Psychology 150

California State University
at Los Angeles

Psychology 150

Introductory Psychology

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PSYCHOLOGY 150: Introductory Psychology

TEXT: Morris Charles G. (1996). Psychology: An Introduction (Ninth Edition).Prentice-Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Instructor: Tom Beran (tberan

* Course Goals and Requirements
* Course Syllabus
* Weekly Resource Menu: Weekly Lecture Notes, SampleQuizzes, WWW Links

Reference Sources
* Psychology Research News Group
* Psychological Theory News Group


Morris Psychology Web Site
Send comments on this home page by email: [email protected]

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Introductory Psychology



Instructor: Tom Beran office: 3042 A
phone: 343 2264, during office hours, or 343 2250, during normal businesshours to leave a message
office hours: Monday and Wednesday, 2-4 pm.

Text: Morris, C.G. (1996) Psychology: An Introduction (Ninth Edition). Prentice-Hall,New Jersey.

Requirements and Grade Information

The student is expected to read assigned materials and participate in classdiscussions. While attendance will not be factored into the final coursegrade, the material covered during the lectures will be represented on thetests and quizzes, and obviously, students will be required to attend classin order to take these examinations.

Grades will be based on scores achieved on 9 quizzes, one midterm, onefinal, and one 4-5 page paper.

The tests and quizzes will consist of questions designed to judge the levelof mastery of class and text material. The lectures will be the best indicationof what to emphasize when studying for exams: Come to class and you'll know
what's on the exam.

Quizzes have a value of 10 points each. The midterm and final are eachworth 50 points. The paper is worth 30 points.


Students will have the opportunity to take 9 quizzes, but the lowest 2 quizscores will be dropped. If quizzes are missed, they will count as the droppedscores (duh, no make-ups). NOTE: The only exception to the aboverule of no make-ups is
if I am contacted prior to the day of the quiz and arrangements aremade for an alternate quiz time. ABSOLUTELY NO MAKE-UPS WILL BE GIVEN FORTHE MIDTERM AND FINAL.

Additional ARTICLES

Journal and text readings (articles) will be assigned to accompany the textreadings. More will be discussed regarding these in class.


In short, the paper is a 4-5 page RESEARCH paper which utilizes 4 ormore PSYCHOLOGY JOURNAL articles, discusses a particular social issue,and contains a conclusion which summarizes and includes personal thoughts(expressed as such - "I feel..." "Personally, xxxxxxx hasaffected me in that....", "In my opinion,...", etc.) Suggestionsare listed below.

Violence, Religion, Homosexuality, the Media, Rape, Altruism, Discrimination,Sexism, Heterosexism, Feminism, Adolescence, Power, Rebellion, Discipline,Stereotypes, Phobias, Prejudice, Social Development, Politics, Sex, EatingDisorders, Parenting, or any combination of the above.
If you have another idea, run it by me.

A college level research paper does not contain spelling errors, punctuationmistakes, hand written corrections, sweeping generalizations, opinions expressedas if fact, or any non-referenced facts.

A college level research paper does contain organized thoughts and presentation,well thought out conclusions, and correctly written citations and referencepage. (Hint: make it interesting and entertaining.)

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Psychology 150: Syllabus

Throughout course: Psychology as a Science, types of Psychology, researchmethods (as introduced in class lectures, students will be responsible forthe information on quizzes)
(Ch. 1)
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Week 1: Personality Psychology: Psychoanalytic Theory/Freud, Jung, Humanistic/Rogers
Quiz 1 (Ch. 11)
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Week 2: Learning: Classical Conditioning/Pavlov,
Operant Conditioning/Skinner, Social Learning Theory/Bandura
Quiz 2 (Ch. 5)
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Week 3: Life Span Development: Biological Bases (Infant - Adolescence)/Prenatal,Physical, Motor Development: Cognitive Development/Piaget, Biological Bases(Adolescence - Senior)/Cognitive Changes, Social Development, PersonalityDevelopment
Quiz 3 (Ch. 9)
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Week 4: Information Processing/Memory
Quiz 4 (Ch. 6)
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Week 5: Therapies: Insight Therapies, Behavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies,Group Therapies
Quiz 5 (Ch. 14)
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Week 7: Physiological Psychology: Neurons, Central Nervous System, SomaticNervous System, Autonomic Nervous System, Endocrine System, Genetics
Quiz 6 (Ch. 2)
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Week 8: Motivation and Emotion: Primary Drives, Stimulus Motives, LearnedMotives, Emotional Expression (Physiological, Behavioral, Verbal)
Quiz 7 (Ch. 10)
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Week 9: Social Psychology I: Social Cognition, Attitudes, Social Influences/Action
Quiz 8 (Ch. 15)
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Week 10: Social Psychology II: Gender, Cultural Diversity, Prejudice
Quiz 9 (Ch. 16; Ch. 15 p. 607-618)
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Weekly Resource Menu:
Weekly Lecture Notes, Sample Quizzes, WWW Links

Week 1: Personality Psychology
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
Review Activity 1
Review Activity 2
WWW Links

Week 2: Learning
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

Week 3: Life Span Development
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

Week 4: Information Processing/Memory
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

Week 5: Therapies
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links


Week 7: Physiological Psychology
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

Week 8: Motivation and Emotion
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

Week 9: Social Psychology I
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

Week 10: Social Psychology II
Lecture Notes
Sample Quiz
WWW Links

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Week 1: Personality Psychology: Lecture Notes



I. Common Psychoanalytic terms.
a. When words/names accidentally slips out
"Father of the Bride", Steve Martin tells his daughter w/ herfiance to be sure to fasten her condom, uh, seat belt". We'd say, thatwas Freudian.
b. Someone's got a big EGO.
c. Who hasn't heard of penis envy or the Oedipus complex?
d. You did something you shouldn't have, so you rationalize your behavior.
e. Or a neat freak being anal...
f. or someone "repressing" something
These are all terms or phrases of Sigmund Freud's
Psychoanalytic approach to personality.

Thoughts flow....

II. Like an iceberg, in a sea of thought

a. conscious - what's on your mind

b. preconscious - can be made conscious by focusing

c. unconscious - the most important for Freud
what you're unaware of
a mystery, includes instincts of sex
aggression, more often than not stay hidden
Key to Freud, resistant to come to surface

d. Iceberg (the mind) - only a little of what we're
aware of is visible

e. Part of the iceberg (mind):
1. superego-your conscience, right from wrong
2. id-urges, completely unconscious, instincts
wants instant gratification, completely
3. ego- the self, moderates between id and superego

f. id - follows the pleasure principle;immediate
gratification, now. Contains the libido, which is the
primary source of motivation, couldn't care less
about the demands of reality DRIVES AND URGES

g. superego - follows the moral principle
morals, conscience, right from wrong
from Mom and Dad, moral guardian of...
CONSCIENCE - Keeps us from doing morally bad things, and
EGO IDEAL- Motivates us to what's morally proper (what we'd IDEALLY liketo be)

h. ego - driven by the reality principle, compromises
between demands of id and superego.

i. Freud believed that a major instinct called EROS
basic life instinct, or preserver of life. The EROS
instinct was fueled psychic energy called the libido.

As the child develops, the libidinal energy would be expressed through sexualfeelings in deifferent parts of the body or Erogenous Zones

Transfer of libidal energy from one zone to another throughout development.

The Personality begines as a set of selfish impulses (the id). The egodevelops when parents try to bring the id impulses under control. Finally,the superego is the internalized representation of the parents value systems,and develops during the anal stage of psychosexual development. Both idand superego are unrealistic in not considering the actualities of society.


example: id-I want sex, superego-you're not married,
ego-wait until you get married, then you can
have sex
id-grab the candy bar and feast, superego-you
better pay for that, stealing's wrong, and
you're going to get fat, ego-I can wait to eat
it until after I pay for it, and dinner is not
for a few hours.


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Activity: Name That Psychic Structure

1. I want to jump your bones. ID

2. Sex with someone you've just met is perverted and
degenerate. SUPEREGO

3. It's best to date for a while before considering
sex. Take a cold shower. EGO

4. Hurting people is immoral. SUPEREGO

5. You gave me a bad grade; I am going to beat you
senseless. ID

6. Getting physical is unrealistic; I'll calmly discuss
my grade with the teacher. EGO

7. Dinner will be served in a half hour; better hold off on
on the sweats. EGO

8. Give me the cake, you scum sucking pig, or I'll snap your
neck like a twig. ID

9. Gimme all your lovin', all your hugs and kisses, too. ID

10. If I really love her, and am committed to her, sex
before marriage should be ok. EGO

Tie breaker: Sex before marriage is morally depraved and
sexually deviant. SUPEREGO



internal or discomfort displeasure relief by pleasure
external in the in the 1st available in the
stimulus ID ID means ID


internal or discomfort displeasure relief by pleasure
external in the in the safest and best in the
stimulus ID ID available means ID


A. Defense mechanisms protect the psyche of the individual.

Unconscious methods in which the ego distorts reality, thereby protectingthe id from anxiety.

When the ego blocks the pleasurable pursuits of the id, inner anxiety isfelt.

B. Repression - buries in the unconscious anything causing
anxiety. Like a tea pot - cover spout,
pressure builds, and has to escape; from the
unconscious, the repressions can escape
through dreams, unconscious actions or
physical symptoms (psychosomatic ailments)
Pissed at mom and dad, feeling causes anxiety

C. Resistance - blocking of thoughts whose awareness could cause anxiety.
Mom: "When are you going to get married?"
You have to block your anger

D. Rationalization - developing alternative explanations to
protect our self-esteem.

E. Displacement - expression of an unwanted feeling or thought is redirected
from a strong, powerful person to a weaker one,from a
threatening to a less threatening person or object.
(employee gets yelled at by the boss,
he goes home and yells at ?? his wife)

F. Denial - simply refusing to accept or acknowledge an
anxiety producing piece of information.

G. Regression - behaving at an earlier stage of development or retreatingto a
younger age to avoid responsibility or demands.
(After years of managing $ while going to
school, you ask your to manage your finances)

H. Projection - protecting oneself by attributing unwanted impulses and
feelings onto someone else.
(ex. man who feels sexually inadequate,
to his wife that she is sexually inept.)

I. Sublimation - Divert unwanted impulses into socially redeemable thoughtsor
behaviors. (ex. person with strong feelings of
aggression may become a butcher, to hack
away at meat instead of people) Release
psychic energy in a socially acceptable way.

J. Reaction Formation - Behavior in opposition to one's genuine impulsesin
order to keep impulses repressed.
(Ex. If one is angry, he might talk
"sickly sweet" manner. A sadistic
individual becomes a physician.)


A. Five Stages
1. Oral B to 12-18 m oral gratification
sucking, eating, biting

2. Anal 12-18 m to 3 yrs gratification from
feces, coming to terms
with society's demands
of toilet training

3. Phallic 3 to 5-6 yrs interest in genitals,
coming to terms with
Oedipal/Electra conflict
leading to identification
with same-sex parent

4. Latency 5-6 yrs to adolescence Sexual concerns largely

5. Genital adolescence to adulthood reemergence of sexual interests
and establishment of
mature sexual relationships

B. Discussion of Stages

1. Oral
a. mouth the focal point of pleasure. Why? What do babies do, like to
do? sensual pleasure from mouth, lips, and tongue

Child relieves sexual tension by sucking and
swallowing, and gets frustrated when he/she can't.
Later, when the baby gets teeth, chewing and biting
become a source of oral pleasure.

b. Possibility of fixation.
Who's heard of someone being fixated? What does it mean?
Someone could get fixated if they were overly
indulged orally (maybe being fed every time they
cried), or very frustrated in search of oral
gratification (being denied feeding).

c. Results of fixation.
Freud thought that children who had problems at a
particular stage who show signs later in life:

might produce an adult who was unusually interested
in overly oral activities: eating, smoking, talking

or symbolic sorts of oral interests: being
"bitingly" sarcastic or being very gullible ("swallowing"anything).

Infant given too much oral gratification: overly optimistic and extremelydependent on others to meet their needs.

Infant given too little oral gratification:
become pessimistic and respond with hostility when
frustrated in later life.

Lack of confidence, gullibility, sarcasm, and argumentativeness

Stage Adult Extensions Sublimations Reaction Formations

oral smoking, eating seeking speech purist, food
kissing, oral knowledge, faddist, prohibi-
hygiene, humor, wit, tionist, dislike of
drinking, sarcasm, of milk
chewing gum being a food expert

2. Anal

a. Child's erotic feelings center on the anus and on
elimination. Primary source of sexual pleasure
shifts for the mouth to the anus, but the mouth
continues to provide some pleasure.

b. Between 18 months to 3+ years, a child begins
deriving pleasure from holding in and excreting

Toilet training teaches the child to regulate the
new pleasure.



If parents are too demanding during toilet training:
might withhold their feces and become obstinate,
stingy, overly precise, and excessively orderly

Leniency, or sometimes rigidity, in training
might causes children to throw temper tantrums,
and later might cause them to be messy and/or destructive

Oscar and Felix are great examples of fixation at the
anal stage.

Stage Adult Extensions Sublimations Reaction Formations

anal notable interest in extreme disgust
interest in painting or with feces, fear of
one's bowel sculpture, dirt, prudishness,
movements, being overly irritability
love of giving,
bathroom great
humor, interest in
extreme statistics

3. Phallic

a. Begins near the age of 3.


Interest focuses on the genitals and pleasure is
derived by fondling them.

b. In this stage of Freud's personality development
the child develops a marked attachment for the
parent of the opposite sex.

c. Boys become attracted (sexually?) to their mothers
and begins to see his father as a rival. And wants
take his father's place - get rid of him.
In a Greek tragedy, Oedipus kills his father and
marries his mother.

But seeing his father as too powerful, he develops
"castration anxiety" - a retaliation by his father,
a punishment for what Dad knows he is thinking.


Because of his fear, the boy represses his desire
for his mother, and chooses instead to identify with
his father.

d. Girls are a little different. In the
"Electra Complex", another Greek legend, Electra
longed for her father, the king, after his death
and sought revenge against his slayers - her mother
her mother's lover.

Freud, not exactly a man of the 1990's, thought that
girls, as a result of their attraction to their
father, experience penis envy: want for a part they
were obviously missing.

The girls feel their mother if responsible for their
"castration", and blame their mother for their lack
of a penis.

In order to resolve such unacceptable feelings, they
must identify with the same sex parent (mother),
behaving like her and adapting her values and attitudes.

e. FIXATION at the Phallic stage involves poor
resolving of the Oedipus or Electra conflicts.
Excessive frustration or Gratification

Possible results: lack of conscience, improper
sex-role behavior, vanity, egotism, or low
self-esteem, shyness, a feeling of worthless, or
avoidance of heterosexual relationships.

Men fixated in the Phallic stage might take great
pride in their sexual prowess and treat women with

Women might become flirtatious and promiscuous.

Stage Adult Extensions Sublimations Reaction Formations

phal- heavy reliance interest in puritanical attitude
lic on masturbation poetry, love toward sex,
flirtatiousness, of love, excessive modesty
expressions of virility interest in
striving for success

4. Latency

a. At the end of the phallic period, Freud believed,
children lose interest in sexual behavior and enter
a latency or present but not present or active.

b. From age 5 or 6 to 12 or 13 years old, boys play
boys, and girls play with girls, and neither takes
much interest in the other.


Children who fixated at the Phallic stage might play
with children of the opposite sex.

5. Genital

a. During adolescence, sexual feeling kick back in,
continuing until death. The focus here is on
mature, adult, heterosexuality.

b. Some adolescents experience sexual urges toward
their opposite sex parent, but the incest-taboo
motivates them to repress the thoughts and/or
displace them onto other adults or adolescents,
of the opposite gender.

c. Boys might still want "a girl, just like the girls
that married dear old Dad". Girls might also still
seek out a man like her father.

d. In lovemaking, the adolescent and the adult are able
to satisfy unfulfilled desires from infancy and childhood.

e. Ideally, immediate gratification of these desires is
replaced by mature sexuality, in which
postponed gratification, a sense of responsibility,
and caring for others all are a part.

f. For Freud, sexual gratification is through
intercourse with a member of the opposite sex.
Oral or anal stimulation, masturbation, and
homosexual behavior would all represent pregenital
(earlier) fixations.

Plus and Minus: Freud

1. Freud's views on the inferiority of women have been
strongly attacked by feminists and many modern-day
psychoanalysts, suggesting that cultural expectations
play a larger role than penis envy in shaping women's

2. Freud's Theory seems a little crazy in parts, but
it's received some limited confirmation from research.

(Ex. Bertrand and Masling, 1969, found that people who
eat and drink too much tend to mention oral images
when interpreting ink blots.)

(Orally fixated people also seem to depend heavily on
others, Fisher and Greenberg, 1985)

(Some anally fixated traits have been linked together:
stingy people tend to be neat, Fisher and Greenberg)


3. Freud's defense mechanisms, his methods of therapy
(PSYCHOANALYSIS) and Freud theories in general have made
and enormous impact on the field of psychology and western


Jung's Analytical Psychology

Like Freud, Jung's is a motivational or psychodynamic theory:
the way the unconscious mental processes guide and motivate emotional behavior.

Jung broke from Freud.

Psyche: the personality as an integrated whole containing all thought,feeling, and behavior - conscious and unconscious.

Three parts of the Psyche:

1. conscious: from birth onward, one's consciousness expands.
individuation: conscious understanding that children are
individual beings

People process conscious information in four ways:
thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting
Most people tend to rely more on one than on the others

Like Freud, Jung contends that a person's ego is made up of all his or herconscious perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and memories. The ego determineswhat stimuli the person notices, reacts to, and remembers. More powerfulstimuli can punch through the "gates" of the ego to force consciousevaluation.

People "cling" to their conscious perceptions (sometimes distorted).

But: The powerful shapers of one's fate reside in the UNCONSCIOUS.

2. personal unconscious: material that has been stored away in memory.

Stuffed with thoughts too painful to remember, personal conflicts, unresolvedproblems, and even trivial perceptions.

Nothing is ever lost: the conscious mind can retrieve when it needs information.

COMPLEXES: An individual's unique history, personally
meaningful thematic cores (meaningful categories).
Personal unconscious, perceptions,
thoughts, emotions, and memories
clumped together in patterns.
(Like Piaget's schemata, these are organized categories. Like Freud,they can consist of repressed feelings, instincts, urges and patternizedinformation associated with these repressions.)

Jung: "A person does not have a complex; the complex has him."

3. collective unconscious: evolved blue print for the
psyche, all our prehistoric ancestors' experiences are
genetically coded into preexistent forms: Archetypes

Archetypes: universal symbolic representations of particular people,objects, or experiences, inherited, primordial (belonging to or characteristicof an earlier stage of development of an organism) images from our animaland prehistoric ancestors:
Concepts such as
mother (from "evil step mother" to "virgin
good (Batman), evil (Joker),
Innocence (Vickie Vale)
hero, GOD, power, the demon, and sun, wind rivers, trees, fire even weapons

Predispositions: Archetypes/collective unconscious predispose usto to certain feelings and behaviors - whether these develop depend uponthe environment.

The collective unconscious has a powerful impact on people's personalitiesand one their thoughts, emotions, actions, and memories.

Archetypes: provide the patterns of instinctual behavior - a representationof inherited experiences.

Types of Archetypes which influence Emotion:
1. the persona: the masks we wear, the "public self" we
can lose the inner self; Persona is an archetype of

2. Anima and Animus - anima is the female side of males;
animus is the male side of females. The sides of ourselves,
but also that which we seek in others. The "ideal"
embodiment of their anima or animus.

3. The shadow: humanity's animalistic, unbridled
side. Can be the worst, but also the best in people. It's
SPIRIT, passion, creativity and instinctually wise.
Problems arise if individual is too conforming. The key is

The Personality as a product of attitude and .function.

- "subjective attitude" , focus psychic energy inwardly,more self reflective, also seen as less social.
Extrovert - "objective attitude", psychic energy outwardlyfocused, interested in people, outgoing, people type people

The two can alternate, often depending on the environment, but one is generallymore dominant.


People "function" by the way they process information:
rationally: thinking and feeling or
irrationally: sensing and intuiting

thinking: form concepts, manipulate ideas, solve problems logically- objectively what something is

feeling: the worth of the situation to the individual, how it affectsthe individual, its impact, how you "feel" about it

sensing: that it exists, as per the senses, ambient stimulation,perceptions

: where a situation is going, to see beyond the obvious facts

Again: a BALANCE is key

Jungian Concepts of Emotion.

Thinking and Feeling: must trust in both intellect and feeling. "Consciousfeelings" are an enormously significant function. Without "feeling"there can be no appreciation of the moment, other people or the world. Allowsfor differentiation/adaptation/evaluations between the individual and theenvironment.

Feelings in and of themselves have little emotional impact, UNLESS theybecome intense. "Feelings" are conscious. The psychic energy canexcite physiological function. Emotion = interaction of conscious feelingsand physiological response.

people may rely too much on "thinking" and too little on "feeling",things get out of balance, environment evaluated incorrectly. Underdeveloped"feeling" may lead to inappropriate behavior or cognition.


Individuals possess innate positive motives and strive toward personal andsocial perfection (set goals to achieve his/her style of life).

compensation: the person's effort to overcome imagines or real weaknesses

inferiority complex: fixation on feelings of personal inferioritythat results in emotional and social paralysis


disagreed with Freud's emphasis on SEX.

Environmental and social factors are the most important influencesin shaping personality.

The most vital of these factors are the human relationships the individualexperiences as a child.

Strong motivating force: ANXIETY - the individuals's reaction toreal or imagined threats. Anxiety due to insecurity associated withneeds not met by parents.

Neurotic Trends: help people cope with their insecurity
moving toward people - submission (submits to feel safe)
moving against people - aggression(hides insecurity by aggressing)
moving away from people - detachment (hides insecurity by


Modified Freud
Freud Erikson
psychosexual stages psychosocial stages:
interaction, social
development and ego

ego Stresses the social
functions and development
of the ego

basic personality shaped developmental change
in first 5 yrs of life throughout the human
life cycle

Beyond Freud

1. Emphasizes the healthy personality.

2. Emphasizes the importance of quality child-parent
relationships and the atmosphere of the home:
a. Children should feel that their own needs and
desires are compatible with those of society
b. Children should feel competent and valuable in order
to develop a secure sense of identity...

3. Focus on identity: central aspect of the healthy personality.
a. inner growth makes new types of social encounters possible
b. epigenetic principle: the process that guides
development through the life cycle
1) stages - same set sequence for all,
2) "special time" of ascendance - individual is especially vulnerableto certain influences and insensitive to others
c. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task
that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be
1) crisis is a turning point of increased vulnerability and enhanced potential
2) healthy development = successfully solving crisis

Erikson's Developmental Stages

Birth to Adolescence
Stages 1 - 4

1. Trust vs. mistrust (first year of life)
The sense of trust requires a feeling of physical
comfort and minimal amount of fear and apprehension.

What would help develop a sense of trust in an infant?
needs being met - infant trusts environment,
care giver, and itself

What if needs are not met or if infant frustrated?
infant likely to suspicious, fearful, insecure

Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation
that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live.

2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (late infancy - toddlerhood)
(1 - 3 years)
What skills does a toddler have?
learn to walk, hold onto things, and control their
excretory functions (corresponds to Freud's anal stage)

Infant investigates his/her surroundings, explores,
learns. Their behavior is their own. The start to
assert their sense of independence or autonomy.
Successful mastering of motor skills and freedom to
explore is important.

Failure, harsh restraint or punishment, or belittling of
the child's efforts can cause self doubt and shame, or

If shame or self-doubt occur, two possibilities.
a. compulsively abiding to fixed routines (no failure)
b. hostile rejection of all controls, internal and external

3. Initiative vs. guilt (preschool years)

What are tasks that the 3 - 6 year old are responsible for?
taking care of their bodies, toys, behavior,
socializing with others, manipulating the environment

What would encourage initiative?
Parental support and encouragement lead to a sense of
joy in exercising initiative and taking on new challenges

Developing a sense of responsibility increases
initiative. If the child is irresponsible, and made
to feel anxious about it, feelings of guilt, anxiety,
unworthiness, and resentment may arise.

Erikson felt that most guilt is quickly compensated for
by a sense of accomplishment.

4. Industry vs. inferiority (elementary school years, 6-12 years)

LEARNING is the key to this stage.

Children direct their energy toward mastering knowledge
and intellectual skills. Very enthusiastic about learning.

Special responsibility of teachers and parents to develop
a child's sense of industry (skills of productive work,
and independent social living - joining the adult world.

If their efforts are stifled, they may conclude that
they are inferior, mediocre, inadequate and lose faith
in their power to become industrious.

Stage 5 - 8, adolescence to late adulthood

5. Identity vs. identity confusion (adolescence, 12 - young adulthood)
Individuals must cement who they are, what they're
about, and where they are going in life.

IDENTITY: achieved by integrating a number of roles

What are the different roles that each of us plays?
brother, sister, son, daughter, friend, boyfriend,
girlfriend, etc.

Adolescents must explore many roles and see which fit.
And then explore the different paths within each role.

If the adolescent explores such roles in a healthy
manner and arrives at a positive path to follow in
life, then a positive identity will be achieved.

If an identity is pushed on the adolescent by parents,
if the adolescent does not adequately explore many
roles, and if a positive future path is not defined,
then identity confusion reigns.

What might an individual do who is confused about his
or her identity?
1. withdraw, isolating themselves from peers and family
2. lose their identity in the crowd.

Erikson calls the gap between secure childhood and
autonomous adulthood, where adolescents "try on" different
role a psychological moratorium. (moratorium is a temporary
pause in activity)

6. Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood, late teens/early 20's)
Critical issue: intimacy

Many adolescents/young adults are still seeking
identity. Adolescent "love" may be as much about finding
oneself, and trying on the "role" as boyfriend, girlfriend,
husband, wife or lover (etc), while seeking intimacy.

Erikson argues that we must be secure in our identity
in order to adequately form an intimate relationship.

If the young adult forms healthy friendships and an
intimate close relationship with another individual,
intimacy will be achieved - intimacy on physical,
intellectual, and emotional levels; if difficulty in this stage,
then individual may experience feelings of loneliness and fear of

7. Generativity vs. stagnation (middle adulthood, 25 - 60 approx.)
Critical issue: to feel productive and creative in all
aspects of one's life.

People who have successfully negotiated the six earlier
stages are likely to find meaning and joy in all the
activities of life: career, family, community participation.

Generativity: Erikson's term for living a useful life,
and somehow helping next generations

Success in this stage result in positive feelings about
the continuity of life.

Problems in this stage may result in feelings on
triviality regarding one's life or, in someone who has not
successfully resolved the identity crisis of adolescence and
young adulthood, a floundering toward identifying an
appropriate career.

8. Integrity vs. despair (later adulthood - death)

Critical issue surrounds the feelings one has as one
evaluates one's life: years well spent? or despair over
losses (youth, career, family, or other roles) or lack of
resolution, wishes that things "could have been different"?

Webster's definition:
Integrity n. 1. strict adherence to a standard of
value or conduct. 2. personal honesty and independence.
3. completeness: unity. 4. soundness

INTEGRITY here means "attaining full self-hood: an
acceptance of one's life, a sense that it is complete and

Though many different routes, the older person may
develop a positive or negative outlook in the previous
stages of development. If mostly positive, retrospective
glances will reveal a life well spent - a sense of
satisfaction. If negative, the retrospective glances will
yield doubt or gloom - the DESPAIR PART OF THE STAGE.

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Activity: Erikson's Psychosocial Development

Match the Psychosocial Stage to the characteristic clue.

trust vs. mistrust autonomy vs. shame and doubt
initiative vs. guilt industry vs. inferiority
identity vs. identity diffusion
intimacy vs. isolation
generativity vs. stagnation
integrity vs. despair

1. As I look over my life, I feel fairly content with it.
(integrity vs. despair)

2. WHO AM I? (identity vs. identity confusion)

3. I'm wet; I smell; I need to be changed. (trust vs. mistrust)

4. I'm in elementary school; I love to learn; I feel good when
I accomplish stuff; I'm startin' to think girls are o.k.
(industry vs. inferiority)

5. I'm trying of different roles, gonna see what fits...
(identity vs. identity confusion)

6. I want to work hard and provide for my kids; I enjoy the
simple things in life like my job and family
(generativity vs. stagnation)

7. I feel a little lonely; I'm afraid to commit to a
relationship; How can I get to know someone else when I
don't know myself? (intimacy vs. isolation)

8. I like to "toddle" around; I feel inferior when Mom puts
that leash thing on me when we go out; and I'm getting hostile
to all controlling influences (autonomy vs. shame and doubt)

(identity vs. identity confusion)

10. I love a sense of accomplishment; I can tie my own shoe.
Mom and Dad support and encourage my wacky antics at
preschool. (initiative vs. guilt)


Humanistic Theory
: life is a process of striving to achieve our potential,of opening ourselves to the world around us and experiencing joy in living.

actualizing tendency: all species drive to fulfill its biologicalpotential.

real self vs. ideal self (who we could admire/like to be)

Self-actualizing tendency: human drive to become their ideal self

unconditional positive regard: treat with warmth, respect, acceptanceand love regardless of their own feelings, attitudes, and behaviors.

conditional positive regard: daddy likes.... live lives directed(by wanting to please) be what others want and need

Social Cognitive Theory (Social Learning Theory)

Children as active participants in their environments

reciprocal determinism: interaction between children and their environment- children have as much effect on the environment as the environment hason them.

Emphasizes complex interactions between: children's thoughts,feelings, behaviors and the external environment.

Observational learning: attentional processes (must attendto), retention processes (encode), production processes (retrieved)and motivational processes (performed at appropriate time). Eachprocess affected by age changes and failure in any oneprocess rules out successful observation learning.

Self-Efficacy: the expectancy that ones efforts will be successful

Children evaluate the effectiveness of their own actions, comparethem to those of others, and told by others how their behaviorsmeet certain standards.

If children believe that they are competent, positive
self-efficacy results; if a negative self-efficacy develops, children tendto behave ineffectually, regardless of their abilities.

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Week 1: Personality Psychology: Sample Quiz

1. Three-year-old Tommy is biting his nail and overeating. According toFreud, Tommy's problem is probably
a. an unresolved Oedipal conflict b. fixation at the oral stage
c. repression of unacceptable impulses d. projection of his inadequacies

2. According to Jung, the memories and behavior patterns inherited frompast generations are part
of the
a. complexes b. personal unconscious c. collective unconscious d. all ofthe above

3. While Alex was sitting in class one day he was thinking about how hungryhe was. The lecture
would continue for another hour. He left class early, went to the studentcenter, and ate lunch. He "gave in" to the
a. ego b. superego c. id d. reality principle

4. I do whatever is pleasurable. I want something all the time. I am amoral.I have no conscience. I have no self-restraint. I am a/an
a. human infant b. young adult c. adolescent d. toddler

5. Most children eventually resolve the Oedipus complex by
a. identifying with the parent of the opposite sex b. by age 14
c. identifying with the parent of the same sex d. developing the Elektracomplex

6. Ralph is a private person. He keeps other people at a distance by puttingon a public "face" that is nearly the opposite of his inner, trueself. Jung called this public "face" worn by Ralph the
a. personal b. shadow c. anima d. animus

7. Adler called the indivual's attempts to overcome personal weaknesses
a. archetypes b. compensation c. a sublimation d. neurotic trends

8. For Horney, submission, aggression, and detachment, are all examplesof
a. archetypes b. compensation c. a sublimation d. neurotic trends

9. Jeremy is eighteen years old. According to Erikson, his chief task willbe acquiring a sense of
a. trust b. autonomy c. initiative d. identity

10. According to Rogers, people brought up with conditional positiveregard
a. tend to be vain and narcissistic
b. tend to act as if they were orally fixated
c. feel valued regardless of their attitudes and behaviors
d. live lives directed toward what others want and value

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