & May 8, war ends
			i. Japanese continue to fight
				i. 1945 Americans start long range bombing of Japan
			    ii. Battle of Ley te Gulf almost destroyed Japanese navy 
			   iii. Most believed Japanese would fight to last man
			j. Roosevelt won reelection with new V.P. Harry S Truman
			k. Yalta Conference February 1945
				i. Roosevelt seeks Stalin's help in Pacific & U.N.
			    ii. Roosevelt gave much of the area controlled by Russia in
				   Korea and China
			   iii. They also divided Germany & Berlin
			    iv. Russia took part of Poland as a buffer
					a. Roosevelt had to give Poland part of Germany too
					b. Stalin agreed to part of old Polish government
					   return but wanted control until elections
				v. Stalin agreed to meet in April 1945 at San Francisco to
				   draft U.N. charter
					a. while 50 countries drafted charter Roosevelt dies
					   April 12, 1945 of a cerebral hemorrhage
			l. Potsdam, July 1945 Truman, P.M. Clement Attlee & Stalin meet
				i. three cannot agree on dividing Europe
			    ii. July 16 Truman learns of successful Atomic Bomb test
			   iii. They agree to end meeting early and meet again later 
			m. The decision to drop the bomb
				i. Japanese start kamikaze attacks, loosing war
			    ii. Invasion seemed only option & extremely costly
			   iii. to save lives Aug. 6, 1945 Enola Gay a B-29 dropped bomb
				   on Hiroshima & the world was stunned
			    iv. Aug. 9 with no response bombed Nagasaki
				v. Aug. 14, 1945 Japan surrenders to avoid any more bombs

XXI. THE COLD WAR & A NEW SELF DETERMINATION FOR MANY PEOPLES
	A. World Economy & Politics
		1. U.S. emerged as one of the strongest economic powers in the world
			a. no damage except in a few Pacific territories
			b. manufacturing at its peak
			c. rest of world's factories damaged
			d. U.S. hoped to fill void with products, culture & government
				i. experts claimed U.S. needed to export 3 times as much as
				   before the war to maintain economic prosperity
			    ii. the political disarray in Europe provided opportunity
		2. Soviets grew concerned about peace in Europe & economic prosperity
			a. Soviets controlled half of Europe & worried about capitalism
			   & a resurgence of imperial powers that could start war
			b. Soviets also needed to rebuild after years of war
			c. Governments in Europe weak & economies ruined
				i. communists grew in number & power in weak countries
		3. Soviet Totalitarianism
			a. Americans distrusted Soviets & equated them with Fascism
			b. Truman grew impatient waiting for elections in Poland
			c. 6 days after V.E. day stopped Lend-Lease 
				i. Soviets depended on aid to rebuild
			    ii. Stalin asked for $6 million loan 
					a. Roosevelt wanted concessions but died
					a. Stalin asks for only $1 million from Truman
					b. Truman agree if Soviets lift trade restrictions
					c. Stalin looked elsewhere to finance rebuilding 
			d. 1946 Stalin claimed communism & capitalism on collision
			   course and communism would triumph
				i. started building Soviet military at cost to society
			    ii. Winston Churchill's Iron curtain speech in Fulton, Mo.
			e. George F. Kennan (American Chargé d'affaires in Soviet Union)
				i. claims Stalin's hostility stems from a neurotic
				   insecurity of Soviet political system 
					a. no concessions would help situation
					b. U.S. would have to oppose no matter what
					c. rewarded & give influential position in state dept.
			f. Soviet influence growing
				i. 2/1947 Soviet negotiated joint control of Dardanelles
				   with Turkey (between Mediterranean & Black Sea)
			    ii. U.S. feared communist revolution in Greece
					a. communist fighting against right wing monarchy
		4. Truman Doctrine proposed in addresses to congress 5/12/1949
			a. congress afraid of giving aid & upsetting economy
			b. Truman claims U.S. must support free people against armed
			   minorities & outside pressures
			c. Congress gives direct economic & military aid $400 million to
			   Turkey & Greece
			d. Truman Doctrine proposes the U.S. to police world
		5. Marshall Plan (Secretary of State George Marshall)
			a. Summer of 1947 European conference to discuss recovery & aid
				i. Soviet sent representatives but withdrew quickly
					a. plan called for free elections
					b. 1947 rigged Hungry elections eliminate opposition
					c. Kept Czechs in control with Soviet troops
			b. U.S. gives aid to western Europe & helps rebuild Germany
				i. Germany divided in four sections
			    ii. U.S. & Britain join their sections
					a. they give German's charge of governmental duties
					b. France fears resurgence of Germany
					c. Soviets fear everything
			c. By 1951 W. Europe had recovered to surpass thier prewar econmies
				i. Greece was an exception since fighting continued to 1949
		6. Berlin Crisis 1948
			a. Soviets try to strengthen boundaries against U.S. influence
			b. Berlin lies within Soviet section of East Germany
			c. Soviets deny allies access to west Berlin across border
			d. U.S. & Britain air lift supplies to west Berlin
				i. Soviets could not afford shooting plans down
			    ii. believed it would be too expensive & U.S. would give up
			e. Air lift continued until Soviets relented
		7. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 1949
			a. in response to growing Soviet threat
			b. U.S. & 11 west European countries form pact
			c. if one member attacked others consider it an attack on all
		8. Asia and the Communist threat
			a. China filled with warlords & two resistance groups
				i. Chiang Kai-Shek, Nationalists & Mao Tse-Tung, Communists
			    ii. Nationalists refuse to rebuild, fight Communists instead
			   iii. 1949 Communists successful in civil war
			    iv. Nationalists forced to retreat to Island of Taiwan
			b. Communists aligned with Soviets 
				i. U.S. an Imperialist nation for supporting opposition
			c. U.S. worried about spread of communism & refused to recognize
			   mainland China instead recognized Taiwan
			d. Indonisia
				i. Japanese fostered an indepenence movement
			    ii. Japan recognized Sukarno's Independence Prepatory Committee
			   iii. Janpan stops plans with defeat in War
			    iv. Sukarno declares independence August 17, 1945
				v. Dutch found natives organized and well armed 
			    vi. 1949 Dutch finally recognize Indonisian independence
			e. Burma 
				i. British wish to give up former territory
			    ii. 1846-48 several parties vie for power & country unstable
			f. Malaya 
				i. British reestablish colonial control
			    ii. Chinese immigrants dominated the economy 
			   iii. Malay people feared Chinese control
			    iv. Chinese immigrants took to jungles as gurrillas till 1955
			g. Phillippines
				i. U.S. helped government flee into exile as Japanese invaded
			    ii. U.S. brings back government officials but others take 
charge
			   iii. Collaborators in charge but Americans gave up control
			    iv. Communist backed gurrillas continue to challenge government
			h. India
				i. British jailed Mohandas Gandhi &Jawaharlal Nehru in 1942
			    ii. Threat of Japanese most Indians cooperated to build an army
			   iii. Japanese stopped their advance 
			    iv. British announced withdraw in 1947
				v. Ali Jinnah gathered support and gained independent Pakistan
			    vi. Kashmir divided between Pakistan and India
					a. Principalities run throughout India relinquish 
control
					b. most Muslem but Kashmir run by Hindu and India aids
					c. Troops from both sides take control of 1/2 each
			   vii. Ceylon (divided ethnic groups) British determined leave 
1948
		9. Korea
			a. U.S. liberated southern half from Japan Soviets the north
			b. they divided the nation at the 38th parallel 
			c. June 25, 1950 North Korea invades the south
				i. with Soviet built tanks, easily defeat unprepared army
			d. Truman felt the U.S. must intervene
				i. sought aid from the United Nations
			    ii. Soviets absent from Security Council in protest over
				   U.N. not admitting China
			   iii. Security council passes resolution branding North as the
				   aggressor & calls on member nations to assist South
			e. U.N. forces push North back close to China
					a. U.S. hopes to unite country again
			f. China warns U.N. of threat to their security 
			g. 10/1950 China enters war & pushes U.N. back to 38th parallel
			h. Gen. Douglas MacArthur
				i. wants to bomb China, Truman believes will escalate war
			    ii. 4/1951 MacArthur writes to American public
			   iii. Truman relieves MacArthur of duty for insubordination
			    iv. MacArthur returns to parades & speeches but subsides
			i. U.S. questions goals & opens peace talks but they bog down
	B. 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower changes containment policy
		1. Sec. of State John Foster Dulles & policy of liberation
			a. Spread democracy to countries under Soviet control
			b. Yugoslavia controled by nationalists under Tito in 1945
				i. although a communist did not submit to Soviet control
			    ii. discoved soviets planning to oust him & kicked them out
			   iii. this weakened communists in Greece that depended on arms
			    iv. other communists countries feared "Titoists" in own country
			c. Hungary, E. Germany & Czechoslovakia had anti-Soviet
			   demonstrations
				i. Czechoslovakians favored Soviets since west betrayed in 
1939
			    ii. Marshall plan threatened favortism towards Soviets 
			   iii. February 1948 soviet backed coup d'état takes over
			    iv. Soviets crack down & Eisenhower does nothing to help
			d. Korean peace talks
				i. Eisenhower makes personal visit to Korea
			    ii. North Korea stalls talks believing they can move south
			   iii. Eisenhower privately threatens Chinese with Atomic bomb
					a. Chinese force the Koreans to bargain
			    iv. July 27, 1953 armistice permanently divides country
			e. Effects of Korean war
				i. increased size of military from 1/3 to 1/2 of budget
			    ii. 1948 over opposition Truman desegregated military
		2. French Indochina
			a. during war Japanese let French collaborators to run country
			b. Japanese victory destroyed ideas of white European supremacy
			c. Ho Chi Minh leads major resistance to Japanese & French
				i. a communist he used guerrilla tactics
			d. After war allies returned colony to French
				i. most people wanted independence
			e. 12/1945 Ho formed government, Democratic Republic of Vietnam
				i. as French try to reestablish colonial rule Ho resists
			f. Truman alarmed at another communist government recognizes
			   French puppet government in 1950
				i. Ho views U.S. as collaborator to colonialism
			    ii. after WWII U.S. supplies France with aid, freeing French
				   resources to wage war in Vietnam
			g. Eisenhower is concerned about French loosing Vietnam
				i. At Dien Bien Phu French suffer humiliating defeat
			    ii. French decide to pull out of Vietnam
			   iii. believes in Domino Theory & the need of U.S. to stop it
			h. Geneva conference divides Vietnam at 17th parallel
				i. Ho gets North, Premier Ngo Dinh Diem gets South
			    ii. both agree to national election in 1956 to unite country
			   iii. U.S. refuses to sign
					i. wants no part of concessions to communism
			i. Diem seeks U.S. aid Eisenhower sends CIA units to Vietnam
			j. 1956 Eisenhower backs Diem's decision to postpone elections
				i. U.S. increases military aid & sends in military advisers
		3. Palistine-Israel
			a. Britian lost influence in Australia, Canada & South Africa
				i. New Zealand needed Britian to buy wool and butter
			b. Anti-Jewish campain of German Nazis united Jews in Europe
				i. most felt a return to Isreal better then return to nothing
			    ii. Nov. 1947 the U.N. divided it into Arab and Jewish states
			   iii. May 14, 1948 Isreal becomes a nation 
			    iv. May 15 attacked by 5 Arab neighbors
				v. end of 48 Isreal occupied half of Arab territory (other 
half
				   controled by Egypt & Jordan w/ east Jerusalem
			    vi. Egypt prevented Isreal to export to the south & took Suez 
				   from British & French in July 1956
			   vii. Isreal invaded Egypt with British & French on Oct. 29, 1956
			  viii. Isreal took Sinai & Gaza strip UN controls Gulf of Aqaba
			    ix. U.N. cease fire & occupies Sinai but Egypt demands back
				x. May 1967 Egypt closes Aqaba to Isreal 
			    xi. June 5, 1967 Isreal attacks Egypt, Jordan & Syria 
				  a.	six days war, Isreal occupies Sinai, West Bank & Golan 
hts
		3. Latin America
			a. 1950s Guatemala President, Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán
			   nationalizes the assets of the United Fruit Company
				i. the U.S. company owned large amounts of land & kept
				   workers in debt peonage
			    ii. Arbenz saw benefits of Mexican nationalization of oil
			b. Sec. of State Dulles claims they are communists
			c. 1954 Eisenhower ordered CIA to support coupe, kills Arbenz
	C. Nuclear Weapons one of the biggest issues of the Cold War
		1. Atomic Bomb
			a. Under Roosevelt, Great Britain helped in the development
			b. 1943 Stalin knew of project from spies
				i. hoped to share in information but denied
			    ii. Stalin starts own project to develop a bomb
			c. Three days after the successful U.S. test Stalin knew
				i. Truman & Churchill finally told Stalin a week later
			d. Spies help Stalin build a bomb & test it in September 1949
				i. Cold war politics kept Truman from giving information to
				   Soviets
			e. U.S. refused to believe Soviets gained secrets of bomb on own
			f. 1950 British arrest a scientist involved in Manhattan project
				i. confessed to passing secrets from 1942-1947
			    ii. from information, U.S. arrested Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
			   iii. 1950 Rosenbergs stand trial for espionage & convicted
			    iv. 1953 at height of Cold War, Rosenbergs are executed 
		2. Hydrogen Bomb
			a. 1950 Truman authorized Hydrogen bomb project
			b. 1953 both U.S. & Soviets have a Hydrogen bomb
			c. Both test their devices
				i. 1957 U.S. BRAVO test in Pacific Islands
			    ii. fallout poisoned several Japanese fishermen
					a. condemned by international community
		3. Rockets & Delivering Systems
			a. 1957 Soviets launch Inter-continental Ballistic Missile, ICBM
			b. a few months later 10/4/57 Soviets launch Sputnik
				i. Americans concerned about attack from Space
			    ii. hysteria sweeps country & people build fallout shelters
			   iii. duck and cover drills in schools
			c. Truman built nuclear arsenal & relied on conventional weapons
			d. Eisenhower worried about economy relies on nuclear arsenal
				i. cuts back on conventional weapons & military
			    ii. a number of statesmen believe in limited nuclear attack
			   iii. others believed their was no such thing as limited 
			    iv. U.S. built up nuclear arsenal to threaten soviets with
				   total retaliation if attacked
				v. Since mid 1950s a few countries could destroy the world