Horstmann Chapter 10

Big Java 4

Chapter 10 – Interfaces

Chapter Goals

mixer to show interfaces

  • To be able to declare and use interface types
  • To appreciate how interfaces can be used to decouple classes
  • To learn how to implement helper classes as inner classes
  • To implement event listeners in graphical applications

Using Interfaces for Algorithm Reuse

  • Interface types are used to express common operations.
  • Interfaces make it possible to make a service available to a wide set.
  • This restaurant is willing to serve anyone who conforms to the Customer interface with eat and pay methods.
    a cat at a restruant

Defining an Interface Type

  • Example: a method to compute the average of an array of Objects
    • The algorithm for computing the average is the same in all cases
    • Details of measurement differ
  • Goal: write one method that provides this service.
  • We can't call getBalance in one case and getArea in another.
  • Solution: all object who want this service must agree on a getMeasure method
    • BankAccount's getMeasure will return the balance
    • Country's getMeasure will return the area
  • Now we implement a single average method that computes the sum:
    sum = sum + obj.getMeasure();

Defining an Interface Type

  • Problem: we need to declare a type for obj
  • Need to invent a new type that describes any class whose objects can be measured.
  • An interface type is used to specify required operations (like getMeasure):
    public interface Measurable
    {
       double getMeasure();
    }
  • A Java interface type declares methods but does not provide their implementations.

Syntax 10.1 Declaring an Interface

syntax of an interface

Defining an Interface Type

  • An interface type is similar to a class.
  • Differences between classes and interfaces:
    • An interface type does not have instance variables.
    • All methods in an interface type are abstract
      • They have a name, parameters, and a return type, but no implementation.
    • All methods in an interface type are automatically public.
    • An interface type has no constructor.
      • You cannot construct objects of an interface type.

Defining an Interface Type

  • Implementing a reusable average method:
    public static double average(Measurable[] objects)
    {
       double sum = 0;
       for (Measurable obj : objects)
       {
          sum = sum + obj.getMeasure();
       }
       if (objects.length > 0) { return sum / objects.length; }
       else { return 0; }
    }
  • This method is can be used for objects of any class that conforms to the Measurable type.
  • mixerThis stand-mixer provides the “rotation” service to any attachment that conforms to a common interface. Similarly, the average method at the end of this section works with any class that implements a common interface.

Implementing an Interface Type

  • Use implements reserved word to indicate that a class implements an interface type:
    public class BankAccount implements Measurable
    {
       ...
       public double getMeasure()
       {
          return balance;
       }
    }
  • BankAccount objects are instances of the Measurable type:
    Measurable obj = new BankAccount(); // OK

Implementing an Interface Type

  • A variable of type Measurable holds a reference to an object of some class that implements the Measurable interface.
  • Country class can also implement the Measurable interface:
    public class Country implements Measurable
    {
       public double getMeasure()
       {
          return area;
       }
       . . .
    }
  • Use interface types to make code more reusable.

Implementing an Interface Type

  • Put the average method in a class - say Data
  • UML of Measurable and implementing classes

    Figure 1 UML Diagram of the Data Class and the Classes that Implement the Measurable Interface


  • Data class is decoupled from the BankAccount and Country classes.

Syntax 10.2 Implementing an Interface

implementing interface

section_1/Data.java

Your browser does not support this feature

section_1/MeasurableTester.java

Your browser does not support this feature Program Run:
  • Average balance: 4000
    Expected: 4000
    Average area: 239950
    Expected: 239950

Comparing Interfaces and Inheritance

  • Here is a different interface: Named
    public interface Named
    {
       String getName();
    }
  • A class can implement more than one interface:
    public class Country implements Measurable, Named
  • A class can only extend (inherit from) a single superclass.
  • An interface specifies the behavior that an implementing class should supply - no implementation.
  • A superclass provides some implementation that a subclass inherits.
  • Develop interfaces when you have code that processes objects of different classes in a common way.

Self Check 10.1

Suppose you want to use the average method to find the average salary of an array of Employee objects. What condition must the Employee class fulfill?
  • Answer: It must implement the Measurable interface, and its getMeasure method must return the salary.

Self Check 10.2

Why can’t the average method have a parameter variable of type Object[]?
  • Answer: The Object class doesn't have a getMeasure method, and the average method invokes the getMeasure method.

Self Check 10.3

Why can’t you use the average method to find the average length of String objects?
  • Answer: You cannot modify the String class to implement Measurable—String is a library class.

Self Check 10.4

What is wrong with this code?
Measurable meas = new Measurable();
System.out.println(meas.getMeasure());
  • Answer: Measurable is not a class. You cannot construct objects of type Measurable.

Self Check 10.5

What is wrong with this code?
Measurable meas = new Country("Uruguay", 176220);
System.out.println(meas.getName());
  • Answer: The variable meas is of type Measurable, and that type has no getName method.

Converting From Classes to Interfaces

  • You can convert from a class type to an interface type, provided the class implements the interface.
  • A Measurable variable can refer to an object of the BankAccount class because BankAccount implements the Measurable interface:
    BankAccount account = new BankAccount(1000);
    Measurable meas = account; // OK
  • A Measurable variable can refer to an object of the Country class because that class also implements the Measurable interface:
    Country uruguay = new Country("Uruguay", 176220);
    Measurable meas = uruguay; // Also OK // Also OK
  • A Measurable variable can refer to an object of the Rectangle class because Rectangle doesn't implement Measurable:
    Measurable meas = new Rectangle(5, 10, 20, 30); // ERROR

Variables of Class and Interface Types

    interface diagram

    Figure 2 Two references to the same object


    interface

    Figure 3 An Interface Reference Can Refer to an Object of Any Class that Implements the Interface


  • Method calls on an interface reference are polymorphic. The appropriate method is determined at run time.

Casting from Interfaces to Classes

  • Method to return the object with the largest measure:
    public static Measurable larger(Measurable obj1, Measurable obj2)
    {
       if (obj1.getMeasure() > obj2.getMeasure())
       {
          return obj1;
       }
       else
       {
          return obj2;
       }
    }
  • Returns the object with the larger measure, as a Measurable reference.
    Country uruguay = new Country("Uruguay", 176220);
    Country thailand = new Country("Thailand", 513120);
    Measurable max = larger(uruguay, thailand);

Casting from Interfaces to Classes

  • You know that max refers to a Country object, but the compiler does not.
  • Solution: cast
    Country maxCountry = (Country) max;
    String name = maxCountry.getName();
  • You need a cast to convert from an interface type to a class type.
  • If you are wrong and max doesn't refer to a Country object, the program throws an exception at runtime.
  • If a Person object is actually a Superhero, you need a cast before you can apply any Superhero methods.
    superhero boy

Self Check 10.6

Can you use a cast (BankAccount) meas to convert a Measurable variable meas to a BankAccount reference?
  • Answer: Only if meas actually refers to a BankAccount object.

Self Check 10.7

If both BankAccount and Country implement the Measurable interface, can a Country reference be converted to a BankAccount reference?
  • Answer: No — a Country reference can be converted to a Measurable reference, but if you attempt to cast that reference to a BankAccount, an exception occurs.

Self Check 10.8

Why is it impossible to construct a Measurable object?
  • Answer: Measurable is an interface. Interfaces have no instance variables and no method implementations.

Self Check 10.9

Why can you nevertheless declare a variable whose type is Measurable?
  • Answer: That variable never refers to a Measurable object. It refers to an object of some class—a class that implements the Measurable interface.

Self Check 10.10

What does this code fragment print? Why is this an example of polymorphism?
Measurable[] data = { new BankAccount(10000), new Country("Belgium", 30510) };
System.out.println(average(data));
  • Answer: The code fragment prints 20255. The average method calls getMeasure on each object in the array. In the first call, the object is a BankAccount. In the second call, the object is a Country. A different getMeasure method is called in each case. The first call returns the account balance, the second one the area, which are then averaged.

The Comparable Interface

  • Comparable interface is in the standard Java library.
  • Comparable interface has a single method:
    public interface Comparable
    {
       int compareTo(Object otherObject);
    }
  • The call to the method:
    a.compareTo(b)
  • The compareTo method returns:
    • a negative number if a should come before b,
    • zero if a and b are the same
    • a positive number if b should come before a.
  • Implement the Comparable interface so that objects of your class can be compared, for example, in a sort method.

The Comparable Interface

  • BankAccount class' implementation of Comparable:
    public class BankAccount implements Comparable
    {
       . . .
       public int compareTo(Object otherObject)
       {
          BankAccount other = (BankAccount) otherObject;
          if (balance < other.balance) { return -1; }
          if (balance > other.balance) { return 1; }
          return 0;
       }
       . . .
    }
  • compareTo method has a parameter of reference type Object
  • To get a BankAccount reference:
    BankAccount other = (BankAccount) otherObject;

The Comparable Interface

  • Because the BankAccount class implements the Comparable interface, you can sort an array of bank accounts with the Arrays.sort method:
    BankAccount[] accounts = new BankAccount[3];
    accounts[0] = new BankAccount(10000);
    accounts[1] = new BankAccount(0);
    accounts[2] = new BankAccount(2000);
    Arrays.sort(accounts);
        
  • Now the accounts array is sorted by increasing balance.
  • The compareTo method checks whether another object is larger or smaller.
    girls compare height

Self Check 10.11

How can you sort an array of Country objects by increasing area?
  • Answer: Have the Country class implement the Comparable interface, as shown below, and call Arrays.sort.
    public class Country implements Comparable
    {
       . . .
       public int compareTo(Object otherObject)
       {
          Country other = (Country) otherObject;
          if (area < other.area) { return -1; }
          if (area > other.area) { return 1; }
          return 0;
       }
    }

Self Check 10.12

Can you use the Arrays.sort method to sort an array of String objects? Check the API documentation for the String class.
  • Answer: Yes, you can, because String implements the Comparable interface type.

Self Check 10.13

Can you use the Arrays.sort method to sort an array of Rectangle objects? Check the API documentation for the Rectangle class.
  • Answer: No. The Rectangle class does not implement the Comparable interface.

Self Check 10.14

Write a method max that finds the larger of any two Comparable objects.
  • Answer:
    public static Comparable max(Comparable a, Comparable b)
    {
       if (a.compareTo(b) > 0) { return a; }
       else { return b; }
    }

Self Check 10.15

Write a call to the method of Self Check 14 that computes the larger of two bank accounts, then prints its balance.
  • Answer:
    BankAccount larger = (BankAccount) max(first, second);
    System.out.println(larger.getBalance());
    Note that the result must be cast from Comparable to BankAccount so that you can invoke the getBalance method.

Using Interfaces for Callbacks

  • Limitations of Measurable interface:
    • Can add Measurable interface only to classes under your control
    • Can measure an object in only one way
      • E.g., cannot analyze a set of cars by both speed and price
  • Callback: a mechanism for specifying code that is executed at a later time.
  • Problem: the responsibility of measuring lies with the added objects themselves.
  • Alternative: give the average method both the data to be averaged and a method of measuring.
  • Create an interface:
    public interface Measurer
    {
       double measure(Object anObject);
    }
  • All objects can be converted to Object.

Using Interfaces for Callbacks

  • The code that makes the call to the callback receives an object of class that implements this interface:
    public static double average(Object[] objects, Measurer meas)
    {
       double sum = 0;
       for (Object obj : objects)
       {
          sum = sum + meas.measure(obj);
       }
       if (objects.length > 0) { return sum / objects.length; }
       else { return 0; }
    }
  • The average method simply makes a callback to the measure method whenever it needs to measure any object.

Using Interfaces for Callbacks

  • A specific callback is obtained by implementing the Measurer interface:
    public class AreaMeasurer implements Measurer
    {
       public double measure(Object anObject)
       {
          Rectangle aRectangle = (Rectangle) anObject;
          double area = aRectangle.getWidth() * aRectangle.getHeight();
          return area;
       }
    }
  • Must cast from Object to Rectangle:
    Rectangle aRectangle = (Rectangle) anObject;

Using Interfaces for Callbacks

  • To compute the average area of rectangles:
    • construct an object of the AreaMeasurer class and
    • pass it to the average method:
    Measurer areaMeas = new AreaMeasurer();
    Rectangle[] rects
        = { new Rectangle(5, 10, 20, 30), new Rectangle(10, 20, 30, 40) };
    double averageArea = average(rects, areaMeas);
          
  • The average method will ask the AreaMeasurer object to measure the rectangles.
  • Using Interfaces for Callbacks

    • The Data class (which holds the average method) is decoupled from the class whose objects it processes (Rectangle).
    • You provide a small “helper” class AreaMeasurer, to process rectangles.
    • UML

      Figure 6 UML Diagram of the Data Class and the Measurer Interface


    section_4/Measurer.java

    Your browser does not support this feature

    section_4/AreaMeasurer.java

    Your browser does not support this feature

    section_4/Data.java

    Your browser does not support this feature

    section_4/MeasurerTester.java

    Your browser does not support this feature Program Run:
    • Average area: 625
      Expected: 625
      
      

    Self Check 10.16

    Suppose you want to use the average method of Section 10.1 to find the average length of String objects. Why can’t this work?
    • Answer: The String class doesn't implement the Measurable interface.

    Self Check 10.17

    How can you use the average class of this section to find the average length of String objects?
    • Answer: Implement a class StringMeasurer that implements the Measurer interface.

    Self Check 10.18

    Why does the measure method of the Measurer interface have one more argument than the getMeasure method of the Measurable interface?
    • Answer: A measurer measures an object, whereas getMeasure measures itself, that is, the implicit parameter.

    Self Check 10.19

    Write a method max with three arguments that finds the larger of any two objects, using a Measurer to compare them.
    • Answer:
      public static Object max(Object a, Object b, Measurer m)
      {
         if (m.getMeasure(a) > m.getMeasure(b))
         {
            return a;
         }
         else { return b; }
      }

    Self Check 10.20

    Write a call to the method of Self Check 19 that computes the larger of two rectangles, then prints its width and height.
    • Answer:
      Rectangle larger = (Rectangle) max(first, second, areaMeas);
      System.out.println(larger.getWidth() + " by " + larger.getHeight());

    Inner Classes

    • Trivial class can be declared inside a method:
      public class MeasurerTester
      {
         public static void main(String[] args)
         {
            class AreaMeasurer implements Measurer
            {
               . . .
            }
            . . .
            Measurer areaMeas = new AreaMeasurer();
            double averageArea = Data.average(rects, areaMeas);
            . . .
         }
      }
    • An inner class is a class that is declared inside another class.
      nested boxes

    Inner Classes

    • You can declare inner class inside an enclosing class, but outside its methods.
    • It is available to all methods of enclosing class:
      public class MeasurerTester
      {
         class AreaMeasurer implements Measurer
         {
            . . .
         }
      
         public static void main(String[] args)
         {
            Measurer areaMeas = new AreaMeasurer();
            double averageArea = Data.average(rects, areaMeas);
            . . .
         }
      }
    • Compiler turns an inner class into a regular class file with a strange name:
      MeasurerTester$1AreaMeasurer.class
    • Inner classes are commonly used for utility classes that should not be visible elsewhere in a program.

    Self Check 10.21

    Why would you use an inner class instead of a regular class?
    • Answer: Inner classes are convenient for insignificant classes. Also, their methods can access local and instance variables from the surrounding scope.

    Self Check 10.22

    When would you place an inner class inside a class but outside any methods?
    • Answer: When the inner class is needed by more than one method of the classes.

    Self Check 10.23

    How many class files are produced when you compile the MeasurerTester program from this section?
    • Answer: Four: one for the outer class, one for the inner class, and two for the Data and Measurer classes.

    Mock Objects

    • Problem: Want to test a class before the entire program has been completed.
    • A mock object provides the same services as another object, but in a simplified manner .
    • If you just want to practice arranging the Christmas decorations, you don’t need a real tree. Similarly, when you develop a computer program, you can use mock objects to test parts of your program.
      Christmas tree

    Mock Objects

    • Example: a grade book application, GradingProgram, manages quiz scores using class GradeBook with methods:
      public void addScore(int studentId, double score) 
      public double getAverageScore(int studentId) 
      public void save(String filename)
    • Want to test GradingProgram without having a fully functional GradeBook class.
    • Declare an interface type with the same methods that the GradeBook class provides
      • Convention: use the letter I as a prefix for the interface name
      public interface IGradeBook 
      { 
         void addScore(int studentId, double score); 
         double getAverageScore(int studentId); 
         void save(String filename); 
         . . . 
      }

    Mock Objects

    • Both the mock class and the actual class implement the same interface.
    • The GradingProgram class should only use this interface, never the GradeBook class which implements this interface.
    • Meanwhile, provide a simplified mock implementation, restricted to the case of one student and without saving functionality:
      public class MockGradeBook implements IGradeBook
      {
         private ArrayList<Double> scores;
         
         public MockGradeBook() { scores = new ArrayList<Double>(); }
         
         public void addScore(int studentId, double score)
         {
            // Ignore studentId
            scores.add(score);
         }
         public double getAverageScore(int studentId)
         {
            double total = 0;
            for (double x : scores) { total = total + x; }
            return total / scores.size();
         }
         public void save(String filename)
         {
            // Do nothing
         }
         . . .
      }

    Mock Objects

    • Now construct an instance of MockGradeBook and use it immediately to test the GradingProgram class.
    • When you are ready to test the actual class, simply use a GradeBook instance instead.
    • Don’t erase the mock class — it will still come in handy for regression testing.

    Self Check 10.24

    Why is it necessary that the real class and the mock class implement the same interface type?
    • Answer: You want to implement the GradingProgram class in terms of that interface so that it doesn’t have to change when you switch between the mock class and the actual class.

    Self Check 10.25

    Why is the technique of mock objects particularly effective when the GradeBook and GradingProgram class are developed by two programmers?
    • Answer: Because the developer of GradingProgram doesn’t have to wait for the GradeBook class to be complete.

    Event Handling

    • In an event-driven user interface, the program receives an event whenever the user manipulates an input component.
      control panel with dials and buttons
    • User interface events include key presses, mouse moves, button clicks, and so on.
    • Most programs don't want to be flooded by irrelevant events.
    • A program must indicate which events it needs to receive.

    Event Handling

    • Event listeners:
      • A program indicates which events it needs to receive by installing event listener objects
      • Belongs to a class provided by the application programmer
      • Its methods describe the actions to be taken when an event occurs
      • Notified when event happens
    • Event source:
      • User interface component that generates a particular event
      • Add an event listener object to the appropriate event source
      • When an event occurs, the event source notifies all event listeners

    Events Handling

    • Example: A program that prints a message whenever a button is clicked.
    • Button listeners must belong to a class that implements the ActionListener interface:
      public interface ActionListener
      {
         void actionPerformed(ActionEvent event);
      }
    • Your job is to supply a class whose actionPerformed method contains the instructions that you want executed whenever the button is clicked.
      Actionlistener on a button

    section_7_1/ClickListener.java

    Your browser does not support this feature

    Event Handling - Listening to Events

    • event parameter of actionPerformed contains details about the event, such as the time at which it occurred.
    • Construct an object of the listener and add it to the button:
      ActionListener listener = new ClickListener();
      button.addActionListener(listener);
    • Whenever the button is clicked, it calls:
      listener.actionPerformed(event);
      And the message is printed.
    • Similar to a callback
    • Use a JButton component for the button; attach an ActionListener to the button.

    section_7_1/ButtonViewer.java

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    Event Handling

    Just a button

    Whenever a button is pressed, the actionPerformed method is called on all listeners.

    Specify button click actions through classes that implement the ActionListener interface.

    Using Inner Classes for Listeners

    • Implement simple listener classes as inner classes like this:
      JButton button = new JButton(". . .");
            
      // This inner class is declared in the same method as the button variable
      class MyListener implements ActionListener
      {
         . . .
      }
      
      ActionListener listener = new MyListener();
      button.addActionListener(listener);
    • Advantages
      • Places the trivial listener class exactly where it is needed, without cluttering up the remainder of the project
      • Methods of an inner class can access instance variables and methods of from surrounding class:

    Using Inner Classes for Listeners

    • Local variables that are accessed by an inner class method must be declared as final.
    • Example: add interest to a bank account whenever a button is clicked:
      JButton button = new JButton("Add Interest"); 
      final BankAccount account = new BankAccount(INITIAL_BALANCE); 
      
      // This inner class is declared in the same method as the account and button variables. 
      class AddInterestListener implements ActionListener 
      { 
         public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent event) 
         { 
            // The listener method accesses the account variable 
            // from the surrounding block 
            double interest = account.getBalance() * INTEREST_RATE / 100; 
            account.deposit(interest); 
         } 
      }; 
      ActionListener listener = new AddInterestListener(); 
      button.addActionListener(listener);

    section_7_2/InvestmentViewer1.java

    Your browser does not support this feature Program Run:
    • balance: 1100.0
      balance: 1210.0
      balance: 1331.0
      balance: 1464.1

    Self Check 10.26

    Which objects are the event source and the event listener in the ButtonViewer program?
    • Answer: The button object is the event source. The listener object is the event listener.

    Self Check 10.27

    Why is it legal to assign a ClickListener object to a variable of type ActionListener?
    • Answer: The ClickListener class implements the ActionListener interface.

    Self Check 10.28

    When do you call the actionPerformed method?
    • Answer: You don’t. It is called whenever the button is clicked.

    Self Check 10.29

    Why would an inner class method want to access a variable from a surrounding scope?
    • Answer: Direct access is simpler than the alternative — passing the variable as an argument to a constructor or method.

    Self Check 10.30

    If an inner class accesses a local variable from a surrounding scope, what special rule applies?
    • Answer: The local variable must be declared as final.

    Building Applications with Buttons

    • Example: investment viewer program; whenever button is clicked, interest is added, and new balance is displayed:
      A GUI with a button
    • Construct an object of the JButton class:
      JButton button = new JButton("Add Interest");
    • We need a user interface component that displays a message:
      JLabel label = new JLabel("balance: " + account.getBalance());
    • Use a JPanel container to group multiple user interface components together:
      JPanel panel = new JPanel();
      panel.add(button);
      panel.add(label);
      frame.add(panel);

    Building Applications with Buttons

    • Listener class adds interest and displays the new balance:
      class AddInterestListener implements ActionListener
      {
         public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent event)
         {
            double interest = account.getBalance() * INTEREST_RATE / 100;
            account.deposit(interest);
            label.setText("balance=" + account.getBalance());
         }
      }
    • Add AddInterestListener as inner class so it can have access to surrounding final variables (account and label).

    section_8/InvestmentViewer2.java

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    Self Check 10.31

    How do you place the "balance: . . ." message to the left of the "Add Interest" button?
    • Answer: First add label to the panel, then add button.

    Self Check 10.32

    Why was it not necessary to declare the button variable as final?
    • Answer: The actionPerformed method does not access that variable.

    Processing Timer Events

    • javax.swing.Timer generates equally spaced timer events, sending events to installed action listeners.
    • Useful whenever you want to have an object updated in regular intervals.
    • Declare a class that implements the ActionListener interface:
      class MyListener implements ActionListener
      {
         void actionPerformed(ActionEvent event)
         {
             Listener action (executed at each timer event)
         }
      }
    • To create a timer, specify the frequency of the events and an object of a class that implements the ActionListener interface:
      MyListener listener = new MyListener();
      Timer t = new Timer(interval, listener);
      t.start();

    section_9/RectangleComponent.java

    Displays a rectangle that moves

    The repaint method causes a component to repaint itself. Call this method whenever you modify the shapes that the paintComponent method draws.

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    section_9/RectangleFrame.java

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    section_9/RectangleViewer.java

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    Self Check 10.33

    Why does a timer require a listener object?
    • Answer: The timer needs to call some method whenever the time interval expires. It calls the actionPerformed method of the listener object.

    Self Check 10.34

    What would happen if you omitted the call to repaint in the moveBy method?
    • Answer: The moved rectangles won't be painted, and the rectangle will appear to be stationary until the frame is repainted for an external reason.

    Mouse Events

    • Use a mouse listener to capture mouse events.
    • Implement the MouseListener interface which has five methods:
      public interface MouseListener
      {
         void mousePressed(MouseEvent event);
             // Called when a mouse button has been pressed on a component
         void mouseReleased(MouseEvent event);
             // Called when a mouse button has been released on a component
         void mouseClicked(MouseEvent event);
             // Called when the mouse has been clicked on a component
         void mouseEntered(MouseEvent event);
             // Called when the mouse enters a component
         void mouseExited(MouseEvent event);
             // Called when the mouse exits a component
      }

    Mouse Events

    • Add a mouse listener to a component by calling the addMouseListener method:
      public class MyMouseListener implements MouseListener
      {
         // Implements five methods
      }
      MouseListener listener = new MyMouseListener();
      component.addMouseListener(listener);
    • Sample program: enhance RectangleComponent – when user clicks on rectangle component, move the rectangle to the mouse location.

    section_10/RectangleComponent2.java

    First add a moveRectangle method to RectangleComponent:

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    Mouse Events

    • Call repaint to tell the component to repaint itself and show the rectangle in its new position.
    • When the mouse is pressed,the mouse listener moves the rectangle to the mouse location:
      class MousePressListener implements MouseListener
      {
         public void mousePressed(MouseEvent event)
         {
            int x = event.getX();
            int y = event.getY();
            component.moveTo(x, y);
         }
         // Do-nothing methods
         public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent event) {}
         public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent event) {}
         public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent event) {}
         public void mouseExited(MouseEvent event) {}
      }
    • All five methods of the interface must be implemented; unused methods can be empty.

    RectangleViewer2 Program Run

    GUI for moving rectangle

    Figure 9 Clicking the Mouse Moves the Rectangle

    section_10/RectangleFrame2.java

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    section_10/RectangleViewer2.java

    Your browser does not support the <object> tag.

    Self Check 10.35

    Why was the moveRectangleBy method in the RectangleComponent replaced with a moveRectangleTo method?
    • Answer: Because you know the current mouse position, not the amount by which the mouse has moved.

    Self Check 10.36

    Why must the MousePressListener class supply five methods?
    • Answer: It implements the MouseListener interface, which has five methods.