California History

I. Prehistoric California
	A. Natural landscape
		1. The name
			a. Las Sergas de Esplandi n by GarcĄ Ordo¤ez de Montalvo 16thcen
				i. an island close to paradise to the east of the Indies
			    ii. harsh & wild with craggy rocks & only metal is gold
			   iii. Queen Califa & Amazons
			c. The land of the Caliphs (North Africa & Middle East)
		2. Geography
			a. An Island?
				i. geographically cut off by mountains, deserts, & ocean
			b. plate tectonics
				i. North American&Pacific plates meet at San Andreas Fault
					a. Pacific plate started moving north 30 mil. yrs ago
					b. volcanic activity continues, (Ring of Fire)
						i. Shasta in Klamath Mts. &Lassen in Cascade Mts.
					c. Sierra Nevada form & tilt West 20-10 mil. years ago
						i. Coast Range starts later &Central Valley fills
			c. Glaciation 2 mil. years ago 
				i. no glaciers from Polar regions 
			    ii. small glaciers from mountains moved down&formed valleys
			   iii. warming causes sea to raise & new coast line
					a. Golden Gate forms 10,000 years ago & forms bay
			d. Climate
				i. Mediterranean (fairly rare in world)
					a. warm dry summers & wet winters
					b. El Nino pocket of warm water in south east Pacific
			    ii. micro climates (regions have own climatic conditions)
					a. Northern rain forests, southern & eastern deserts
						i. low breaks in Coastal Range allows cold air in
		3. Plants & Animals
			a. More diversity than elsewhere in U.S.
				i. 73 varieties of conifers in American West, 54 in CA
			    		a. oldest living things, largest & tallest
			b. prehistoric animals 
				i. large reptiles in eastern deserts, Nevada, Utah&Arizona
					a. most of CA under water during this period
			    ii. large mammals, mammoths, sloths, camels, wolves & tigers
					a. extinct with climactic change 6000-3000 B.C.
	B. Native Peoples
		1. Origins
			a. land bridge theory 35,000-15,000 years ago
			b. problems with theory
			c. alternative theories
		2. Agriculture & domestic animals?
			a. dogs not widely used limited to some tribes
			b. acorns, wild grains
				i. acorn leaching process spread 10,000 years ago
			c. flood plain planting along rivers
				i. Yuma, Mohave & Halchidhoma-maize, pumpkin, squash&beans
		 	    ii. Owens valley Paiute built large irrigation canals 
					a. Cahuilla even irrigated from wells at times
			   iii. almost all knew of agriculture but not used by all
			d. hunters & gathers with large trade network
				i. coastal fishing
			    ii. Chumash plank boats to channel islands
		3. Isolated tribes
			a. 100 different tribes with 64-80 different languages
			b. geographic isolation, plentiful food supply&temperate climate 
		4. Trade networks 
			a. interior mineral products
				i. obsidian, steatite (soap stone), cinnabar, granite
			b. coastal products 
				i.  abalone, salt & tar for caulking boats
			c. fairs, treaties, market agreements, exchange rates
				i. tobacco & cocaine in Egyptian mummies?
		5. Science & Medicine
			a. Astronomy
				i. tracked solstice for agriculture & religion
					a. power to predict & benefit tribe
			b. Medicines from local plants
				i. used some surgery & set bones
			    ii. whites consulted shamen years after conquest
					a. especially concerning infection & serious illness
			   iii. idea of subconscious & interpretation of dreams?
		6. Religion
			a. creation myths that reflect their environment 
			b. some monotheists but most polytheists
				i. animistic - human behavior & characteristics of animals
			c. taboos & customs limited exploitation of nature 
				i. some birth controls established-better than consequences
			d. harmony with nature & neighbors myth
				i. no market economy & limited technology
			e. hallucinogenic drugs used to induce visions 
				i. jimpson weed, mushrooms & peyote
		7. Government 
			a. Bands of tribes (triblets)
				i. small groups under captains of tribes
					a. leadership & relations within a band
					b. tribes based on language not relationships
					c. different dialects & religious practices 
					d. some intermarry others ostracized
			    ii. banded with other clans to defend or fight 
			b. leadership based on family structure & inherited
				i. potlatches maintain equality of wealth
			    ii. chiefs give more away at least once a year
					a. allowed two wives in many tribes
		8. Gender roles
			a. women - gathered & prepared plant foods
				i. maintained houses & reared children
			b. men - hunted animals & harvested woods & minerals
				i. governed, traded, & conducted religious ceremonies
			c. labor sharing at harvest times (salmon runs acorn season)
			d. European farming rejected by many men as women's work
				i. fought assimilation
			e. sex more free than european morals
				i. single men lived in communal houses
			    ii. women lived with families & joined man's clan
					a. divorce easy but not as common as today

II. Europeans and Indians
	A. Explorers
		1. Glory, Gold, & God
			a. The Reconquista & Spanish feudal system
			b. the incomienda & Barthome de las Casas
			c. germ pool theory
		2. Hernan Cort‚s 1519 invasion of Mexico
			a. early myths and Aztec response 
				i. Quetzalcoatl & Black Tezcatlipoca
			b. Malinche
		3. 1533 mutineers cross Gulf of California to Baja
			a. returned with tales of island surrounded by pearl beds
				i. met hostile natives who killed all except 2
			b. Cort‚z follows lead in 1535 named sea & claimed island
			c. Ulloa (1539) Alarcon (1540) discovered Colorado & fresh water
				i. California is a peninsula but name sticks
		4. Juan RodrĄguez Cabrillo w/ 3 ships 1542
			a. peaceful Indians with news of other whites landing in east
				i. Ulloa or Alarcon?
			b. San Diego (named first San Miguel later changed by ViscaĄno)
				i. Indians peaceful at first but attacked at night
					a. 2 bands & retribution for attacks in east
					b. made reference to horses swords lances & cross bows
			c. European reaction to Chumash (kidnapped 6 children)
				i. claimed must be white (too intelligent for indians)
					a. small ocean boats, towns with round houses, make-up
			d. Winter storms & scattered ships
				i. low supplies & hungry w/ little water
					a. turned around north of Monterey Bay
			e. dies of infection in broken arm 1/3/1543
			f. ships return 4/14/43 under second in command Bartolom‚ Ferrer
				i. established Spain's claim to California & west coast
					a. no wealth, limited knowledge & no inlet to east
		5. Sir Francis Drake & New Albion 1579
			a. privateer for England(consort & partner with queen Elisabeth)
			b. avoid trap by sailing up west coast of New Spain
			c. around the world in Golden Hind (Fernando Magellan 1519-22)
			d. New Albion someplace in northern California (Drake's Bay?)
				i. meeting Costal Miwok, fear-prayer-& applause
			    ii. exchange of gifts
			   iii. brass plate (1937 H.E.Bolton)
	B. A Second Wave of Explorers
		1. The Manila Galleons
			a. Trade with far east and Philippines established by Magellan
			b. new route north with treasure to CA and south to Mexico
				i. ships weak & needed supplies susceptible to pirates 
			    ii. supply station in northern California may alleviate
			c. 1587 Pedro de Unamuno in a Manila galleon explored coastline
				i. may have found Morro Bay
					a. natives fled by attacked later killed 5 
			    ii. Spain feared loss of valuable treasure to natives
					a. ordered future explorers not to travel inland
			d. 1595 Sebasti n RodrĄguez Cerme¤o & San AgustĄn explored coast
				i. christened Port of San Francisco (now Drake's Bay)
					a. assembled small exploration launch San Buenaventura
			    ii. storms destroyed ship
					a. tried to build vessel & stole wood from village
					b. Indians attacked & fled on San Buenaventura
			  iii. Galleon & treasure lost, expedition a failure
					a. Spain orders Galleons to avoid dangerous coastline
					b. sends smaller vessels north to explore in future
		2. Sebasti n VizcaĄno's Expedition 1602
			a. 3 ships San Diego, Santo Tom s, Tres Reys & 130 men
				i. difficulty against winds & frequent stops for supplies
			    ii. contact with Indians mostly favorable 
			b. despite hardship managed to map coast up to Point Pi¤os
				i. scurvy ravaged crew all too weak to work
			    ii. stopped at Monterey Bay (named for Viceroy)
					a. feared failure & exaggerated the bay
						i. Portol 's expedition failed to recognize it
					b. sent one ship home with extremely ill
			c. pushed north past Cape Mendicino, storm separated 2 ships
				i. landed Drake's Bay couldn't salvage San AgustĄn's cargo
			    ii. turned south at Cape San Sebasti n (in southern Oregon)
			   iii. all ships returned safely but over 40 died
		3. 1606 Royal Order prohibited further sea exploration of California

III. SPANISH CALIFORNIA
	A. Problems & Early attempts
		1. European threats to New Spain
			a. French & Indian War- Britian gets Florida & France out
			b. Russians expanding south from Alaska
		2. Visitor-General Jos‚ de G lvez ordered to secure north
			a. settlement through missions & presidios
			b. Capt. Gaspar de Portol  & Fr. JunĄpero Serra lead expedition
				i. four pronged invasion of San Diego
		         ii. Apr. & Apr. 1769  2 ships w/ 100 sailors from La Paz
			   iii. Capt. Fernando Rivera led troops & cattle from Mexico
			    iv. Portol  & Serra left Baja w/ mission Indian neophites
			c. disease & Indian resistance killed half 
				i. 1 ship (San Antonio) sent for reinforcements
			    ii. Serra stays behind with sick
			   iii. Portol  leads land expedition to Monterey
					a. cannot recognize bay from VizcaĄno's description
					b. found San Francisco Bay as impediment north
					c. retraced path & returned to San Diego
			d. San Antonio returns the day before failure & return
				i. Portol  & Serra head north on ship to Monterey
			e. Expedition establishes Monterey as capitol of Alta CA
			     i. Serra founds mother mission Mission San Carlos Borromeo 
			    ii. Portol  gives command to Lieutenant Pedro Fages
	             iii. Portol  returns home
		3. San Francisco
			a. 3 missions divided the distance from San Carlos & San Diego
				i. San Gabriel Arc ngel (1771) 
			    ii. San Antonio de Padua (1771)
			   iii. San Luis Obispo de Tolosa (1772)
			b. missions depended on detachments of soldiers to protect 
				i. soldiers caught run always as well
			    ii. needed supplies from Mexico to feed soldiers
			c. Captain Juan Bautista de Anza expedition 1775-1776
				i. overland from Mexico along Gila & Colorado Rivers
					a. longer but safer than sea route
			    ii. establish presidio of San Francisco
					a. first time women & children brought north
					b. also start mission San Francisco de Asis (Dolores)
			   iii. Indians help build presidio & mission
					a. at celebration soldiers shot guns
					b. Indians ran away & none baptized for one year
	B. Missions as a Colonial tool of Exploitation
		1. Serra's efforts 1769-1784
			a. first 9 missions 50-75 miles apart
				i. designed two day's journey apart
		2. FermĄn de Lasu‚n founded 9 more by 1803 & reduced distance between
			a. fostered growth w/ irrigation, agriculture & industry
			b. built stone & adobe structures with tiled roofs
			c. 21 missions from San Diego to San Francisco Solano by 1823
		3. Indian relations under mission system
			a. separated & controlled once in mission system
				i. no way out after conversion
			    ii. women in locked buildings at night
			b. time for prayer & work
				i. whipping common, (flagellations as well)
			    ii. Indian religions persecuted once they converted
			   iii. disease caused Indians to question & return home
			    iv. soldiers returned run-aways & punished wayward
			c. Padre's responsible for Indians & decided when ready to leave
				i. kept Indians under care & exploited for mission system
		4. Rich Institutions
			a. training schools for European crafts & agricultural skills
				i. cattle introduced, iron work, ceramics, leather & tools
			b. introduced European crops & enticed Indians in lean times
				i. at times both suffered & Indians released to forage
			    ii. livestock allowed to run wild with little care
			c. few skilled craftsmen throughout California
			d. no exports even at times of plenty
				i. held surplus for lean times
			    ii. illegal export of grain to Russians at Ft. Ross
			   iii. illegal trade to British & Americans in hide & tallow
			e. some missions specialized (wine & oil at San Gabriel)
		5. Early Indian Resistance: The San Diego & Colorado River Rebellions
			a. 1769&70 early raids on Portol -Serra party
			b. 1775 Ipai and Tipai bands led by Francisco a neophyte attacked
				i. destroyed mission and presidio & killed three 
               c. 1776 Spaniards throughout colony took back control of area
			d. 1781 Yuma Revolt triggered by the founding of Los Angeles
				i. settlers led by Lt. Gov. Fernando Rivera destroyed crops
			    ii. Indians attacked & killed over 30 colonists & soldiers
					a. all those that stayed behind 
			   iii. remained in control of Colorado for 70 yrs. 
			e. San Gabriel mission Nov. 1810 but put down by forces in L.A.
				i. Claims of priests and Madona picture  
			f. Disease weakens Indians more
				i. 1769-1846 Indians droped from 300,000 to 100,000
			    ii. native medicines fail to heal
			   iii. women affected more than men
					a. kidnapped & taken to missions in large number
						i. Soldiers killed men & captured rest
					    ii. some forced into prostitution & concubinage
					b. separated by mission fathers & isolated in dorms
						i. disease spreads in confinment
					c. infertility from disease
						i. syphilis
	X. Pueblos 
		1. Franciscans demanded soldiers for protection but refused to supply
		2. Governor Felipe de Neve offered alternative of pueblos
			a. Franciscans fought idea & offered to supply soldiers
		3. 2 successful pueblos of gente de raz˘n
			a. San Jos‚ (1777) started with 68 soldiers & families
				i. recruits from San Francisco & Monterey
			b. Los Angeles (1781) recruited from northern Mexico
				i. 11 families 44 people of mixed race
			c. Villa de Branciforte near Santa Cruz 1797 failed in 20 yrs.
		4. government support and planing
			a. recruits promised salaries & supplies until self sufficient
			b. promised to improve land & town & serve in militia
			c. towns designed on grid by officials
			d. irrigated fields & Indian labor hired
				i. Padre's feared influence on Indians
			    ii. Indians worked for town's people & avoided missions
					a. exploitation a major concern
					b. fear of uprising for cause
					c. laws against Indians living with settlers
					d. Indian servants (wards) & hands common
			   iii. no longer enticed by mission food
			e. never a rebellion focused on a town but several on missions
		5. culture & education
			a. only upper class educated 
			b. most upper class played a musical instrument
		6. Environmental Impact
			a. grazing animals, sheep, cattle & horses
				i. minimal effect with limited population
			    ii. Indians forbidden to own or ride horses 
					a. Indian labor needed & law unenforceable
					b. raiding Indians stole trained horses for resale
			b. imported plants 
				i. some encroachments on native vegetation 
					a. intended & accidental
			c. few imported birds
				i. later starlings from English immigrants

IV. MEXICAN CALIFORNIA 1821-1848
	A. Mexican Revolution
		1. Fr. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla a criollo priest starts 1810
			a. rebels plundered indiscriminately not supporting upper class
			b. lower classes could not be controlled 
			c. Hidalgo captured defrocked & executed
		2. Fr. Jos‚ MarĄa Morelos took over revolt after a few months
			a. some initial success at Acapulco in 1813
			b. defeated at siege of Mexico City and captured
			c. Morelos captured defrocked & executed 1815
		3. Latin American revolutions effected CA
			a. Frenchman Hippolyte de Bouchard attacked CA in 1818 
				i. raided Monterey & San Juan Capistrano 
			    ii. left Joseph Chapman behind at Monterey 
		4. Colonel AgustĄn Iturbide & Plan de Iguala 2/24/1821
			a. hoped a proper emperor could be found to run country
			b. no emperor found & Iturbide takes over till 1823
			c. Iturbide appointed Luis Antonio Arguello governor of CA
				i. a native born california had popular support
			    ii. Pablo Vicente de Sol  opened trade hides to British
			   iii. Arguello signs contract with Americans 
		5. Gen. Antonio L˘pez de Santa Anna took over & ousted Iturbide
			a. Constitution of 1824 established a republic
			b. Jos‚ MarĄa EcheandĄa appointed governor & settles in San Diego
				i. claimed wet & foggy Monterey bad for his health
			    ii. JoaquĄn SolĄs led mutiny in Monterey 1829
					a. EcheandĄa met on battle field near Santa Barbara
					b. mutineers back down without a fight
						i. needed pay & food but did not want to die for
					c. Mexico stops sending convicts to CA as soldiers
			   iii. Frontier security threatened by American immigrants
					a. Jedediah Smith leads Americans to San Gabriel 1826
						i. EcheandĄa feared precedent established 
					    ii. ordered Smith to return to U.S.
		6. EcheandĄa's attempts at Secularization
			a. Padre's frightened after Indian revolt in San Diego
				i. EcheandĄa convinces to feed & clothe soldiers' families
			b. 1826 allows Indians to voluntarily leave certain missions
				i. only a few leave & are incapable of independent living
			c. Mission hides & tallow industry supports 2/3rds CA population
				i. Franciscans insisted secularization would disrupt economy
			    ii. economic development depended on secularization
					a. Missions held most the valuable land in state
			d. Apr. 1831 EcheandĄa issued new plan but not implemented
		7. Gov. Colonel Manuel Victoria a strong conservative takes over
			a. pro cleric he supports missions
			b. runs state as dictator&refuses to call territorial diputaci˘n
			c. rebellion in the south that gathered troops
			d. battle at Cahuenga Pass mostly uneventful
				i. Jos‚ MarĄa Avila's brave charge killed governor's aide
					a. also wounded governor w/ lance before Avila died
			e. 1/17/1832 Victoria resigned & returned to Mexico
		8. Victors quarrel over government
			a. EcheandĄa takes over again
				i. Southerners want a division of civil & military power
			    ii. diputaci˘n elects Pio Pico governor but EcheandĄa stops
			b. Northern Californians support Captain AgustĄn Zamorano 
				i. Zamorano, Victoria's secretary, brought 1st press to CA
			c. truce avoids bloodshed
				i. Zamorano given military control north of San Fernando
			    ii. EcheandĄa retains control of the south
		9. Gov. General Jos‚ Figueroa appointed 5/9/1832
			a. proud of Indian ancestry broke down racial boundaries
			b. promoted conlonization to defend against Russians & U.S.
				i. ordered Ensign Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo north
			    ii. Vallejo to build a presidio & give land to settlers
					a. Ballejo establishes Santa Rosa & Petaluma
					b. cuts off Russians from interior & they leave
					c. becomes one of richest ranchers in CA
	    10. Seculariztion of the Missions
			a. 1813 Spain ordered secularization of missions over 10 yrs old 
				i. Mexican Revolution stoped orders before carried out
			b. Revolutionary ideals claimed Missions a tool of colonization
				i. Indians should be free no more racial classifications
			    ii. others wanted the wealth of the missions
			c. The G˘mez FarĄas Plan
				i. Santa Anna elected president & retired to Jalapa hacienda
			    ii. Vice President G˘mez FarĄas acting president very liberal
					a. 8/1833 orders complete secularization of CA missions
						i. removed franciscan authroity over Indians
					    ii. missions converted to ordinary churches 
					   iii. missionaries replaced by parish priests
					b. property divided among Indians & settlers
						i. local land owners could not own mission land
					c. property dispursment bill failed
			d. HĄjar-Padr‚s Colony 1834 
				i. Jos‚ MarĄa HĄjar director of colonization&governor of CA
			    ii. Jos‚ MarĄa Padr‚s military comandante of CA
			   iii. colony made up of 250 craftsmen & teachers
					a. criticized as illprepared,  few farmers & ranchers
			    iv. given letter and plan for secularization
			e. Gov. Figueroa continues secularization
				i. Fr. Narciso Dur n remins Figueroa of EcheandĄa experiment
			    ii. diputaci˘n drew up 3 stage plan
					a. 10 missions secularized now 6 next yr then last 5
					b. 33 cultivable acres per Indian family
					c. large grants
					d. 1/2 mission livestock given to Indians
					e. Indians emancipated but drafted to work mission land
			   iii. HĄjar-Padr‚s colony lands at San Diego
					a. President Santa Ana takes over&rejects constitution
						i. cancels HĄjar and Padr‚s appointments
					b. Figueroa allowed colony to settle N.of San Francisco
						i. rumors start that HĄjar-Padr‚s colony rebelling
					    ii. 1835 gov. allows colonist to settle anywhere
					   iii. HĄjar and Padr‚s arrested & sent back to Mexico
			f. Figueroa resigns in poor health, appoints Jos‚ Castro governor
				i. local trustees appointed to oversee secuarlization
					a. trustees stold most of mission's wealth
					b. Indians not given enough to survive
						i. forced to work for others or flee
					    ii. many refuse to work mission lands & flee
					   iii. a few remain in small villages near missions
			   ii. no organized secularization led to exploitation of Indians
					a. a few Indians rebel & led attacks from interior
	    11. Political Turmoil
			a. Colonel Mariano Chico appointed governor by Santa Anna
				i. only lasted 3 months before another Revolution 
			b. Nicolas Guti‚rrez assumed power until disputes erupted
				i. Juan Bautista Alvarado & Jos‚ Castro raise army
					a. gained support from American immigrant Isaac Graham 
			    ii. army marches on Monterey & Guti‚rrez resigned
			c. diputaci˘n elected Alvarado governor
				i. another revolt by Jos‚ Castro & Carlos Carrillo in south
					a. southerners given a prefectura (subgovernor)
			    ii. 1838 Mexico formally appoints Alvarado governor
					a. also appointed Vallejo comandante general
	    12. The Hide and Tallow Trade
			a. Missions controlled 10 million acres & 400,000 head of cattle
				i. thousands of horses & 1/2 million sheep
			    ii. developed trade with Mexico &foreigners in tallow & hides
			   iii. Mexican Revolution legalized illicit trade w/ foreigners
			b. Governor Arguello allowed foreigners to build storehouses
			c. Richard Henry Dana's Two Years Before the Mast 1840
				i. 19yr old Harvard student on Pilgrim
					a. ships liked American firms in Hawaii with CA 
					b. acted as floating department stores
			    ii. spread misconceptions of californios (stereotypes)
			d. San Diego best harbor for hides
				i. climate good & harbor safe for loading hides
					a. sea water could rot hides
					b. men could cure 25 hides a day
			    ii. government wanted customs house moved to south
					a. smuggling avoided 1/4 to 1/3rd legitimate duties
	    13. Rancho and Pueblo Society
			a. Large land owners controlled society
				i. Padres, Officers & Rich landowners primarily white
			    ii. large extended families & ranch hands
			   iii. Patrons & Compadres
					a. godparents of workers, names sakes
			    iv. women had few freedoms not allowed education
					a. no division of farm labor
					b. domestic responsibilities, sewing, cooking&cleaning
					c. worked in missions supervising & teaching Indians
					d. had some control over families when male head died
						i. 60 land grants given to women
					    ii. women retained property in marriage
					   iii. community property rights under Mexican law
			b. soldiers & poor worked for Ranchers or owned lots in town
			c. By 1845 only 6 Catholic priests remained in CA
				i. Rancheros & Immigrant merchants much more important 
			d. Land Grants 
				i. under Spain only 20 large grants given
			    ii. before secularization another 30 were given
			   iii. by 1846 &war there were more than 700 private land grants
					a. over 8 million acres owned by individuals
					b. Mexico limited size to 50,000 acres 
						i. avoided limits by owning adjacent grants
			    iv. Grants given to influential 
					a. submitted a map of grant & governor granted
					b. needed definite boundaries & research other claims
						i. some floating with vague boundaries
					c. Indians exempt & noted on map (dise¤o)
			e. Towns
				i. Ayuntamiento town councils allowed after 1824constitution
			    ii. Alcalde judge, sheriff, mayor & councilman
					a. did jobs needed in town 
						i. policeman dog catcher & street sweeper

V. FOREIGN PENETRATION OF CALIFORNIA
	A. The Russians in California
		1. Count Nikolai Rezanov visits San Francisco 1806
			a. hoped to get supplies for Russian-American Fur Co. at Sitka
				i. men starving & suffering scurvy
			b. engaged to Concepci˘n Arguello (daughter of S.F. comandante)
				i. made the illegal trade easier
			c. died on return trip to Russia
		2. 1810 Ivan Kuskov scouted Bodega Bay established Ft. Ross in 1812
			a. traded manufactured goods with locals for food
			b. hired Indians to farm area 
			c. brought Aleut hunters for sea otters & fur seals
			d. explored interior and named Mt. St. Helena in Lake County
		3. Failure of Russian post
			a. could not raise enough wheat to feed Alaskan posts
			b. inland expansion blocked by Vallejo
			c. Sea otter population starts to decline
			d. Hudson's Bay Co. in Oregon agrees to supply Alaskans 1839
			e. sold holdings to John A. Sutter in 1841
	B. Hide & Tallow Traders
		1. British John Begg & Co. opened California business 1822 
			a. brought 15-20 immigrants a year to CA
			b. William E.P. Hartnell worked 2 yrs in Peru before CA
				i. married & became Catholic & Mexican citizen in 1830
			    ii. granted Rancho Patrocinio del Alisal near Monterey 
			   iii. visitador de misiones after secularization for 2 yrs .
					a. useless to stop plunder of secularization & quit
		2. Boston firm of Bryant & Sturgis stars in 1823
			a. Americans followed & equaled the number of British before 1830
			b. Able Stearns from New England 
				i. married Mexican, Naturalized & gained large land holdings 
			    ii. Alcalde, during early American period, richest in So.CA
		3. Filled need in Mexican society for economic expansion
			a. few businessmen or craftsmen 
			b. fit in with the upper classes of Mexican land owners
	C. Mountain Men
		1. Jedediah Smith with small party of 17 to San Gabriel 1826
			a. came as result of William H. ashley rendezvous in rockies
			b. hoped to open up more beaver country to s.w. of Salt Lake
			c. guided by two neophytes who ran away from San Gabriel
			d. stayed for six weeks while EcheandĄa examined (see if spying)
			e. hunted beaver near San Diego & traveled north in San Joaquin
				i. few men stayed on Stanislaus R.
			f. crossed Sierra Nevada & Great Basin home to Bear Valley Utah
			g. returned next year with a few women in party
				i. attacked by Mojave Indians near Colorado R.
			    ii. aided with supplies & horses at San Gabriel 
			   iii. made contact with men on Stanislaus & went to San Jose
			    iv. Fr. Dur n held him captive & EcheandĄa placed in jail
				v. allowed to leave but never return
			    vi. overland up into Oregon and attacked again by Indians
			   vii. gained supplies from Hudson's Bay Co. at Vancouver
			  viii. killed in 1831 by Comanches on Santa Fe Trail
		2. James Ohio Pattie arrived in San Diego in 1827 w/ small party
			a. imprisoned by EcheandĄa in fear of invasion
			b. released in exchange for small pox vaccine
		3. Others followed 1828 Mexico allowed settlers to come to CA
			a. promised to become Mexican citizens & Catholics 
			b. several routes established by Mountain men over Sierras
				i. 3 southern routes through dessert & across Colorado R.
		4. Scoundrels or Nonconformists
			a. Dr. John Marsh 
				i. ran away from Santa Fe 1836 to L.A.
			    ii. claimed he had degree to practice medicine (B.A. Harvard)
			   iii. settled in southeast S.F. bay area 
			    iv. wrote & encouraged others to come to CA
			b. John Sutter left family in Switzerland 1834 for CA
				i. trapped furs in Rockies & traveled to Hawaii & Alaska
			    ii. settled in n. Sacramento Valley on grant from Alvarado
			   iii. appointed local military commander & Allcalde
					a. claimed military background but had none
			    iv. New Helvetia - Sutter's Ft. 
					a. bought Ft. Ross in 1841 - cannon & uniforms
					b. cattle, sheep, horses, wheat,grist mill & distillery
					c. employed Indians, Californians & Hawaiians
					d. supply station to immigrants from east
						i. sent aid east
					    ii. credit to new arrivals
					   iii. sold land & leased Indian laborers
		5. Frontier Settlers
			a. Bidwell-Bartleson Party 1841
				i. encouraged by Dr. John Marsh's letters
			    ii. 500 people pledged to go in 1840 only 1 & some new people
			   iii. John Bidwell leads group leads 68 others & John Bartleson
					a. Bartleson elected leader but deserts & returns later
			    iv. joined group heading to Oregon & 1/2 went on to Oregon
				v. 32 continued to Marsh's near Mt. Diablo back to Sutter's 
			b. Workman-Rowland Party
				i. 25 Americans flee Santa Fe 1841 must leave 
			    ii. among party is B.D. Wilson
			c. 1842 no parties
			d. 1844 Stevens-Murphy party crossed the Sierras in wagons
				i. route became Donner Pass
			    ii. opened way for over 1,500 in next year
			e. Donner party of 87 in 1846 arrived too late 
				i. from Springfield, Ill tried new route
					a. written of in Lansford W. Hastins's Emigrant's Guide
					b. went south of Salt Lake to cut off time but longer
			    ii. camped Nov. 2 just short of summit
				 	a. at night snowstorm blocked pass
			   iii. snowed in for months, most survivors ate flesh to live
			    iv. 40 perished most survivor were women
	D. The breakdown of Mexican Government
		1. Juan Bautista Alvarado remained governor from 1838 to 1842
			a. conflict with north & south over the customs house & capitol
			b. Gen. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo criticizes Alvarado's inaction 
				i. fears weakened frontier & political inaction
			    ii. petitions Mexico city for united civil & military command
		2. General Manuel Micheltorena appointed governor in late 1842
			a. army of 300 unpaid & low on supplies many ex-convicts
				i. Batallon Fijo de Californias mixed racial background
			b. resentment and freedom of north led to another rebellion
		3. Jos‚ Castro & Alvarado joined Americans in south with PĄo Pico
			a. Micheltorena was aided by Sutter, Isaac Graham & rowdy friends
				i. Graham owned still & disreputables hung out there
			b. Americans decided to drop out and let Mexicans decide issue
				i. battle killed one horse & one mule
			    ii. Micheltorena agreed to leave & take troops with him
			c. Pico was head of the diputaci˘n & was given civil leadership
				i. Castro became comandante general & went back to Monterey
		4. Indian raids accentuated the lack of control
			a. Vallejo spent most of time chasing Indians to Sierras
			b. Most ranchos near San Diego abandoned at some point
				i. population in far south declined by 50%
	E. American Interest 
		1. Manifest Destiny
			a. term developed by John L. O'Sullivan in 1845 Democratic Review 
			b. feeling of expansion prevalent years before
			c. Texas expansion 1820s & Nation 1836 but Jackson won't annex
			d. 1835 Andrew Jackson offered Mexico 1/2 mil for S.F. bay & area
			e. 1841 British agents suggest CA as security for loan to Mexico
			f. Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones seized Monterey Oct. 1842
				i. believed U.S. was at war with Mexico over Texas
			g. James K. Polk elected 1844 but Tyler annexed Texas just before
				i. John Slidell offers $40 mil for New Mexico & CA but no
			    ii. Polk offered Consul Larkin position as confidential agent
					i. ordered to stir up Californians against Mexico
		2. John C. Fr‚mont
			a. Commissioned in the army Corps of Topographical Engineers
			b. 1842 sent on a reconnaissance of the Oregon Trail 
			c. 1843 &44 w. on Columbia R. & s. to Sierras into San Joaquin
				i. crossed Tehachapi into Mojave and on to Utah
			    ii. published trip became guide for immigrants to CA
			d. 1845 expedition to CA
				i. met with Castro in Monterey for supplies 
			    ii. established Ft. near San Juan Bautista 
			   iii. Thomas Larkin suggested Fr‚mont leave without war
			    iv. Fr‚mont traveled into Oregon but returned May 1846
			e. Bear Flag Revolt
				i. Fr‚mont's secret orders?
			    ii. setters feared removal & forces captured Vallejo's adobe
			   iii. after taking north headed south
			    iv. Castro&Pico threatening each other over control of state
				v. Pico gathering horses to attack north
			    vi. Fr‚mont advances to south without violence
			   vii. Battle of Los Angeles Fr‚mont overland from S.Diego
					i. Commodore Robert F. Stockton in San Pedro
			  viii. Capt. Archibald Gillespie & 8 men in L.A.
		         ix. Battle of San Pasquel & Gen. Stephen W. Kearny
				x. Capitulation at Cahuenga Jan 13, 1847

VI. THE NEW EL DORADO
	A. The Discovery
		1. Sutter's Mill built with James Wilson Marshall in 1847
			a. crew of Maidu Indians & Mormon veterans of Mexican War
			b. diverted river through a millrace each night
				i. Apr.24, 1848 found gold
			    ii. kept secret & allowed workers to prospect on off time
			c. Sutter, Marshall & Sam Brannan all died in poverty
		2. Alternative views claim Indian workers first discovered strike
			a. Sutter let them work the claim & took credit for it himself
		3. Placer Gold and its allure
			a. beauty scarcity & malleability have made it desirable
			b. most ore in CA was placer type found in waterways
				i. deposited with the currents in stream beds
			    ii. rivers change course w/ geological development
			c. San Feliciano Canyon (Placerita Canyon) 1st strike in CA
				i. Francisco L˘pez discovers gold in 1841 but little gold
			    ii. E. branch of San Gabriel River similar claims
	B. The Gold Rush 
		1. News gets out in California 
			a. Sutter's agent to Monterey makes claim on American R. & tells
			b. Workers on the Mill pay Sam Brannan's store in gold dust
			c. Sutter tells John Bidwell & Mariano Vallejo
			d. newsmen underplayed story in CA press
		2. Gold fever spreads through state by March
			a. workers in Mill & nearby businesses quit to prospect
			b. June only 200 people remain in San Francisco from 800
			c. people from whole state headed to mines by summer
		3. The News Spreads
			a. Military Governor Richard B. Mason sent 230 ozs. Gold to D.C.
			b. James K. Polk changed state of Union to mention strike
			c. Horace Greeley in New York Tribune wrote about strike 1/30/49
			d. News spreads throughout world
				i. 1849 population increases to 20,000 by 1850 100,000
	C. Rush to the Fields
		1. The Sea route
			a. 17,000 miles & 5 months around Cape Horn
				i. most traffic traveled sure route
			    ii. voyage hard on crew & passengers
					a. seasick, bad food & water, inactivity
			b. across the Isthmus was shorter, faster & safer
				i. not enough ships to conduct load
			    ii. travel arranged only sea voyages 
			   iii. Panama & Nicaragua negotiate own country
			    iv. 1850 steamships coordinate arrivals w/ little delays
				v. 1855 transisthmian railway finished
		2. Across the Plains
			a. started in spring w/ grass to feed animals
			b. news of Donner party caused panic some left too early or late
			c. by 1850 trails littered & directed routes
			d. approximately same # travel by land as sea
			e. make up
				i. most young men
			    ii. 1/4 foreign born
			   iii. most return home without any riches
	D. Mining the Gold
		1. Searching for a strike
			a. most 49ers middle or upper class
				i. only first few were laborers
			    ii. expense keeps poor home
			b. very few had any idea of process for finding gold
				i. trial, error & imitation
			c. first attempts
				i. surface deposits plentiful & easily reached
			    ii. panning 
			   iii. cradle or rocker introduced later takes 3 men to run
			d. surface deposits depleted by 1852 
				i. companies of men needed to dig deeper
			    ii. flumes, dams & sluices constructed 
			   iii. costly digging with high risks
		2. Mechanized Mining
			a. Hydraulic Mining introduced by Anthony Chabot, Nevada Co. 1852
				i. hose on end of flume to wash topsoil
			    ii. Edward E. Matteson introduced nozzle in 1853
			b. debris clogged irrigation streams & killed wildlife
			c. Dredging introduced in 1850 
				i. 1884 court restricted hydraulic mining & becomes popular
			    ii. used until 1940s 
			d. Hard crock mining of mid 1850s
				i. lack of capitol & experience
			    ii. increased in 1860s & 70s with others decline
	E. Mining life
		1. They brought their culture with them
			a. avoided temptation to revert to primitivism
				i. courts established early
			    ii. popular tribunals assured justice
					a. at times reverted to mobs 
			b. mining camps reflect eastern society
				i. male amusements greater in mines than elsewhere
			    ii. visitors amazed by civilian institutions
					a. churches, schools, newspapers, photographers etc.
		2. Democracy in the fields
			a. small plots & equal chances
				i. any man could be rich tomorrow
			b. decreased price of gold with increased supply
			c. decreasing amounts found lowers profits
		3. Californios in the Mines
			a. Yankee hostility towards Mexicans surfaced with new immigrants
			b. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo assured rights of Mexicans
			c. Mexicans forced out of some areas
			d. Merchants exploit miners
				i. cattle prices & other goods
			    ii. new stores & buildings to serve miners
			   iii. Farlons Islands & San Francisco redwoods?
		4. Foreign Miners Tax
			a. Senator Thomas Jefferson Green (Texan) introduced tax
				i. prejudiced against Mexicans (wanted slavery in CA)
			b. tax of $10. month collected selectively
				i. Germans & French allied with 4,000 Mexicans to protest
			    ii. American mob demanded Mexicans pay
			   iii. small battle & many arrests with only one Mexican stabbed
			    iv. Mexicans left the mines in droves
				v. tax lowered in 1850 & protest urged repeal in 1851
			c. Chinese taxed more readily with little resistance
				i. Indians used to chase down absent Chinese miners
		5. Indian problems
			a. Oregonian prejudices start trouble with local Indians
				i. Indians employed in mines
			    ii. Oregon had wars with Indians 1847-49 & reacted negatively
			   iii. attacked Maidu village who retaliated and killed 5 whites
			b. once warfare starts it spread to other tribes 
			c. Oliver M. Wozencrat, George W. Barbour& Redick Mckee agents
				i. 1850-52 tour state & arrange treaties with Indians
			    ii. avoid war & pacify
			   iii. treaties met strong opposition from white settlers
					a. 12,000 sq. miles too much to give up
			    iv. Cota rebellion 1851 n. San Diego Co.
			d. Edward F. Beale, U.S. Indian Superintendent of CA
				i. ranch plan but only Tej˘n established
					a. abandoned in 1868 

VII. THE THIRTY-FIRST STATE
	A. Military Occupation & Forming a Government
		1. Confusion with rapid change
			a. Change in leadership seven military governors in 2 years
				i. Commodores John D. Sloat and Robert F. Stockton
			  	   Colonels John C. Fr‚mont and Richard B. Mason &
				   Generals Stephen W. Kearney, General Persifor F. Smith 	
			   and General Bennett Riley
			    ii. Mason's Laws for the Better Government of California 1848
					a. hoped to keep Mexican law in place in transition
					b. allowed election of local alcaldes most were Mexican
					c. a few Americans elected in the north
			b. Political turmoil in D.C. led to more problems
				i. Wilmont Proviso  -David Wilmont Dem. Penn.
			    ii. Southerners propose Missouri Compromise line
			   iii. nativists oppose expansion & inclusion of people of color 
		2. Constitution of 1849
			a. discontent in Northern California
				i. unhappy with the Mexican system of government
					a. San Francisco established mayor & town council
			    ii. San Jos‚, Monterey, S.F. and Sacramento demanded action
			b. Mil. Gov. Bennett Riley calls constitutional convention 6/1849
				i. exceeded his authority but Pres. Taylor supported idea
			c. 48 delegates at Monterey Convention
				i. most were American immigrants from before the war
					a. 8 delegates were Mexican & 12 American new comers
			d. issues
				i. slavery settled with little dispute
					a. no slavery for early admission & appease miners
					b. feared exclusion of free blacks would slow admission
			    ii. state boundaries posed the biggest controversy
					a. Rocky Mts., Sierras or in between
			   iii. very progressive for day, incorporating Mexican tradition
					a. protected the rights of women to own property
						i. hoped to attract women to state?
					b. prohibited the use of paper money (greenbacks)
					c. outlawed dueling
					d. ordered public schools & started a University
		3. Statehood
			a. Constitution approved by overwhelming majority 12,064 to 811
			b. Peter H. Burnett fist governor & John McDougal lt.gov.
			c. not approved by D.C. until 1850
				i. government met in San Jos‚ but operated without legality
			    ii. congressional delegates were not admitted to congress
			   iii. politics in D.C. held up admission
					a. Sen. Henry Clay Whig Ken. & Stephen Douglass Dem. Il
					b. Utah,New Mexico&Texas, slavery & CA, D.C. & runaways
			    iv. state legislature still elected 2 senators Fr‚mont & Gwin
			d. "Legislature of a Thousand Drinks"
				i. Thomas Jefferson Green called for adjournment to saloon
			    ii. few members with experience in politics
					a. most had own agendas
			e. capital moves from San Jos‚, Vallejo, & Benicia to Sacramento
			f. 9/50 Congress admits 10/50 California finds out & celebrates
	B. Early Politics
		1. David C. Broderick & William M. Gwin competing for the Senate
			a. Broderick a Democrat from N.Y. in 1849 
				i. built political power on S.F. volunteer fire co.
			    ii. built fortune on waterfront speculation & private mint 
			   iii. opposed slavery & supported Jacksonian democracy
			b. used position as state senator to build on patronage
				i. used jobs in S.F.& support from Tamany Democrats in state
		2. Gwin a "Chivalry" Democrat from Tennessee & Mississippi 
			a. opposed slavery in CA but opposed Federal control of issue
			b. senator from CA supported Mare Is. Navy Yard & S.F. Mint
			c. had control of federal patronage in state
		3. Democrats controlled state politics until internal rivalry 
			a. Broderick challenged Gwin for senate in 1855 & divided party
			b. Republican John B. Weller replaced Fr‚mont for two yrs 
			c. Know-Nothings elected J.Neely Johnson as governor 
				i. also David S. Terry state chief justice of supreme court
		4. compromise that leads to open confrontation 
			a. 1857 both Broderick & Gwin serve as senators
				i. Gwin promises not to appoint patronage
					a. Pres. James Buchanan appoints only "Chivalry" Dem.
			    ii. Broderick denounced Buchanan, Gwin & David Terry
					a. Terry resigned 
					b. Broderick challenged Terry to duel & lost
	C. Minorities & Injustice
		1. "Their Majesty the Mob"
			a. mob justice did not start with Americans
				i. 1836 "defense committee for public safety" in L.A.
			    ii. killed man and woman for murdering her husband
			b. After gold discovery mobs more common
				i. common in mining camp but also in other areas
			    ii. L.A. had 44 murders in one year "rare day without"
					a. Vigilance Committee hanged five murderers in 1851
					b. at least one man was innocent
					c. members known as the "Rangers"
			   iii. Mayor Stephen Foster stopped mob for trial of a man
					a. found innocent & foster resigned to join lynch mob
					b. 20 lynchings between 1854 & 55 in L.A.
			c. San Francisco gangs played a role in starting mob action
				i. private police "Regulators" kept order on waterfront
					a. became a gang called "Hounds" joined "Sydney Ducks"
					b. "Sydney Ducks" from australian penal colonies
					c. July 1849 gangs raided "chilenos" on Telegraph hill
						i. killed a woman & raped her daughter
			    ii. Sam Brannan organized a Law & Order party of 200 men
					a. stopped the "Hounds"
			   iii. Apr. 1851 William Tell Coleman led tribunal
					a. tried & convicted 2 "Ducks" but divided jury 
			    iv. June 1851 Brannan & Coleman led mob of 500
					a. caught & hanged 4 Ducks over next few months
					b. ended by whipping or deporting suspected criminals
					c. abused citizens reluctant to cooperate w/ committee
					d. air of intimidation & oppression
			d. Vigilance Committee of 1856 in S.F. best known
				i. argued civic authorities unable or unwilling 
					a. could not protect from fire & arson
					b. city law was corrupt & involved with vice 
					c. claimed they imposed unbearable taxes for themselves
			   ii. city was growing & reforming
					a. Boss Broderick backed reforms & power declined by 56
					b. violence well below national average
			  iii. Two murders started Committee
					a. Charles Cora shot U.S. Marshal William Richardson
						i. Cora & mistress Arabella Ryan insulted Marshall
							a. madam Ryan sat too close in theater 
					    ii. Richardson confronted Cora w/ pistol
					   iii. Cora shot the next night
					    iv. hung jury & remained in prison for retrial
					b. James P. Casey shot James King of William
						i. King lost fortune in panic of 1855 
					    ii. Owned the Bulletin & wrote about enemies
					   iii. said Casey had served prison term in New York
					c. Coleman led 2,000 into new Vigilance Committee
						i. hanged Casey & Cora 
					    ii. could not be stopped & state aid wasn't enough
					   iii. arms from fed. arsenal in Benicia intercepted
					    iv. 6,000 members march in city 8/18/1856
		2. Racial intolerance in a multi-racial society
			a. By 1860 40% of population was foreign born
			b. Anti-Chinese Prejudice
				i. 1860 35,00 Chinese lived in CA
					a. most bondsmen to merchants in China or S.F. 
					b. worked harder than anyone for less wages
					c. labeled coolies (unskilled & uneducated)
			   ii. 1852 Foreign Miners Tax aimed at Chinese 
					a. $3 & $4 a month to ineligible for citizenship
						i. only free white people could apply
			  iii. 1854 state supreme court ruled Chinese were not white
					a. linked Chinese to Indians
					b. movement against led to Federal Exclusion Act 1882
			c. Black Californios
				i. Legislation in 1850 denied Blacks right to vote & testify
			    ii. Dred Scott decision in 1857 could not limit slavery
			   iii. Biddy Mason & Hannah & 10 children slaves of Robert Smith
					a. Arrived in 1851 started to leave 1855
					b. Judge benjamin Hayes reviews status & frees
					c. Lives with Robert Owens & family
					d. invests in real estate & becomes nurse & midwife
			    iv. Archey Lee in Sacramento objected to leave w/ master 1857
					a. won hearing for freedom in 1858 
						i. court ruled master took job & was resident
					b. state supreme court reversed master didn't know laws
					c. federal commissioner said Lee wasn't guilty of crime
						i. gave Lee his freedom
					d. Lee left before his status changed again
				v. Mary Ellen "Mammy" Pleasant won right to use rails 1860s
					a. wealthy business woman & fought in courts 
					b. led way for others but could afford to most couldn't
			    vi. Indentured servants contracts used instead of slavery
			   vii. segregated schools 
			  viii. Three Colored Conventions during 1850s 
					a. demanded changes in rights to testify & vote
					b. 1863 allowed to vote with Civil War & 15th am. 1868
		3. Land Grants and Lost Land
			a. over 800 Land grants with 14 million acres from Mexico & Spain
				i. grants were not designated in squares like U.S. system
			    ii. Americans squatted on apparently vacant grant land 
			b. Land Act of 1851 
				i. 3 man commission reviewed all titles within 2 yrs
			    ii. titles invalid unless proven otherwise
			   iii. met most time in S.F. and demanded English
			    iv. lawyers needed as well
				v. 512 titles confirmed & 132 appealed with over 100 wins
			    vi. slowed down land sales since no one was sure of title
			   vii. a number of frauds won cases & required others to pay
			  viii. caused resentment among Hispanics in all southwest
		4. Agricultural beginnings
			a. prices dropped after gold rush
			b. Ranchers made fortunes but grew in debt (Pico Hotel)
			c. Floods of 1861-2 & droughts afterward
			d. experimented with new crops for growing population
				i. grew produce near city centers in Bay Area
			    ii. tried wheat farming in central valley during winter
			   iii. Morman irrigation in San Bernardino & German in Anaheim
					a. allowed limited agricultural development in 50s&60s
			e. Wine & Brandy and the Indian slave market of the early 1860s
		5. Land Speculation
			a. decline of Ranchos led to cheap land
			b. farming gains promised easy sales
			c. miners left mines & headed into cities & country for work
			d. cities grew & took on Eastern appearance&culture of Victorians

VIII. THE RAILROAD ERA
	A. Connecting and Uniting the Country 
		1. Transportation problems in Gold Rush California
			a. water transportation cheapest & best but very limited
			b. few women immigrants do to problems in transportation
				i. ocean & overland routes too dangerous
		2. Early Transcontinental Railroad Schemes
			a. railroads too big for one man across nation
				i. link coasts could bring new trade from Asia 
			b. government subsidies introduced by Congress in 1840s & 50s
				i. nothing came of early plans
					a. political rivalries over route stopped action
		3. Pioneer Rail Lines
			a. short rails replaced stage & wagon routes
			b. most speculative railroads failed in early years
				i. Sacramento Valley Railroad one exception
					a. took miners from Sacramento steamboat to foothills
					b. 1856 the 1st working RR in CA
			    ii. 1862 Railroad connected Oakland with waterfront
			   iii. 1864 San Francisco & San Jos‚ RR
			    iv. 1865 San Francisco & Alameda RR (from Alameda to Hayward)
			c. encouraged growth in San Francisco & development of economy
		4. Theodore Judah brilliant engineer & visionary
			a. built the Sacramento Valley RR in 2 yrs.
			b. searched Sierras for a possible route through to east
			c. spent 1856 to 1860 promoting a transcontinental RR
				i. politics in state & federal governments over route
		5. The Founding of the Central Pacific Railroad
			a. Comstock Lode & wagons to S.F. created new interest
				i. consortium hired Judah to continue Sacramento RR
					a. stopped in Folsom
			b. Judah discovered a route across Sierras across Donner Pass
				i. Daniel Strong & others joined Judah from Cen.Pac. RR10/86
			c. Judah sought new support in S.F.
				i. Sacramento Valley RR fired him for actions
			d. Judah claimed new route would make travel from Comstock easy
				i. approached Sacramento business men & towns along route
			    ii. Collis P. Huntington & partner Mark Hopkins joined plan
			   iii. Charles Crocker & Leland Stanford helped finance as well
			    iv. 6/27/61 Cent.Pac.RR incorporated
			e. Big Four connected economically & politically
				i. Huntington & Hopkins store had connections in east
			    ii. all involved in founding Republican party in Sacramento
					a. with Lincoln had the ear of D.C.
		6. Civil War and the Transcontinental Railroad
			a. most immigrants in 49 came from north
			b. Union hoped RR would keep west in Union
				i. Pony Express 4/3/1860-10/24/1861 
			    ii. Telegraph completed in 1861 made express obsolete
			   iii. Nevada silver mines needed for war effort
			c. small pockets of Confederate support existed, most in south
			d. Confederate sympathizers usually arrested or silenced by mobs
			e. Blacks in state worried about outcome (Robert Owens&telegraph)
			f. Ft. Point built to protect Golden Gate (wall for blasts)
				i. cannons almost worthless (July 4th 1876 celebration)
		7. Central Pacific Besieged
			a. expensive to start
				i. shortages of iron shipped all the way around Cape Horn
			    ii. extremely cold temperatures 
			   iii. high snowfall could hamper train crossings
			    iv. labor shortages at both ends of track
			b. building costs would exceed federal subsidies
			c. funds were short & halted building several times
		8. Pacific Railway Act of 1862
			a. Stanford ran for governor to get state support for RR 9/1861
			b. Others went to D.C. for federal aid
				i. Republican friends on railway committees
			    ii. Judah appointed clerk of both Senate & House committees
			   iii. Gave away Central Pacific stock to Congressmen
					a. stock almost worthless but a good bribe if fed. aid
			    iv. San Francisco & San Jos‚ RR dropped opposition
					a. given right to build from S.F. to Sacramento
			c. Pacific Railway Act signed 
				i. Central Pacific from San Francisco east
			    ii. Union Pacific Railroad from Missouri River west
			   iii. 10 alternate sections (1600 acres) of public land checker
			    iv. right of ways & government timber & stone for building
				v. 30 yr. government bonds $16,000 per mile on plains
					i. $48,000 per mile in mountains,$32,000 in Great Basin
						a. Stanford has state geologist change Sierras
						b. sierras start at foothills not steep grades
		9. Local subsidies & mounting opposition to the Central Pacific
			a. Gov. Stanford passed bills granting bonds to RR
				i. n.Cal. towns buy over $1 million in Central Pacific stock
			b. towns far from the route opposed purchase of stocks & bonds
				i. filled law suits challenging state aid
			    ii. claimed railroad was wild speculation & route won't work
			c. the anti-Central Pacific campaign slowed the RR down
				i. labeled RR as corrupt & ruthless(this sticks years later)
	    10. Breaking Ground
			a. Jan 8, 1863 ground broke at Sacramento riverfront
				i. Gov. Stanford turned first shovelful of dirt
			    ii. nothing else was done for several months
					a. they had no money for track or machines
			b. March 1863 Huntington borrowed money from eastern investors
				i. used loan to seed more money & bought machinery for RR
	    11. Judah Versus the Big Four
			a. company could not meet 50 miles of track by Nov. 1864 deadline
				i. Big four demand stock holders pay their subscriptions
			    ii. Judah & small holders could not afford to pay & rebelled
					a. demanded company mortgage all their assets first
			b. Crocker & Co. given contract to lay first track
				i. Charles Crocker & others gather investments & saves start
			c. Judah demands absolute control over engineering & construction
				i. Judah worried about loosing control to other company
			d. July Huntington faction won control
				i. demanded Judah to buy them up or get out
			    ii. Judah exchanged stock for $100,000 Central Pacific bonds
			   iii. Judah resigns from board but remains chief engineer
			    iv. Travels East to borrow money catches yellow fever & dies
	    12.The Pacific Railway Act of 1864
			a. Union Pacific had as much trouble rasing cash as Central Pac.
			b. Huntington & Thomas Durant (Union Pac.) lobbied congress
				i. needed extensions of deadlines
			    ii. 1st 50 mile deadline extended to 1865
			   iii. Congress also doubled grants to 20 sections a mile
			    iv. allowed railroad to sell own 1st mortgages on railroad
					a. reduced federal loans to 2nd mortgage status
					b. allowed company to raise more money quickly
				v. rivals now gave up much opposition
					a. either quit or joined Central Pacific lines
			c. Huntington took care of books & kept company in black
				i. a major feat & seen as a business genius
	    13. Completing the Transcontinental Railway
			a. once complete to Comstock Lode they started to make money
				i. RR cheaper than wagon travel & quicker
			b. stocks & bonds easier to sell
			c. Labor problems in 1865 with access to Comstock
				i. laborers would rather risk luck in the mines than RR
			    ii. deep snow not worth $35 per month
			   iii. Crocker hired Chinese over objections of others
					a. paid only 60-70% of white wages
					b. by May made up 2/3rds of workers
			    iv. contracted with S.F.labor contractors to bring from China
				v. Chinese workers very useful & continue on other lines
					a. conditions so bad in 1867 even Chinese strike
					b. Crocker cuts off supplies & starves workers back
			d. miles of sheds protected tracks in winter
			e. May 1868 only traveled 140 miles but laid 550 miles next year
			f. May 10, 1869 two railroads meet at Promontory Point Utah
				i. miles of leveled ground bypass each other 
			    ii. both working around the clock to make more money
			g. Leland Stanford drives golden spike (removed & in museum)
				i. celebrations all over the country 
	    14. The Big Four and the Emerging Rail System
			a. railways started up all over the state
			b. most were swallowed up by the big four
				i. they were poorly run & owners tried to make quick profits
			c. Central Pacific nearly went under in the 1870s 
				i. Huntington convinced others to keep expanding&ride it out
			d. competed with steamships for state transportation
				i. rate & traffic agreement with Pacific Mail Steamship Co.
			    ii. developed own Occidental and Oriental Steamship Co.
			   iii. also developed ferries & river boat transportation 
	    15. Southern Pacific Railroad bought by the Big Four in 1868
			a. started by San Francisco & San Jos‚ RR Co. 
			b. had right to build from San Jos‚ to the Colorado River
			c. southern route would not get snow bound
			d. Sep. 5, 1876 connected the north railroads with L.A.
			e. 1877 built a bridge over Colorado without U.S. permission
			f. 1881 connected to El Paso & other rails in Texas
				i. Huntington bought up lines in Texas to connect
			    ii. 1st coast to coast owned by one company
	B. California's Railway Era: Economic Development and Social Unrest
		1. The Terrible Seventies
			a. the railroads helped with rapid industrialization
			b. speculation helped those with land already 
			c. towns far from the rails declined and died away
		2. Urban Growth 
			a. farms grow dependent on rails all over U.S. 
			b. cities dependent on produce brought by rails & industry also
			c. Oakland the connection between the rails and the sea
				i. Horace Carpentier deeded city's waterfront to Cent. Pac.
					a. Leland Stanford the other main owner
			d. Commerce quickened & land prices rose
				i. population 1860-2,000, 1870-10,500, 1880-35,000
			    ii. Telephone invented 1876 in Oakland 1878
			   iii. Electricity brought to Oakland in 1880s
			e. city expands & connects to Berkeley & San Leandro
				i. streetcars, trains & cable cars allow growth
			f. rail connections were paramount in growth
				i. Los Angeles boomed after 1872 with subsidized So.Pac.RR.
					a. 1860-2,000; 1870-5,700; 1880s-11,200
			    ii. San Diego lost rail connection & remained same size
					a. only around 3,000 by 1900
			g. Contract and Finance Company (Pacific Improvement Co. - 1879)
				i. a construction & real estate development arm of Big Four
			    ii. built towns on grid pattern with Victorian ideals
					a. shops, stations, warehouses, housing & hotels
					b. donated money to build schools, churches, parks,etc.
					c. brought water to many towns, to promote in arid land
					d. set up low fares to future investors
		3. San Francisco: From Instant City to Pacific Metropolis
			a. geographic location helped early growth but hindered railroads
				i. great harbor for sea travel but isolated on peninsula
			    ii. land bought up early by speculators
					a. not enough level land for train yards
			b. Oakland took more business, San Francisco led anti-RR movement
				i. city still prospered & Central Pacific headquarters there
			    ii. Oakland had no deep harbor, SF remained Ocean Port
			c. Population continued to grow 234,000 by 1880
				i. half were foreign born & 3/4 had one parent foreign born
					a. most cosmopolitan and ethnically diverse cities
		4. Industrialization
			a. mining shaped city
				i. slow for industrial growth before Civil War
					a. mining industry stripped resources: capitol & labor
			    ii. after war mining more complex needed heavy machinery
					a. Comstock also needed heavy machinery
			   iii. business responded to growing needs with new industry
					a. railroads also encouraged new industry
					b. use of coal & Bessemer Converter & open-hearth steel
						i. growth in rest of country as well
			b. Railroads supplied labor
				i. Chinese migrated to S.F. after 1869 by 1880-100,000
			    ii. Irish come from Union Pacific line
			c. Capitol a problem
				i. new industry generated wealth
			    ii. Stocks first begin to appear 
					a. John Pierpont Morgan sold them & others invested
					b. expanded during the 1880-1890s in nation
		5. Railroads and the Bonanza Wheat Era
			a. trains & produce in California
				i. long routes, weather & travel expenses limited growth
					a. hard to compete with Bonanza farms of midwest
			    ii. Central Pacific monopoly limited competition
					a. trade within California increased
			b. wheat growing ideal for dry summer climate
				i. large scale machinery after Civil War
			    ii. large farms needed- shipped in large amounts without risk
			c. middlemen 
				i. merchants from Europe & U.S. bought wheat & set prices
			    ii. merchants made large profits but farmers suffered
			   iii. silo operators & Railroads also blamed
			d. Wheat farming became one of state's largest industry
				i. ended in 1880s with too much competition in great plains
	C. Fruit and Specialty-Crop Farming
		1. fruit farming started with missions but grew with rails
			a. fragile perishable items concerned farmers
			b. needed cooperation & organization to develop
		2. California State Agricultural Society started 1854
			a. managed state fair, & supported research into new farming
			b. branches developed over several interests, wine, citrus, etc.
			c. formed cooperatives with overprotection of 1880s
				i. Sunkist (California Fruit Growers' Exchange) 1893
					a. first successful agricultural cooperative in nation
		3. Government supported cooperatives under heavy lobbying pressures
			a. Army Signal Corps (U.S. Weather Bureau) gave climate stats.
				i. allowed farmers to locate fields, choose crops, etc.
			b. Navel Orange imported from Brazil 1873 for Riverside County
			c. worked on diseases effecting crops 
			d. state agencies helped even more 
				i. State Board of Agriculture (1863)
			    ii. Board of Viticulture (1880)
			   iii. Horticultural Commission (1883)
		         iv. Board of Silk Culture (1883) 
				v. Dairy Bureau (1895)
			    vi. State Veterinarian (1899)
					a. secured regulatory & quarantine legislation
					b. all put under State Department of Agriculture(1919)
		4. Southern Pacific promotes Agriculture
			a. out of place among populists
			b. advanced capital for small farms in emerging regions
			c. encouraged public irrigation&preservation of forest watersheds 
			d. annual instructional trains in rural areas scientific farming
			e. pioneered development of ice manufacturing 
				i. fruit cooling plants, refrigerated cars&shipping systems
			f. Frank Norris-novel The Octopus exposed Southern Pacific greed
				i. trouble following argument after 
		5. Chinese truck farming
			a. rented land (could not own)
			b. raised produce (primarily vegetables & sold in towns)
	D. Water Resources
		1. Water became a big issue with large cities and little conservation
		2. Riparian law adopted by legislature
			a. Anglo-American tradition
			b. owners along water route had sole right to divert 
		3. Legislature also adopts Hispanic "prior appropriation" system
			a. allowed others to preempt water right on public land
				i. for "beneficial use" 
		4. Legal cases erupted over differences in water customs
			a. cases usually won by raparians
		5. 1887 The Wright Irrigation act 
			a. allowed the formation of local irrigation districts
			b. had to power of eminent domain & right to levy taxes
				i. sold bonds, created canals & reservoirs
			c. National Reclamation Act 1902 called for larger projects
	E. The Assault on Nature and the Beginning of Environmental Concern
		1. Early problems evident
			a. mining, bonanza farming & railroad expansion
				i. floods of people moving into state
			    ii. killing game for food hunted species out of state
					a. grizzly disappear in 1870s
					b. Bighorn, Elk, Condor & several sea birds almost gone
			b. forests destroyed 
				i. hydraulic mining, lumber, clearing farms & over grazing
					a. floods common & unrestrained
			c. hydraulic-mining 
				i. flooding sent debris into flat farm land
			    ii. covered valleys with infertile soil & threatened farming
			   iii. 1870s & 1880s anti-debris associations flourish
					a. valley farmers & So. Pacific lobby for legislation
					b. 1880 required dams to catch debris
			    iv. 1884 Fed. Judge Lorenzo Sawyer injunction stopped it
					a. Hydraulic-mining dead in state
					b. some economic fallout
			d. 1900s some movement at restoring devastated environment
				i. National Progressive movement 
		2. John Muir 
			a. nearly blinded by industrial accident in 1867
				i. turned from industry & invention to nature's wonders
			b. Transcendentalists tradition of Thoreau & Emerson
				i. industrialization killing the soul
			    ii. Nature & God's purpose, man killing off animals
			   iii. all nature interlined (webs)
			c. Campaign to save Yosemite 
				i. 1st federal wilderness preserve entrusted to state (1864)
			    ii. poachers destroyed forests, streams, and game
			   iii. 1870s Muir & Southern Pacific Company campaign 
					a. 1890 congress converted area around valley to park
			    iv. Sierra Club 1892 in San Francisco 
					a. 1905, 06 returned Yosemite to national control
			d. movement expands to other areas in state (1890s-1900s)
				i. Sequoia National Park
			    ii. Lake Tahoe National Forest
			   iii. Big Basin Redwoods Park (near Santa Cruz)
	F. Social and Political Conflict
		1. class & stratified communities in Victorian California
			a. transportation advances of cable & street cars
				i. Andrew Halladie's cable car allowed building on hills
			    ii. street car allowed movement away from city
			b. nob hill & bunker hill
				i. rich large mansions
			c. pockets of boarding houses near factories for working class
		2. ethnic neighborhoods
			a. African Americans
				i. some small neighborhoods in major cities
			    ii. middle class service jobs in railroads, waiters & porters
			   iii. ethnic institutions in some cities
			b. Chinatowns 
				i. few women before 1882 & exclusion 
			    ii. community building took several generations
			c. Barrios 
				i. by 1900 East Los Angeles thrived
			    ii. increased migration after 1900, found institutions there
		3. rural gang labor pools
			a. irrigation facilities expensive but necessary edge over others
				i. opened up to risk during years of drought
			b. ethnic minorities formed labor camps following seasonal crops
				i. Indians used until decline in 1860s
			    ii. Chinese follow until 1882 restrictions
			   iii. Japanese until 1906 Gentelmen's agreement
			    iv. Mexicans with 1910 Revolution
			c. 1870s Populist movement on National level
				i. Patrons of Husbandry 1867 Oliver Kelley - Grange 1870s
			    ii. 1873 California State Grange & cooperatives 
					a. 231 Grange locals in state & 13,500 farmers
	G. Early Labor Movements and the "Indispensable Enemy"
		1. demand for labor in San Francisco allowed some unionization
			a. high turnover & new migrants undercut attempts
		2. 8 hour day legislated in 1868 on state level
			a. could not be enforced easily (esp. in hard times)
			b. workers had to object & bring complaints
		3. panic of 1873 & collapse of Comstock mines
			a. rails opened & cheap goods brought west
			b. unemployed Irish immigrants
			c. boat loads of Chinese (20,000 came in 1876 alone)
		4. Anti-Chinese agitation increased with hardships
			a. blamed in mines for unemployment & low wages
			b. Unions take up call against
			c. Los Angeles Chinese Massacre 1871
			d. July 23, 1877 meeting ended with "On to Chinatown"
				i. burned and destroyed numerous businesses
			    ii. Gov. William Irwin called out militia for order
			   iii. William T. Coleman formed Committee of Public Safety
					a.  armed men with pick handles from his warehouse
	H. The Workingmen's Party of California (WPC)
		1. Sept.1877 in depression & turmoil at end of summer
		2. claimed capitalists, formed monopolies & employed Chinese
			a. reaction to urbanization & centralization of wealth
		3. tried to combat corporations & eject cheap Chinese labor
		4. 10,000 members marched in Thanksgiving Day parade of 1877
			a. led by president Denis Kearney (Irish owner of wagon company)
				i. natural orator & born leader, thousands came to meetings
		5. official concerns
			a. state & city laws limited freedom of assembly & expression
			b. jailed Kearney & other leaders 
		6. 1887 political influence grows
			a. elected a state senator & local officials from Alameda Co.
			b. members of legislature, mayor & majority of supervisors in SF.
			c. 1/3 rd seats in Constitutional Convention of 1878-9
			d. local laws discriminating against Chinese
				i. brick laundry etc.
		7. Economic prosperity & limited Chinese immigration ended party 1880s
	I. Anti-Railroad Politics
		1. National concern from Populists over rates in rural areas
			a. Californians far from eastern markets & little travel between
			b. Railroad varied rates & granted favored districts
				i. usually to promote other Southern Pacific businesses
		2. Granger laws in several states limit railroads & demand fair rates
			a. 1876 state railway advisory commission formed
				i. very ineffective
			b. Wabash v. Illinois 1886 Supreme Court rejected Granger laws
				i. Federal Government passed Interstate Commerce Act 1887
					a. formed Interstate Commerce Commission (very weak)
	J. The Constitution of 1879
		1. 3 groups equally represented
			a. WPC, Grange, & nonpartisans (Democrats & Republicans)
		2. Sweeping controls on business
			a. railroad commission established (3 man body)
				i. fix rates, & prohibit unfair treatment of shippers
			b. corporate income tax imposed
				i. imposed a board of equalization
					a. stabilized tax rates among counties
					b. tightened banking regulations
		3. emphasis on education
			a. reorganized funding for schools & universities
		4. sanctioned 8 hour work day		
		5. authorized legislature to act against the Chinese 
		6. did not support woman's suffrage
		7. established idea of state involvement as regulator agency
			a. oversaw public utilities
			b. equalized tax burden
	K. Chinese Exclusion
		1. Supreme Court upheld rights of Chinese in the U.S.
			a. struck down state & local codes against
		2. President Rutherford B. Hayes negotiated treaty with China 1880
			a. allowed immigration restrictions
			b. 1882 restrictions suspended Chinese immigration & citizenship
				i. only temporary at first (10 yrs)
			c. Exclusion Act of 1882 did not deport Chinese
				i. angered a number of Californians
			    ii. riots, boycotts & political demonstrations in CA & others
			d. pressure forced congress to pass Exclusion Act of 1888
				i. prohibited reentry in U.S. of Chinese who leave
			    ii. added 10 more years to temporary exclusion
			   iii. 1904 treaties & legislation made exclusion permanent
					a. reopened to Chinese immigration in WWII

IX.BEGINNINGS OF MODERN CALIFORNIA
	A. Southern California and the Railroad controversy
		1. San Diego held lead in the race for a Transcontinental link
			a. Los Angeles was too far from the harbor
				i. Phineas Banning constructed Railroad to San Pedro
					a. built town of Wilmington & improved harbor
			b. San Diego like S.F. expected Railroad & bought up waterfront
				i. price too high & Southern Pacific looked for alternative
			c. 1871 William S. Rosecrans&others start CA.So.Coast Railway Co.
		2. 1870s Big Four laid tracks in San Joaquin Valley
			a. 1876 Los Angeles bribed the So. Pac.
				i. gave RR $610,000 & Banning's RR 
	B. Population: "The One Great Desideratum"
		1. Agriculture
			a. cattle ranching changes to feed lots instead of open grazing
			b. wine production increases
			c. California Silk Association - mulberry trees(limited success)
			d. California Cotton Growers and Manufacturers Association
				i. 10,000 acres near Bakersfield 
			    ii. brought a community of African Americans from south
					a. now a state park near Button Willow
			e. The Bahia navel introduced from Brazil (Washington navel)
				i. 1873 only two trees in Riverside by 1890 over a million
		2. Tourism books & boosterism
			a.Charles Nordhoff California for Health, Pleasure&Residence
			b. B.C. Truman Homes and Happiness in the Golden State of CA
		3. Corporate and Civil attempts at enticing settlers
			a.California Immigrant Union & Pacific Land Bureau
				i. attracted settlers from east
			b. Los Angeles Board of Trade founded So.CA Immigration Ass.
				i. claimed so.cal. a "veritable sanitarium"
			c. Arid climate inhibited some farmers
				i. Most Americans farmers at time
			    ii. irrigation systems seemed alien & expensive
			   iii. not deemed appropriate for long term settlement
	C. The "Boom of the 80s"
		1. Railroads open doors
			a. Atchison,Topeka&Santa Fe extended to AZ, Needles & San Bern.
				i. in Los Angeles in 1887 & cut rates 
					a. Kansas City to L.A. $125 then $63 then $5
			b. Rate war with Central Pacific (1884 renamed Southern Pacific)
		2. Boosterism paid off
			a. tourism increased & settlers explored new area
			b. worthless land sold & communities boom & bust overnight
			c. most new immigrants from the American east 
				i. 1/3 rd came from elsewhere in CA
			d. collapse of boom in 1889 most of gains & losses on paper only
				i. little wealth lost but much generated from land sales
			    ii. 50,000 in LA in 1890 100,000-1900; 300,000-1910
	D. The First Oil Boom
		1. Spanish knew & used brea (tar) to pave streets & cover roofs
			a. San Fernando, Santa Barbara & San Buenaventura refined oil
		2. American oil exploration began in Western Pennsylvania in 1859
			a. E.L.Drake perfected mass extraction & drilled first well
			b. R.S. Baker drilled in central L.A. Banning in Wilmington
			c. Union Mattole Oil Co. sank first well in Petrolia in 1857
				i. only limited success it was too remote
			    ii. now a very small town on Matole river
			d. only limited early success in several other wells in state
	E. Black Gold
		1. Union Oil Company of California
			a. Lyman Steward and Wallace L. Hardison start small co. 1883
				i. limited success in Ventura & L.A.
			    ii. numerous dry holes and wasted time
			b. 1886 join Thomas R. Bard wealthiest man in Ventura
				i. form Sespe Oil Co. later Union Oil
			    ii. by 1900 one of nations largest petroleum operations
					a. refineries at San Pedro & Oleum in Carquinez Straits
					b. owned tankers & pipelines to beat Railroad rates
		2. Standard Oil of California 
			a. John D. Rockefeller owned 80% oil refining in U.S.
			b. bought out Pacific Coast Oil Co. in 1900
				i. moderately successful oil co in S.F. bay region
			c. attempted to take over Union Oil Co of CA but unsuccessful
		3. Edward L. Doheny starts backyard oil boom
			a. hand-dug a producing well near the La Brea Tar Pits
			b. builds base for the Pan american Oil Co. & his empire of oil
			c. 1920s bribed Sec. Int. Albert B. Fall 
				i. access to Elk Hills oil preserve
			    ii. build tanks & preserve oil in times of war (WWI)
			   iii. Fall convicted of taking $100,000 bribe
			    iv. Doheny innocent, claimed it was a loan to an old friend
				v. government revoked lease 
			    vi. Doheny made substantial profits 
			   vii. reserves closed until 1976 & operated by navy
		4. California Oil very poor quality
			a. needed more refining then the Pennsylvania product
			b. railroads and industry reluctant to use
			c. Oil companies convert locomotives & seam generators to oil 1st
			d. asphalt used in paving nation wide by 1890s
			e. gasoline not needed until 1900s and the automobile
	F. The Fight Against Monopoly
		1. U.S.Steel;American Tobacco;Northern Securities;American Sugar Trust
			a. all had national attention and broken up
		2. Railroads had center of attention in CA
			a. 1880s conflict over corporation taxation in 1879 constitution
				i. weren't' worried about impotent Railway commission
			b. Federal court supported Railroad rights
				i. Stephen J. Field granted corporations 14th amend. rights
			   ii. corporations had due process as well 
			c. Railroads reached compromise & set own tax levels in state
		3. Democrats battle Railroads
			a. Gov. George Stoneman felt humiliated 
				i. called special secession of state legislature 1884
			    ii. pro railroad Democrats betrayed anti-railroad legislation
			b. Democratic Convention in 1884 at Stockton
				i. refused to support pro-RR candidates
			    ii. nominated only anti-monopoly candidates
			   iii. split party in CA(failed to support Grover Cleveland Dem)
			    iv. Leland Stanford elected to Senate
		4. 1878 Federal law required Central Pacific to repay federal debt
			a. $28 million by 1899
			b. 1896 tried to extend loan to 100 yrs at 1% interest
			c. William Randolph Hearst collected 200,000 signatures against
				i. owner of S.F. Examiner
			d. Congress rejected loan Apr. 1897 forced payment
				i. company argued they would go bankrupt but don't
	G. Political Change in the 1890s
		1. The Question of Silver also divided state
			a. 16 to 1 or not at all
		2. Santa Fe RR broke Southern Pacific monopoly in 1880s 
			a. biggest monopoly failing
		3. Legislature passed Railroad Reassessment Act 1893
			a. made RR pay $2.2 million in back taxes
		4. Australian ballot law enacted 1891
			a. no direct election of Senators of several more years
	H. The Free Harbor Fight and the Funding Bill
		1. Banning began development of harbor region in L.A.
		2. L.A. needed an inner-harbor with a breakwater for ocean vessels
		3. Army Corps of Engineers studied & recommended San Pedro for $4 mil.
		4. Collis Huntington 1892 bought much of Santa Monica from S.Pacific
			a. pressured government for new studies
			b. despite recommendation for San Pedro $2.9mill bill for Santa M
				i. Harrison Gray Otis of Times led fight against Santa M.
					a. didn't want it controlled by Huntington
			c. Congress had 3rd study & approved funds for San Pedro
				i. 1899 started construction 2nd largest harbor in U.S.
	I. Agrarian Revolt
		1. Southern Farmers & National Farmer's Alliance 
			a. proposed numerous reform legislation 
				i. nationalize RR, Telephone & Telegraph
			    ii. paper currency & silver 
			   iii. secret ballot; direct primaries & election of senators
			b. limited success locally
		2. People's or Populist Party  1892
			a. Omaha Platform more radical 
				i. equal rights for women
			    ii. silver at 16 to 1 gold
			   iii. urban help-8hr.day, Pinkertons & immigration restrictions
			b. Democratic support 1896 but two tickets
				i. William Jennings Bryan & Arthur Sewall split ticket		
			a. Sewall was a hard money man supported gold standard
			    ii.  2 tickets strong tariff candidate William McKinley wins
	J. Populism in California
		1. 1888 Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (a utopian novel)
			a. described a peaceful evolution of a nationalized economy
			b. also promoted a complete democracy of social equals
		2. Nationalist clubs formed all over the state
			a. over 4,000 members in first year
			b. most left to join the Farmers' Alliance movement
				i. larger organization with similar goals
		3. Farmers' Alliance 
			a. recruited members from both Republican & Democrats
			b. anti-monopoly feeling strong in state
		4. Populists Politics
			a. eight Populists elected to state legislature
			b. 1893 sent Senator Stephen M. White (our man Steve) to D.C.
			c. 1894 elected Populist James H. Budd governor
				i. Adolph Sutro elected Mayor of S.F.
			d. Pullman strike of 1894 divided party 
				i. Richard Olney, U.S.D.A. helped General Managers Ass.
			    ii. got injunction against Am.Railroad Union 
					a. conspiracy to restrict trade
			   iii. Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops & broke strike
			    iv. most Populists disillusioned over power of RR
					a. number join Eugene Debbs(pres.ARU)become socialists
					b. moderates return to Dem. or Rep. party
	K. The Urban Scene: Prelude to Progressivism
		1. Cities start to grow in the late Victorian age (1870-1890)
			a. most cities only 2-2 1/2 mile radius
			b. a walking city where business is done face to face
			c. politics focused on neighborhoods (wards)
			d. San Francisco Consolidation Act of 1856 
				i. organized government and established rules for building
			    ii. amendments outweighed law & often contradicted
			   iii. contributed to the rise of Boss politics
					a. four charter campaigns to strengthen law all failed
			    iv. established city management as business not politics
					a. public ownership of utilities, contract devices etc.
		2. Initiative Referendum & Recall
			a. Los Angeles had similar plan for clean government
				i. Railroads ran city & owned majority of property
			    ii. free harbor campaign hurt but did not kill them
			b. John Randolph Haynes lead Direct Legislation League 1898
				i. failed but formed the Good Government league in 1899
			c. Goo-Goos(Times&Harrison Gray Otis term)new charter 1903		
		i. 1st city to provide for direct democracy In.Ref.Rec.
			d. Recalled one councilman in 1904 for voting record for RR
			e. 1906 Mayor Arthur C. Harper nearly recalled for ties to RR
				i. resigned under a recall pressure or 1st U.S.mayor removed
	L. Preprogressive Women
		1. Rights under Mexican law fairly liberal 
		2. U.S. slow to grant rights to women
		3. 1869 statewide suffrage society failed to convince 1879Const. Conv.
			a. did open business & professions to women
				i. only 5% of businesses owned or operated by women 1890s
					a. most dressmakers, milliners, innkeepers
			b. Gordon & Clara Shortridge Foltz broke gender barrier for bar
				i. sued to gain acceptance to Hastings College of Law 1879
			c. Univ. of Cal. Medical School admitted Lucy Wanzer 1873 
				i. USC School of Medicine 1st degree to woman in 1888
			    ii. 1890 10% of doctors in LA were women
		4. State Teaching (Normal) colleges taught women teachers 1880s
			a. 1900 most elementary teachers were women
				i. paid less much less than men
		5. other professions open to women
			a. clerks, librarians, stenographers by 1900s
				i. Unions not always open to women
					a. Ladies Assembly of Knights of Labor in SF 1885
					b. AFL not allowed until much later
			b. teachers
				i. State Colleges opened to prepare women teachers
					a. San Jos‚, L.A., & Chico
					b. private schools: USC, Pomona & Claremont
			    ii. By 1900 most elementary school teachers were women
			   iii. Kate Kennedy led S.F. teachers in equal pay movement
					a. men were paid substantially more
			c. Big business hired thousands
				i. clerks, librarians, stenographers & secretaries
			    ii. S.F. established the Ladies Assembly of Knights of Labor
					a. 1885 S.F. strong union town L.A. anti-union
			d. Other Reforms movements
				i. WCTU starts in several large cities
			    ii. Friday Morning Club started by Caroline Severance 1880s 
					a. expand kindergarten programs, improve education
					b. affordable housing for working women
					c. mitigate treatment for juvenile offenders

X. PROGRESSIVE CALIFORNIA
	A. Abraham Ruef and the Union Labor Party
		1. 4/18/1906 Earthquake in San Francisco
			a. fire leveled the city
			b. water & gas mains broke all over city & looked for scape goat
		2. Ruef successful lawyer worked in Republican machine 1886-1901
			a. Union Labor party started to support working class 
				i. waterfront workers strike 1901 
					a. Mayor James Duval uses police to protect scabs
			    ii. workers disenchanted with Democrats & new party forms
			b. Ruef nominated Eugene Schmitz for mayor
				i. Irish-German Catholic & head of musicians' union
			    ii. elected 1903 
			   iii. 1905 ULP took all 18 seats of Board of Supervisors
			c. Ruef's "French Restaurants"
				i. used public money to build "Municipal Crib" a brothel
			    ii. extortion & kickbacks
			   iii. divided spoils among supervisors
					a. a few sought bribes & embarrassed everyone
	B. Indictment and Trial
		1. Fremont Older of S.F. Bulletin expose on City Hall corruption
			a. Teddy Roosevelt sent two special investigators from D.C.
		2. Grand Jury indicts Ruef & mayor Schmitz November 1906
			a. 1907 two supervisors trapped in selling votes 
				i. given immunity to bring down others 
			b. March 1907 returned 67 more indictments against Ruef & others
			c. Ruef also given immunity & 20 more indictments made
				i. indicted both takers & those who offered bribes
		3. Longest corruption trail in U.S. history
			a. 100s of jury members called
				i. one shot at & nearly killed Chief Prosecutor Heney 
					a. later committed suicide in jail
			    ii. one supervisor's front porch blown up 
			   iii. Police Chief William J. Biggy disappeared on launch
					a. in night trip across bay
			b. only Ruef & Schmitz convicted by end of 1908
				i. Schmitz found guilty but reversed on technicality
			c. Hiram W. Johnson reneged on immunity & tried Ruef
				i. found guilty & sentenced to 14 yrs in San Quentin
			    ii. 1915 Ruef paroled & pardoned in 1920 died 1936
			   iii. Schmitz elected to board of Supervisors in 1917 died 1928
	C. The Lincoln-Roosevelt League
		1. Edward A. Dickson with Los Angeles Express investigated Republicans
			a. found Southern Pacific almost owned party officials
			b. organized progressives into "Lincoln Republicans"
			c. party progressives form the Lincoln-Roosevelt Clubs
				i. support direct primaries, woman's suffrage, & senators
		2. limited Success 
			a. put pressure on Republicans through clubs
			b. secured a preferential popular vote on Senators (not binding)
			c. pass direct primary law
			d. amended several railroad bills
	D. Hiram Johnson and the Election of 1910
		1. Ruef prosecutor Johnson ran on Republican ticket for Governor 1908
			a. well documented condemnation of railroad business practices
		2. toured state in bright red Locomobile roadster
			a. won narrow victory over Democrats & Socialists
		3. reformer but unsure of platform
	E. Economic Regulation
		1. Stetson-Eshelman Act 1911 empowered Railroad Commission
			a. fix rates for passengers and freight in state
		2. Public Utilities Act created 5 man Public Utilities Commission 
			a. men appointed by governor-authority over all public utilities
		3. Back Act of 1909 
			a. state superintendent of banks to review bank's soundness
		4. businessmen joined the efforts 
			a. Gabriel Kolko's the Triumph of Conservativism
			b. Railroads freed from rate wars & rebates to oil & agriculture
	F. Political Reform
		1. Early campaign against political corruption
			a. Powerful partisan organizations blamed for corruption
				i. 1891 legislature adopts Australian ballot
			    ii. 1893 legislature tried to regulate campaign practices
		2. Johnson hoped to give more control to the electorate
			a. initiative, referendum & recall
			b. professional politicians fought against "direct democracy"
			c. 1911 legislature passes & electorate supports
		3. Weakening party influence 1911 & 1913
			a. no party endorsement of candidates in primaries
			b. no partisan identification on ballots for many elections
				i. state, county or municipal offices
			c. cross filing allowed candidates to run in all primaries
				i. did not have to place party affiliation on ballot
			    ii. candidates could win both primaries & not face election
			   iii. incumbents had distinct advantage with name recognition
		4. changing strategies and difficulties of reform
			a. direct democracy required more signatures with population 
				i. too many signature needed to qualify measures w/ growth
			b. special interest groups replaced partisan organizations 
		5. believed women could reform political corruption
			a. victorian women seen as morally superior
			b. state finally supports suffrage for women
			c. Los Angeles Woman Suffrage League in 1901 & statewide in 1904
			d. 1911 state suffrage amendment passed by legislature
				i. won narrow support in popular election
	G. Union Activism in Los Angeles and the Bombing of the Times
		1. Most Union activity in California before 1900 centered in S.F.
		2. Harrison Gray Otis of the Times opposed unions by 1880
			a. Merchants and Manufacturers' Association joined fight against
		3. The AFL sent organizers to city to oppose Otis & the M&M
		4. May 1910 several unions on strike in L.A.
			a. city officials enforced an antipicketing ordinance
			b. workers & Socialists formed the Union Labor Political Club
				i. nominate Job Harriman for mayor(V.P.for Debs 1900 ticket)
		5. height of strike and bomb killed twenty employees in Times building
			a. Clarence Darrow defended John J. & James B. McNamara
				i. admitted guilt in trail
			    ii. John got life; James got 15 yrs.
			b. admission of guilt destroyed activism: L.A. remained open shop
		7. San Francisco also experienced setbacks to Unionism 
			a. M&M & Chamber of Commerce broke Longshoreman's strike 1916
			b. July 22 "Preparedness Day" parade (WWI) & bomb on Market St.
				i. killed 10 & maimed over 40
			c. Tom Mooney & Warren K. Billings arrested & tried
				i. both found guilty: Mooney's death sentence commuted
			    ii. both serve life sentences but pardoned in 1939
			   iii. opposition to verdict from around world
			    iv. later evidence that contradicted testimony
				v. proof that D.A. Charles M. Fickert encouraged perjury
	H. Fears of Radicalism
		1. State government supported working man constitutes w/ limitations
			a. passed Employer Liability Act (limited workers compensation)
				i. Industrial Accident Board reviewed cases
			    ii. also passed a state workers insurance program
			b. 8 hour day & minimum-wage for women
			c. Industrial Welfare Commission
				i. regulates working conditions for women & children
		2. Anti-Labor efforts also gain support
			a. almost approved compulsory arbitration bill (stops strikes)
			b. defeated bill against injunctions, black lists &
			c. Fresno&San Diego outlawed Wobblie gatherings in public places
				i. IWW made some inroads with unskilled workers
			    ii. only had 1,000 members in CA by 1910
			d. 1912 many arrested in San Diego & 2 die in jail from a beating
				i. Hiram Johnson investigated
		3. Free Speech Fights 
			a. anti-IWW laws declared unconstitutional 
			b. citizens and authorities condemned in San Diego & Fresno
				i. hostility towards radicalism & IWW continued
		4. Wheatland Riot summer of 1913 (south of Marysville)
			a. Durst Hop Ranch recruited 2,800 adult workers for 800 jobs
				i. inadequate facilities,sold water w/lemon flavor in fields
			    ii. held back wages till harvest was in
			b. Wobblies organized protest
			c. Sheriff deputies confronted workers & shots fired
				i. 5 dead: 2 deputies, 2 workers & D.A. of Yuba County
			    ii. Blackie Ford & Herman Suhr arrested for 2nd degree murder
					a. organized protest & were imprisoned
			d. Commission on Immigration & Housing investigates conditions
				i. recommends improving conditions among farm labor camps
			    ii. Labor Camp Act 1915 passed but ignored by farmers
	G. The Criminal Syndicalism Act, 1919
		1. fear of radical activism, the bombings & national fears
			a. Bolshevik revolution in 1917 
			b. A.Mitchell Palmer's "red raids"(5,000 arrested & 600 deported)
		2. 500 arrested under CA statute
		3. 1st trial was 52 yr old Charlotte Anita Whitney  
			a. philanthropist & social worker became a Communist in 1919
			b. convicted & sentenced to 14yrs
			c. appeals upheld all way to U.S. Supreme Court
			d. Gov. Clement C. Yong pardons (didn't want a 60 yr old martyr)
			e. remained law until 1968 when federal court invalidates
	H. Race in Progressive California
		1. D. W. Griffith's film The Birth of a Nation(1915)one of first films
			a. Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan (1916) by William J. Simmons
			b. NAACP & Urban League protested showing film in L.A. & Oakland
		2. 1906 Gentleman's agreement
			a. Asiatic Exclusion League in S.F. 
			b. S.F. Board of Education started segregating Japanese students
			c. President Roosevelt helpless & diplomatic crisis
				i. Japanese agree to limit emigration if given civil rights
		3. Alien Land Law of 1913 
			a. "aliens ineligible for citizenship" couldn't lease or buy land
			b. Japanese leased or bought land in name of children
	I. Water for the Cities: Hetch Hetchy & Owens Valley
		1. 1900 fight for clean water in S.F. lead to Hetch Hetch Valley
			a. 13yr. fight in congress over location, Yosemite National Park
			b. 1906 earthquake & Ruef trial showed need for outside help
			c. Raker Act 1913 created a 200 mile aqueduct & dam
				i. also created cheap hydroelectric power
		2. Los Angeles growing with little water resources
			a. 1904 Fred Eaton suggested tapping Owens River for water needs
				i. bought land around Long Valley  to sell water rights
			    ii.drought depleted L.A. reservoirs 
			b. Eaton sells holdings to L.A. with William Mulholland's support
			c. Times & Examiner editorials discussed Eaton's plan
				i. Times supported plan
			    ii. Examiner claimed Otis & Huntington owned S.F. valley land
			d. voters approved project in 1905
			e. Federal Government prevented homesteaders from claiming water
				i. also gave some land in Sierra National Forest for project
			f. Eaton's $1mil. for land too high
				i. city avoided Eaton's reservoir plan for direct river flow
			    ii. reservoir built in 1941 for consistency 
			g. project still threatens Mono Lake ecosystem

XI. PROSPERITY AND THE RISE OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
	A. Water and Power for Growth
		1. The Imperial Valley
			a. Salton Sink 150 miles S.E. of L.A. mostly below sea level
				i. silt from Colorado R. filled area making fertile soil
			    ii. irrigation a real problem for farming area
			b. Charles R. Rockwood formed California Development Co. 1896 
				i. used Oliver Wozencraft's plan to divert Colorado R. water 
					a. divert into an old channel (Alamo R.) through Mexico
			    ii. Mexico agreed and water flowed into valley June 1901
					a. settlers started arriving in 1900
					b. finished by building 400 miles of canals
			c. Flood almost destroys Imperial Valley 1905
				i. Colorado flooded, sweeps through Alamo & other channels
			    ii. Salton Sea formed 
			   iii. Southern Pacific took over Calif. Dev. Co & stopped flood
					a. dumped tons of gravel into 1/2 mile break in canal
			d. American Canal
				i. U.S. could not control project & demanded American Canal
			    ii. Congress created a commission among states effected
					a. Sec. of Commerce H. Hoover met w/ states 1921 & 22
			   iii. Bolder Canyon Dam proposed by congress
					a. Arizona refused but congress passed anyway
					b. Arizona given water in proportion to population
					c. Dam would supply electricity as well needed in L.A.
	B. California and the Automobile
		1. invented in late 19th century but 1920 price cut to affordable
		2. 1900 only 8,000 registered cars by 1929 nearly 27 million
			a. California had over 2 million registered vehicles in 1929
		3. Model T
			a. a team of engineers invented assembly line Ford first to use 
			b. in 1913 used for Model T reduced time from 14 to 1 1/2 hrs.
			c. in 1912 coast $600 by 1924 only $290
			d. light weight, easy to repair & most popular in history (V.W.)
			e. stays the same year after year with little change (V.W)
		4. Automobile spurs economic growth
			a. manufacturing end
				i. Thousands of tons of steel needed for production
			    ii. glass, rubber, cloth, other raw materials
			b. maintenance end
				i. gas stations, garages replace livery stables & troughs
			    ii. taxes support: traffic lights, paved roads, bridges
			   iii. private interests start: motels, parking lots, billboards
			c. off shoots of industry
				i. trucking improves local delivery & remote access
			    ii. tractors revolutionize farming
		5. Los Angeles becomes 1st decentralized American city			
			a. almost anyone can afford 
			b. independence from rail lines & street cars
			c. decline of corner store, local church & one room schools
				i. people could go further distances for better services
			d. growth of the suburbs
				i. no longer the domain of wealthy alone
			    ii. by 1920 over have population in U.S. lived in urban area
					a. (towns with over 2,500 people)
			   iii. over 1/2 residents of L.A. lived in single family homes
					a. more 3 x the number of other American cities
			e. freeways develop only after WWII
				i. complications revive interests in alternatives today
		6. Cultural changes brought by Automobile
			a. tourism increases dramatically 
				i. out to nature campaigns, picnics, resorts
					a. CA ST. Automobile Ass. & Automobile Club of So. CA
			b. courtship practices change
				i. couples escaped chaperoning parents
			    ii. 1919 only 10% cars covered 82% by 1927
					a. concerns over too much privacy
			   iii. Necking in back seat fashionable & new morality
			c. Advertizement changes
				i. Automobile is symbol of good life, freedom, power & sex
			    ii. one of first products offered on credit
					a. Toledo, Ohio 1915 group of businessmen offer
					   installments on payments of cars
					b. so successful others followed suit & extended
 					   credit to almost everything
	C. Oil 
		1. Leading Oil Companies
			a. Standard Oil of CA, Union Oil, Shell & General Petroleum
				i. Standard Oil of NJ broken by Supreme Court in 1911
			    		a. discovered large field in Huntington Beach in 1920
			   ii. Union Oil drilled in Santa Fe Springs 
			  iii. Shell tapped Signal Hill site
			b. by 1930s state led nation in oil production
		2. Speculation boom swept the state
			a. oil stocks sold at inflated prices 
			b. thousands lost money in wild speculation
				i. Chauncey C. Julian Oil Scandal
					a. raised $11 million from 40,000 subscribers
						i. to develop Julian's holdings
					b. 5 million stocks sold at inflated prices
					c. bubble burst & thousands lost all
	D. Gas and Hydroelectric Power
		1. Natural Gas evolved slowly in 1920s to become a major energy source
		2. Hydroelectricity boomed in a few short years
			a. 1893 only 4 hydroelectric plants in U.S. 2 in southern CA
			b. 1920s a major energy source for industry
			c. 2 companies dominated state electricity
				i. 1905 PG&E (from S.F. Gas&Elec. & CA Central Gas&Elec.)
			    ii. Southern California Edison 1928
	E. The Movies
		1. Thomas A. Edison's Kintoscope displayed in New York 1894 
			a. 1896 1st theatrical presentation of moving pictures
			b. 1902 1st motion picture theater opens  (Los Angeles)
				i. "nickelodeon" charged only a nickel (working class only)
			c. 1903 1st movie The Great Train Robbery by Edwin S. Porter
			d. 1922 color
			e. The Jazz Singer 1927 the first picture with sound
			f. 1928 the Oscars start (1927-8)
		2. The movie industry
			a. centered in L.A. because of the year round weather
				i. open shop labor policy also enticed producers
			    ii. the geography & terrain could double for anywhere
			b. Jewish immigrants formed first studios
				i. William Fox, Adolph Zukor, Samuel Goldwyn, 
				   Louis B. Mayer Marcus Loew, & Jesse L. Lasky
			    ii. Formed Paramount, Fox, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, Universal, 
				   Columbia, Warner Brothers, & RKO (Radio-Keith-Orpheum)
		3. Stars and personalities
			a. Charlie Chaplin by 1916 received $10,000 a week
			b. Hollywood shocked old time residents with scandals
		4. Censorship
			a. Will H. Hayes issued first code of ethics & self-regulation
			b. The Legion of Decency (Catholic Church) threatened boycotts
				i. Hollywood organized Breen Office in 1934 to censor selves
	F. Agribusiness
		1. Farms expanded land holdings, expanding horizontally 
          		a. 1930s only 4% of farms owned 62% of farmland
		2. With large land ownerships companies started expanding vertically
		        a. bought food-processing, distribution & marketing businesses
		3. Rice & Cotton boom in the state
		4. Co-ops formed in the 1880s continued & others soon formed 
		        a. California Fruit Grower’s Exchange 1893 (Sunkist)
		        b. Diamond Walnuts
		5. The Wine industry suffered with Prohibition
			a. table grape sales increased due to home wine making
      			b. allowed vineyards to survive until 1933 & end of prohibition
   		6. Farm Labor
		        a. Japanese immigrants comprised most migrant workers until 1915
		        b. Mexicans and Mexican Americans replace Japanese & use cars
		              i. First mobile farm labor source
		        c. working conditions deplorable no sanitation & danger increases
		        d. International Workers of the World
			      i. socialist labor movement organized unskilled farm labor
			     ii. Criminal syndicalism law 1919 used to break union
 		 	          a. threat of communism growing in U.S. after Bolshevik Rev.
		7. Prohibition
		        a. California ratified the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919
		  	      i. Volstead act left enforcement to local government
 			     ii. Harris Act passed in early 1920 but defeated by referendum
		 	    iii. little money used for enforcement 
		        b. cities ignored the prohibition stills and speakeasies abounded
			      i. Midwesterner immigrants in L.A. yet “wets” a majority 
		        c. wineries closed and some failed
			d. most liquor came from British Colombia and shipped south
		        e. Tijuana becomes instant city with smuggling money
		8. Religion
		        a.William J. Seymour and the 312 Azusa Street
			     i. from Louisiana Seymour came to L.A. in 1906
			    ii. opened church with prayer meetings for several weeks
    		           iii. lasted until 1922 with Seymour’s death
			    iv. started several Pentecostal denominations
			     v. holiness movement able to close down movies in 1920s
		        b. Aimee Semple McPherson and the Four Square Church
			     i. Missionary to China with husband Robert
			    ii. Came back to east coast with baby daughter on death of husband
			   iii. 1919 Aimee came to California for daughter Roberta’s health
			    iv. 1921 built Angelus Temple completed in 1923 
			     v. first woman in U.S. to get commercial broadcast license
		 	    vi. Kidnapped and grand jury investigation
			   vii. Benevolence of Angelus Temple
	   	        c. Katherine Tingley (Mother Purple) of Theosophical Society
			     i. Followed Buddhist & Brahman theories 
			    ii. Built Temple in Point Loma near San Diego
  		           iii. Annie Besant built a colony in Ojai Valley for group 
			         a. brought Krishnamurti to U.S. as new messiah

XII. THE DEPRESSION DECADE

	A. The Crash & Impact of Depression
     		1. Oct. 24, 1929 Black Thursday
		        a. margin buying and panic
		        b. institutions and banks ruined
			    i. 1932 stocks selling for 10% of 1928 values
	        2. Lay-offs and Hovervilles
		        a. southern part of state effected most
  		 	    i. Highest percentage of elderly in the nation
			   ii. 1/5th  of Los Angeles on relief
  		        b. Thousands of homeless came to California
			    i. believed it was a paradise
 		 	   ii. large farmers tried to get cheaper labor from dust bowl
 	 	          iii. Okies flooded into the state
 		           iv. Los Angeles Police chief attempted to prohibit entry to state
		3. Hoover did little 
		        a. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
			    i. Financed construction of Oakland Bay Bridge & Golden Gate
	B. The New Deal in California
		1. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
		        a. gave matching funds to state for relief
		2. Civil Works Administration
		        a. employed 150,000 to build dams, schools, bridges,etc.
		        b. replaced with Public Works Administration 
		 	    i. Build Newport Harbor 
			   ii. The Colorado River and Central Valley projects
  	                a. Hoover (Bolder) Dam started project
		        b. brought water through aqueduct to L.A.
 		        c. Central Valley Project 
			   i. Shasta dam and several others to get water from north
			  ii. three canals send water to Bakersfield and pumping stations
			 iii. pumped to reservoirs in San Fernando Valley for L.A.
		3. The Civilian Conservation Corps 
		        a. hired 18-25 yr olds for conservation projects
		        b. paid 30 dollars a month 25 went to parents
	 	4. Work Progress Administration hired writers, painters & musicians
	C. Politics of the Depression
		1. Upton Sinclair
		        a. ran as Socialist in1926 & 1930
		        b. 1932 and ran for U.S. Senator
		        c. After supporting Roosevelt he switched to Democrat in 1933
		        d. Wrote End Poverty in California pamphlet in 1933 EPIC
		 	  i. Calls for state run farms and factories
	   	         ii. Promotes idea of California supremacy & superb economy
		        iii. I, Governor of California & How I Ended Poverty: A True 
		             Story of the Future  1933 runs for governor with plan
	 		 iv. Repeal of state sales tax
		          v. supported $50 month pension old & disabled
		        e. Movie & Oil Industries oppose unfair taxes
			  i. Actors in disguise as Oakies at train yards
			 ii. Excerpts from his writing taken out of context
			     a. claimed he was atheist, communist, & immoral (free love)
		2. Frank Merriam’s Pragmatism
			a. Promoted New Deal programs with limits
			  i. fear of Communism & radicals like Sinclair
			b. State Emergency Relief Administration (gained federal relief)
		        c. allowed State Pension law (gained U.S. Social Security Act 1935)
		        d. placed higher tax on inheritance, corporations & banks
		        e. exempted sales taxes on groceries, fuel & drug prescriptions

XXII. THE EARLY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
	A. Problems of Discrimination
		1. Housing discrimination
			a. before 1900 housing was open based on wealth
			b. 1919 Los Angeles Investment Co. vs. Albert Gray 
			  i. allowed residential restrictions but could not limit sales 
		         ii. restricted covenants remained until 1948 when overturned
		2. Discrimination in employment & other areas
			a. hotels, restaurants, theaters clothing stores & public facilities
			b. Huntington Beach black country club burnt before opening 1925
			c. Black amusement park owner denied application Santa Monica
			d. Black country club in Corona had members intimidated & failed 
		3. Pearl Harbor & Japanese interment
		        a. Executive order 9066 Feb. 14, 1942
			b. FBI claimed Japanese Americans not a threat
			c. Army & Lt. Gen. John DeWitt (western defense) supported 
			d. Roosevelt gave into fears & racism
		4. Zoot-Suit Riot Aug. 1943
		        a. discrimination in housing & employment
		        b. distinct clothing 
		        c. only riot by service men against civilians
	B. Expectations of Equality
		1. War allowed many minorities to find semiskilled jobs
		2. GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944)
			a. provided buffer from unemployment after the war
			b. low interest loans for housing & business (farms)
			c. gave college education 
		3. Interracial housing projects started after WWII
			a. Whatts & south central Los Angeles were open communities
		          i. Allowed anyone to live in the area
	        	 ii. by 1940's services were obsolete & overtaxed whites leave
		4. 1948 Truman desegregates the military
			a. veterans return with expectations of equality based on military 
		5. 1949 Fair Employment Practices Law passed 
			a. started in 1946 but delayed 
		6. 1963 Rumford Fair Housing Act passed
			a. referendum 1964 Proposition 14 repealed the law
			b. State reinstated Rumford 65 & U.S. Supreme Court upheld 67
	C. Black Civil Rights Movement 
		1. NAACP launched campaign to reverse Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
			a. Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas et. al. 1954&55
		2. SCLC & grass roots movement of the south
			a. Montgomery buss boycott 1955-56
			b. Woolworth's drug store demonstration 1960
			c. Children's crusade 1963
			d. the effect of Television
		3. Whatt's Riot  August 11, 1965
		        a. arrest of Marquette Frye on Avalon Blvd. near 116 St.
			b. police overreacted to officer needs help calls
			c. riots & looting recorded on Television
			d. Lt. Gov. Glenn Anderson called out National Guard by 14th
			     i. feared initial involvement of guard
			    ii. 10,000 police & 13,000 national guard controlled city
			e. 35 dead, over 850 injured & over 4,00 arrested
		4. Black Panther Party
		 	a.Stokely Carmichael's "Black Power" Summer of Freedom 1964
		             i. believed whites could not be trusted
		        b. Malcom X killed in Feb. 1965
		        c. Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale & Eldridge Cleaver form 1966
		        d. marched on Sacramento to defend right to bear arms
			     i. uniformed & armed against new gun control act
		        e. Armed confrontation with police in 1967 & 1968 
		        f. Cleaver runs for Peace & Freedom party President
			     i. flees to Algeria to avoid revoked of parole & prison
		5. Bussing
		        a. Supreme Court ordered in 1955
		        b. opposition throughout country
		        c. issue dies in 1976 with more conservative court
	D. Mexican American Civil Rights Movement
		1. Braceros program 1948-1964
		        a. loss of labor from WWII 
		            i. business & farmers recruit in Mexico 
		           ii. brought 4.5 million Mexicans into country
		        b. Braceros signed contract provide unskilled labor & return home
		2. Operation wetback
		        a. small recession of 1953-1954 government deported 1.1 mil.
		3. Mexican Americans had unsure status
		        a. depending on local authorities, ignored or abused
		        b. some cases brutalized by police (Zoot Suit Riot)
		4. Opposition to discrimination divided
		        a. late 1940 several Mexican American groups started
			    i. Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs 1943
			b. Mendez et. al v. Westminster 1947
		        c. 1960 the Mexican -American Political Association formed
		        d. Mexican American Legal Defense & Educational Fund 1968
		        e. Brown Berets start by young Chicanos 1968
		5. 1960 César Chavez organizes migrant farm workers
		        a. since 1900s unions have tried to organize migrant workers
		        b. Chavez started door to door & field to field campaign
		        c. by 1965 had 1,700 members & attracted volunteer support
		6. Grape boycott and United Farm Workers (UFW)
		        a. UFW launches campaign for decent living age
			b. targeted grape growers of California for action
		            i. grapes take years to reach production
		           ii. they require manicuring several times a year
		        c. boycott crippled wine industry & several signed with UFW
		        d. 1966 the DiGiorgio Corp. held a rigged election
		            i. Gov. Edmund G. Brown Jr. investigated  UFW won 2nd election
		7. Chavez continued struggle led boycott of lettuce in Salinas valley
		        a. growers relented & unionized
		8. Just before Chavez's death in 1993 led a hunger strike
		        a. interested in conditions in the fields
		        b. trying to stop spraying pesticides
		            i. trying to convince consumers of danger
		        c. concerned about deaths, cancers & diseases in workers
		9. Student Activism
		        a. 1967 Mexican American Student Org. later(youth org.) spreads
			    i. UCLA, CSLA, Loyola, USC, CSLB, ELAC, & CSUN & Austin
		           ii. spread north-Fresno, Hayward, Sac, Colorado & Berkeley
			  iii. teachers, classes, & Latin Am. Studies programs
		        b. 3/3/68 "Blow Out" Abraham Lincoln HS in East L.A.
		            i. 1,000 students walked out & Sal Castro (teacher)
		           ii. 1 1/2 weeks effected over 10,000 students in LA
		        c. 13 Chicanos indicted by Grand Jury for conspiracy & acquitted
			    i. Leaders labeled as communists
		                 a. Sal Castro, teacher
                		 b. Eliezer Risco, editor of "La Raza" 
		                 c. Patricio Sanchez member of MAPA
		                 d. 10 others were students 
		10. Moratorium Riot in LA Aug. 29, 1970
		        a. 20,000 attend march to end Vietnam war rest in Laguna Park
		        b. liquor store hold up and police break up crowd
        		c. three dead including Ruben Salazar a reporter from Times
        		d. organized several new groups to bring reform & accountability
	F. Native Americans gained some identity & activism in 1950s
		1. 1953 eliminates reservations as legitimate political entities
		        a. hoped to force assimilation
		        b. offered small subsidies to families to leave reservation
			c. took away federal protection & denied treaty rights
		2. National Congress of American Indians formed to oppose policy
		3. Kinzua Dam project started in 1928
		        a. would flood 10,000 acres guarantee to Seneca in 1794
        		b. public hearings did not invite Indian response
        		c. Indian groups approached Kennedy in 1961
        		d. Kennedy refused to acknowledge Indian claim
        		    i. continued pattern of stealing land for better good
        		e. government paid $15 million but did not cover losses
    		4. 1968 American Indian Movement (AIM)
    			a. started by Dennis Banks and George Mitchell
	     		b. Nov. 1968 AIM captured Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay
		            i. Federal government closed old prison
		           ii. 1963 declared the rock surplus property
		          iii. Fort Laramie Treaty 1868 permitted male Indians to homestead 
		           iv. Indians claim land & want to build a cultural center
		            v. 1971 federal officials removed them
		           vi. government gives some tribes money & land for education
        		c. 1972 militant group starts Broken Treaties Caravan to D.C.
		            i. several people take over the Bureau of Indian Affairs
		           ii. hold out in office for six days
	G. Affirmative Action and the decline of Civil Rights
			a. 1978 Allan Bakke vs. University of California
			    i. Graduate student denied access to Davis medical two years
        		   ii. U.S. Supreme Court ordered in 5 to 4 school to admit
       			  iii. 16 seats saved for minority students
        		   iv. Bakke's GPA and test scores higher than all 16 both years
			    v. court claimed race alone could not be used to establish entry
			b. University of California removed Affirmative action in enrollments
			    i. Asian students at Berkeley
		           ii. Argue for rounded student body representing the state
			c. Racial groups vary on topic of Affirmative action
			    i. Whites claim with less qualified Blacks hired    
		           ii. Without Blacks claim less qualified White hired