1 Column Template

  • Introduction
  • Model Construction
  • SAP
  • Material Testing
  • Shake Table Testing
  • Videos

Link Column Frame Project

Introduction

The linked column frame (LCF) is a new structural concept where a typical moment frame is connected to a column by weak links. The purpose of this research is to test the LCF model under seismicity and have the weak links fail to preserve the moment frame and keep restoration costs minimal. 

Model Construction

  1. Cut two pieces of vinyl with cross-section of 0.65 in. x 1.5 in. for the beams.
    1. Length should be 9.5 in. each.
  2. Cut three pieces of vinyl with cross-section of 0.3 in. x 1.5 in. for the columns.
    1. Length should be 24 in. each.
  3. Cut four strips of steel with cross-section of 0.047 in. x 0.3 in. for the links.
    1. Length should be 3 in. each.
  4. Attach the two beams to two columns with L brackets to create a frame.
    1. Beams should be perpendicular to the columns.
    2. First beam should be flush to the end of the columns.
    3. Top to top or bottom to bottom of the beams should measure 12 in.
    4. Second beam should be at the middle of the columns.

  5. Attach the links to the frame and the remaining column.
    1. Links should be 6 in. apart.
    2. Clamp the links in place using L brackets and flat plates.

  6. Mount the Link Column Frame to a wooden platform with hinges.
SAP Instructions
1. Create: New Model (Ctrl+N)                                                         [Creating 2D Frame Model]
a. New Model Initialization
i. Set Units: “lb, in, F” as default units
b. Select Template: 2D Frames
 
i. Number of Stories: 1
 
 
ii. Number of Bays: 2
 
iii. Story Height: 23.91 (in)
 
 
iv. Bay Weight: 3.13 (in)
 
v. Click: OK
 
2. Toolbar → Set XZ View                                                          [Viewing Model in XZ Plane]
3. Menu Bar → View → Set Display Options (Ctrl+E)      [Show or Hide Frame Information]
 
a. Joints
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
i. Check: Labels
 
ii. Uncheck: Invisibl
b. Frames/Cables/Tendons
i. Check: Labels
c. View by Colors of
i. Click Sections
d. Click: OK
 
 
4. Select: Joint 5 and 6
5. Menu Bar → Edit → Move (Ctrl+M)                                         [Modifying Frame]
a. Change Coordinates by:
Delta X: 6.13 (in)
b. Click: OK
                               →          
 
6. Select: Frame 5
7. Menu Bar → Edit → Replicate (Ctrl+R)                                    [Adding Frame]
a. Linear
i. Increments
 
1. dz: -11.88 (in)
 
 
b. Click: OK
8. Select: Joint 2
9. Menu Bar → Edit → Replicate (Ctrl+R)                                    [Adding Joint]
a. Linear
i. Increments
1. dx: 0.63 (in)
2. dz: 0
b. Click: OK
 
 
10. Select: Joint 4                                                                                    [Adding Joint]
11. Menu Bar → Edit → Replicate  (Ctrl+R)
a. Linear
i. Increments
 
1. dx: -0.63 (in)
b. Click: OK
12. Select: Frame 4; Joint 9 and 10
13. Menu Bar → Edit → Edit Lines → Divide Frames                 [Breaking Frame at the Joints]
a. Select: Break at intersections with selected Joints, Frames, Area Edges and Solid Edges
b.Click: OK
14. Select: Frame 7, 8 and 9
15. Menu Bar → Edit → Replicate  (Ctrl+R)
a. Linear
i. Increments
1. dx: 0
2. dz: -5.94 (in)
ii. Increment Data
1. Number: 3
b. Click: OK
16. Menu Bar → Define → Materials                                              [Adding and Creating Materials]
a. Click to: Add New Material
i. Material Name and Display Color: A36
 
ii. Material Type: “Steel”
iii. Click: OK
b. Click to: Add New Material
i. Material Name and Display Color: Vinyl-Beam
 
ii. Material Type: “Other”
iii. Weight per Unit Volume: 0.02 (lbf/in3)
 
iv.Modulus of Elasticity, E: 185427 (lbf/in2)
v. Click: OK
c. Click to: Add New Material
i. Material Name and Display Color: Vinyl-Column
 
ii. Material Type: “Other”
iii. Weight per Unit Volume: 0.0205 (lbf/in3)
 
iv. Modulus of Elasticity, E: 208199 (lbf/in2)
v. Click: OK
d. Click: OK
 
17. Menu Bar → Define → Section Properties → Frame Sections    [Creating Frame Section Property]
a.Click to: Add New Property
 
i. Frame Section Property Type: Concrete
ii. Click to Add a Concrete Section: Rectangular
 
1. Section Name: Beam
2. Material: “Vinyl-Beam”
 
3. Dimensions
a. Depth (t3): 0.65 (in)
 
b. With (t2): 1.5 (in)
4. Display Color: Orange
5. Click: OK
b. Click to: Add New Property
 
i. Frame Section Property Type: Concrete
ii. Click to Add a Concrete Section: Rectangular
 
1. Section Name: Column
2.Material: “Vinyl-Column”
 
3. Dimensions
a. Depth (t3): 0.3 (in)
 
b. With (t2): 1.5 (in)
4. Display Color: Yellow
5. Click: OK
c. Click to: Add New Property
 
i. Frame Section Property Type: Concrete
ii. Click to Add a Concrete Section: Rectangular
 
1. Section Name: Link
2. Material: “A36”
 
3. Dimensions
a. Depth (t3): 0.01 (in)
 
b. With (t2): 0.3 (in)
4. Display Color: Red
5. Click: OK
d. Click to: Add New Property
 
i. Frame Section Property Type: Concrete
ii. Click to Add a Concrete Section: Rectangular
 
1. Section Name: Link Connection
2. Material: “A36”
 
3. Dimensions
a. Depth (t3): 0.047 (in)
 
b. With (t2): 1.5 (in)
4.Display Color: Green
5.Click: OK
iii. Click: OK

 
18. Menu Bar → Define → Mass Source                                       [Define Mass Source]
 
a. Mass Definition: From Element and Additional Masses and Loads
b. Click: Add and OK
19. Menu Bar → Define → Functions → Time History             [Adding Seismic Information]
 
a. Choose Function Type to Add: “From File”
b. Click to: Add New Function
 
i. Function Name: KOBEscaled
ii. Function File
 
1. File Name: “Kobe_scaled_time_history at2ctual shaker (2).txt”
2. Header Lines to Skip: 3
 
iii. Values are: Time and Function Values
iv. Click: OK
c. Click: OK
 
20. Menu Bar → Define → Load Patterns                                     [Define Load Patterns]
a.Load Pattern Name: LATERAL
 
b. Type: “QUAKE”
c. Click to: Add New Load Pattern
 
d.Click: OK
21. Menu Bar → Define → Load Cases                                           [Define Load Cases]
 
 
 
 
a. Click to: Add New Load Case
 
i. Load Case Name: KOBESCALED
ii. Load Case Type: “Time History”
 
iii. Loads Applied
1. Load Type: “Accel”
 
2. Scale Factor: 386.4 (in/sec2)
3. Click: Add
iv. Time Step Data
1.Number of Output Time Steps: 2000
 
2. Output Time Step Size: 0.02 (sec)
v. Click: OK
b. Click: OK
 
22. Menu Bar → Define → Load Combinations                          [Define Load Combinations]
 
 
 
 
a.Click to: Add New Combo
 
i. Load Combination Name: D+LATERAL
ii. Define Combination of Load Case Results
 
1. Load Case Name: “DEAD”
2. Click: Add
 
3. Load Case Name: “LATERAL”
4. Click: Add
 
iii. Click: OK
b. Click: OK
 
23. Select: Frame 5 and 6
24. Menu Bar → Assign → Frame Loads → Point                       [Adding Dead Load Information]
a. Point Loads
i. 1.
1.Distance: 0.5 (Midpoint)
 
2.Load: 0.3 (lbf)
25. Select: Frame 5 and 6
26.Menu Bar → Assign → Frame → Frame Sections                               [Assigning Frame Section Property]
 
 
a. Properties
i.Find this property: Beam
b. Click: OK
27. Menu Bar → Display → Show Undeformed Shape
28. Select: Frame 1, 2 and 3
29. Menu Bar → Assign → Frame → Frame Sections                               [Assigning Frame Section Property]
 
 
a. Properties
i. Find this property: Column
b. Click: OK
30. Menu Bar → Display → Show Undeformed Shape
 
31. Select: Frame 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 16 and 18
32. Menu Bar → Assign → Frame → Frame Sections                               [Assigning Frame Section Property]
a. Properties
i. Find this property: Link Connection
b. Click: OK
33. Menu Bar → Display → Show Undeformed Shape
34. Select: Frame 8, 11, 14, and 17
35. Menu Bar → Assign → Frame → Frame Sections                               [Assigning Frame Section Property]
a. Properties
i. Find this property: Link
b.Click: OK
36. Menu Bar → Display → Show Undeformed Shape
37. Select: Joint 6
38. Menu Bar → Assign → Joint Loads → Forces                       [Adding Lateral Load Information]
a. Load Pattern Name
i. “LATERAL”
b. Loads
i. Force Global X: 0.85 (lbf)
39. Select: Joint 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 20, and 21
40. Menu Bar → Assign → Joint →Masses                                   [Adding Additional Weight]
a. Specify Joint Mass
i. As Weight
b. Weight
i. Local 1 Axis Direction: 0.024 (lbf)
 
ii. Local 2 Axis Direction: 0.024 (lbf)
iii. Local 3 Axis Direction: 0.024 (lbf)
c. Click: OK
41. Menu Bar → Display → Show Undeformed Shape
42. Toolbar → Set Display Options                                                   [Show or Hide Frame Information]
a. Joints
i. Uncheck: Labels
b. Frames/Cables/Tendons
i. Uncheck: Labels
 
ii. Check: Sections
c . Click: OK
43. Menu Bar → Analyze → Run Analysis                                     [Running Analysis]
a. Click: Run Now
44. Menu Bar → Display → Show deformed Shape                  [Finding Period]
 
 
a. Case/Combo
i. Case/Combo Name: “MODAL”
b. Click: OK
 
c.“Deformed Shape (Modal) – Mode 1 – Period 0.31465” (sec)
 
45. Menu Bar → Display → Show deformed Shape                  [Finding Lateral Displacement]
a. Case/Combo
i. Case/Combo Name: “LATERAL”
 
 
b. Click: OK
c. “Pt Obj: 6”
d. “U1 = .395” (in)
e. “Pt Obj: 8”
f.“U1 = .2893” (in)
46. Select: Joint 8 and 6
47. Menu Bar → Display → Show Plot Functions                       [Finding Lateral Acceleration]
a.Click: Define Plot Function
i.Plot Functions
1.Select: Joint 8
a.Click to: Modify/Show Plot Function
i.Vector Type
1.Accel
ii. Click: OK
2. Select: Joint 6
a. Click to: Modify/Show Plot Function
i.Vector Type
1.Accel
ii.Click: OK
ii. Click: OK

 
b. List of Functions
i. Select: Joint 8
c. Click: Add ->
d. Click: Display
i. Legend
1. “Min is -5.534e+01 at 2.356e+01” (in/sec2)
2. “Max is 5.597e+01 at 2.344e+01” (in/sec2)
ii. Click: Ok
e. Select: Joint 8
f. Click: <- Remove
g. Select: Joint 6
 
 
h. Click: Add ->
i.Click: Display
i . Legend
1. “Min is -6.825e+01 at 2.360e+01” (in/sec2)
2. “Max is 6.855e+01 at 2.372e+01” (in/sec2)
ii. Click: Ok
 
 
j. Click: Done
48. Toolbar → Set Display Options
a. General
iCheck: Extrude View
b. Click: OK
49. Toolbar → Set Default 3D View                                         [Viewing Model in 3D]
 
 
 
 

Material Testing

  1. Finding Weight Density.
    1. Measure the weight of a Beam.
    2. Measure the Dimension of the Beam to calculate the volume.
    3. Weight Density equals the weight divided by the volume.
  2. Finding Modulus of Elasticity using Three Point Flexure Test.
    1. Place a 12 in. vinyl in the Flexural Test Machine and run the test.
    2. The test can be stopped when the offset yield point has been reached.
    3. Find slope of the line for offset yield point which is parallel to the proportional limit.
    4. Modulus of Elasticity equals the slope divided by forty-eight times the moment of inertia over the length cube.

Shake Table Testing

  1. Mount the Link Column Frame to the Shake Table.
    1. Attach the sensor component to the center of the beams.
    2. Run WinCon Program to simulate Kobe earthquake from the Time History file and collect acceleration data from the Link Column Frame.

Click the link blow for instructions:

http://www.quanser.com/english/downloads/products/Shake_Table_II_manual.PDF

Link Column Testing Video: