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Ryan Cowan

Shapes

Overview

I have planned a two week unit about shapes for kindergarten.  I am interested in this topic for several reasons.  First, I believe it is important to provide hands-on learning experiences for kindergarteners.  Research has shown that young children learn best through concrete experiences.  Children can see and touch shapes, they are not abstract.  Shapes provide a medium for hands-on learning experiences.  They can be used to teach math, art, science and reading.  Students can sort and identify shapes by attribute.  Books on shapes can be used to teach reading.  Scientifically speaking, students can design, produce, and invent objects with shapes.  Artistically speaking, students can create pictures with shapes.  I believe my unit presents exciting lessons about shapes.

The purpose of my unit is to create awareness of the use of shapes in math, science, and art.  People use shapes to create things, this is important.  I want children to understand how shapes are used to create objects in the world (buildings, cars, classrooms, etc).  More importantly, I want students to use shapes to create their own objects.   My unit requires students to cut shapes and make new shapes.  Then, they have to decide if the shapes are equal or not equal.  This unit teaches lessons in geometry, art, science, and reading.  It allows students to be creative either independently or collaboratively.  Finally, it requires students to reflect on what they have learned.

Goals

1.       Students will be able to compare and classify plane shapes.

2.       Students will be able to recognize and recite high-frequency words.

3.       Students will be able to describe the use of shapes in the world.

4.       Students will be able to develop pictures using shapes.

5.       Students will be able to recognize the difference between equal and non-equal parts.

Standards

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students know about letters, words, and sounds. They apply this knowledge to read simple sentences.

1.15 Read simple one-syllable and high-frequency words (i.e., sight words).

1.17 Identify and sort common words in basic categories (e.g., colors, shapes, foods).

2.4 Retell familiar stories.

Writing

1.0 Writing Strategies
Students write words and brief sentences that are legible.

1.3 Write by moving from left to right and from top to bottom.

Listening and Speaking

1.0. Listening and Speaking Strategies
Students listen and respond to oral communication. They speak in clear and coherent sentences.

Comprehension
1.1 Understand and follow one-and two-step oral directions.
1.2 Share information and ideas, speaking audibly in complete, coherent sentences.

Algebra and Functions

1.0  Students sort and classify objects:
1.1 Identify, sort, and classify objects by attribute and identify objects that do not belong to a particular group (e.g., all these balls are green, those are red).

Geometry

2.0 Students identify common objects in their environment and describe the geometric features:

2.1 Identify and describe common geometric objects (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, cube, sphere, cone).
2.2 Compare familiar plane and solid objects by common attributes (e.g., position, shape, size, roundness, number of corners).

Mathematical Reasoning

2.0 Students solve problems in reasonable ways and justify their reasoning:

2.1 Explain the reasoning used with concrete objects and/ or pictorial representations.

Visual and Performing Arts: Visual Arts Content Standards.

Students apply artistic processes and skills, using a variety of media to communicate meaning and intent in original works of art.

2.6 Use geometric shapes/forms (circle, triangle, square) in a work of art.

Science

Investigation and Experimentation

4. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

d. Compare and sort common objects by one physical attribute (e.g., color, shape, texture, size, weight).

Instructional Overview

In order to give children the best learning experiences, teachers must provide a literature enriched unit, within an integrated curriculum, that accounts for different learning styles.  My unit makes use of both direct and indirect instruction.  Direct instruction provides a strong conceptual foundation for independent research.  Once the groundwork is laid, students are free to explore indirectly.  My instructional unit (shapes) encompasses a wide range of academic disciplines: math, science, reading, writing, and art.  This is important because an integrated curriculum creates connections across subjects, and it creates a theme.  I believe any unit should be enriched through literature.  All of my lessons incorporate story time.  I have chosen ten books about shapes, one to be read each day.  Story reading enhances learning by providing a strong, repetitive foundation for the unit.  My unit incorporates reflective journal writing that reinforces each lesson.  Overall, many different strategies interplay to ensure student success throughout my unit.

Teachers should approach units methodically.  My unit makes use of an overview, background knowledge, and unit significance.  This approach helps children process information logically.  A general overview (see lesson plan) provides an introduction, so students are not thrown suddenly into something new.  Background knowledge helps students recall what they already know about the unit.  Then, they can think about what they would like to discover.  Teachers must discuss the importance of units.  A discussion makes the unit more meaningful because students learn the significance of the theme.  Again, I believe in both direct and indirect instruction.  Direct instruction provides an essential foundation for indirect teaching.  Indirect instruction lets students work together creating responsibility and teamwork.  My approach moves students from general information to specific information.  More importantly, it provides a methodical approach to learning.

My unit moves from knowledge acquisition to analysis and synthesis.  For example, in math lesson 1 students match shapes by appearance and place them into the appropriate column.  The focus is on knowledge acquisition and directed instruction.  This directed lesson requires students to distinguish shapes visually and then sort them.  In art lesson 3, students apply previous knowledge about shapes to create pictures.  In lesson 3, students have moved from knowledge acquisition to knowledge application.  This progression moves students towards independence.  Listening to stories provides a strong foundation for analysis and synthesis.  My unit moves students forward by requiring them to create their own shape books.  In lesson 2, students have moved from listening, responding, and discussing stories to creating their own stories.  Creating the class book involves students actively; moreover, it is a logical step for future lessons.  Finally, my final lesson requires students to sort shapes by physical attributes (color, texture, appearance, size, or any other).  Then, students are required to invent new shapes by cutting them into 2 parts.  Students must reflect on whether or not their parts are equal or not equal.  With this lesson, students have moved from acquisition to creation and reflection.  I believe each lesson builds up to the next lesson.  Of course, this is a two week unit.  There are other subsequent lesson ideas not mentioned in this ISP.

It can be seen that my unit incorporates several carefully planned procedures.  My unit makes use of both direct and indirect instruction which accounts for different learning styles among students.  As a teacher, I would guide my students through indirect instruction.  Indirect instruction is important because it creates teamwork and responsibility.  My unit is enriched with literature.  I believe stories provide a wealth of conceptual knowledge for students.  More importantly, it encourages discussion and provides thematic unity.  I believe that teachers must provide background information because it allows students to make connections to new material.  My unit incorporates background knowledge and it discusses the significance of learning about shapes.  Finally, my unit moves from knowledge acquisition to analysis and synthesis.  Students must be allowed to apply knowledge in order for learning to be meaningful.  However, a strong understanding of conceptual information is needed before analysis and synthesis.  I believe this careful planning provides the best opportunity for learning because it is logical, organized, and accommodating.

Assessment Overview

My unit requires a combination of both formal and informal assessment.  Lesson 1, The Magic Hat, asks students to match shapes by physical appearance.  The whole group activity is assessed informally because students are working with teacher guidance.  As a teacher, I would mentally note students experiencing difficulties during the group activity.  The assessment is based on students’ abilities to select shapes by appearance and place them in the correct column.  After the whole group activity, a formal worksheet is used to measure individual student knowledge.  Students are assessed based on their ability to color shapes appropriately.  The independent worksheet is a good way to measure individual, not group achievement; thus, this type of assessment is formal.  The worksheet is graded by using a checklist, one check for each shape.  As a teacher, I would place the checklist in my students’ academic portfolios.  Overall, I feel these assessments match the activities nicely.

Lesson 2, The Book of Shapes, uses only formal assessment.  I chose formal assessment for several reasons.  First, this is an individual project guided by the teacher.  Formal assessments go well with individual projects.  Second, it is an important project in that it requires students to create a book.  The importance alone negates formal assessment.  Third, a formal rubric (see assessment instrument) is used to convey the seriousness of the project.  The rubric would be explained beforehand, so students would have a clear knowledge of expectations.  This ensures success because students know what is required.  I believe formal assessments compliment formal assignments well.  This assignment is an important part of my unit because it focuses on reading, writing, and math.  Thus, I chose formal assessment.

Lesson 3, Make Pictures from Shapes, makes use of informal assessment.  This fun activity lets students create pictures using shapes.  Students are assessed based on their ability to complete the task.  There is no formal assessment.  Students who complete the assignment will receive a check in their academic portfolio.  I chose informal assessment for two reasons.  First, I believe that teachers should use a mixture of both formal and informal assessment to measure students’ abilities.  Informal assessments relieve stress students might feel since their performances are not being formally judged.  Second, this activity is designed to be creative and fun.  I believe informal assessments compliment fun activities nicely.  Furthermore, young children should not be formally judged on artistic capabilities.  Instead, the activity should focus on self-expression, creativity, and learning.

Lesson 4, Whole, Halves, Equal, and Not Equal, makes use of both formal and informal assessments.  A group worksheet is used to informally assess students based on their ability to create whole and half shapes.  This is a collaborative, group activity.  Formal assessment can not be used, since individuals can not be measured.  However, groups are assessed based on their ability to finish.  All groups receive a check mark for completion and correct answers.  This checkmark goes into students’ academic folder under group work.  On the other hand, formal assessment is used during independent work time.  For this assessment, each student must explain, to the teacher, which shape is either whole or half.  In addition, they must explain whether or not the halves are equal or not equal.  A checklist for each verbal answer is used to formally assess students.  Again, this is added to the students’ portfolios.  I chose formal assessment because verbal activities measure individual knowledge.  Students are assessed based on their ability to verbally explain answers.

Lesson 5, Sorting buttons makes use of both formal and informal assessments.  The sorting activity is a group activity, and students are informally assessed based on their ability to successfully complete the project.  Those students who finish receive a check in their portfolios.  This part is informally assessed because it is a collaborative, group project.  As a teacher, I would make mental notes of students experiencing difficulties.  Again, groups are assessed based on their ability to finish the project.  During independent work time, students are called individually to explain how they sorted their buttons.  A checklist is used to record information, and that information would be placed in the portfolio.  Students are formally assessed based on their ability to sort buttons appropriately (color, shape, size, or texture).  This verbal formal assessment is an accurate measure of individual knowledge.

I chose a variety of assessments for several reasons.  First, my unit incorporates many different types of activities; likewise, it makes sense to have an assortment of assessments.  Group activities can not accurately measure individual understanding of a concept, because students are working together to solve problems.  Because of this, all group activities are informally assessed based on accuracy and completion of the task.  Individual activities are formally assessed since they are an accurate measure of individual achievement.  In other words, students are not working together to solve problems.  I chose formal assessments for formal assignments and informal assessments for fun group activities.  Finally, all assessment information is recorded in each students’ academic portfolio.  This allows students to see their progress, and it make the information readily available for parent conferences.

Activity: Students will go to desks and write their names on their books.  Next, students will read the title page together with the teacher- “Book of Shapes.”  For each page, the learner will trace words.  Then students will glue one appropriate shape above the words.  The class will do each page together.

Example:

Read page 1 everyone, “I can see a circle.”  Now, you trace the words and then glue one circle above the words.

Read page 2 everyone, “I can see a square.”  Now, you trace the words and then glue one square above the words.

Read page 3 everyone, “I can see a triangle.”  Now you trace the words and then glue one triangle about the words.

Read page 4 everyone, “I can see a rectangle.”  Now you trace the words and then glue one rectangle above the words.

Assessment:  During free time, the teacher should ask each student to read their books individually.  Assessment will be based on students’ abilities to restate the story and read high-frequency words.  A formal rubric will be used (see example).  Also, students will be assessed based on their abilities to match shapes appropriately to the correct page.  Finally, all students should reflect on their learning by writing in their journals.

Authentic Assessment Instrument

 Level Shape Words Level 3 Student labels 1 appropriate shape for every page. Student traces all words and can restate entire book. Level 2 Student labels 1 appropriate shape for at least 2 pages. Student traces all words and can restate some of the book. Level 1 Student labels 1 appropriate shape for at least 1 page. Student traces all words but can not restate book. Level 0

Overview

Topic: Shapes

Time: 1 hour

Goal: Students will receive an overview of the unit.

Objective:

2.                  The learner will chart what they want to know about shapes.

3.                  The learner will chart any questions they have about shapes.

Materials:  A large piece of chart paper, markers, and a video about shapes.

Procedure:  Teacher will sit on the carpet with students and discuss the new unit.  Together, the class will chart the objective questions.  Then, a video about shapes will be played.

Assessment:  No formal assessment for a unit overview.

Magic Hat of Shapes

Topic: Shapes/Math

Time: 1 hour

Goal: To be able to recognize plane shapes.

Objectives:  1. The learner will classify shapes by attributes.

2. The learner will match shapes to a chart.

3. The learner will explain the results of their findings.

Materials:  A top hat; a piece of butcher paper; an assortment of small solid plane shapes: triangles, circles, squares, and rectangles; one large square, circle, triangle, and rectangle; and a book titled “Snake Gets in Shape.”  Also, an assessment worksheet for each student is needed.

Procedures:

Anticipatory Set: The teacher will read the story “Snake Gets in Shape,” and ask questions.

1.       Is this a square, circle, triangle, or rectangle?

2.       What are the differences between these shapes?

3.       How can you tell them apart?

After reading the story, the teacher will display the large: square, rectangle, circle, and triangle.  The teacher will pass each large shape around the circle and let students explore them.  After discussing the shape attributes, the teacher will present the hat and butcher paper (see pic).

 circle triangle square rectangle

Activity: Students will be called individually to choose a small shape out of the magic hat.  Then, the student will match each shape to its column on the butcher paper chart.  The teacher will continue calling each student, so they can all classify a shape.

Closure: After all shapes have been sorted, the teacher should call on volunteers to explain the results of the experiment.  Here are some questions:

1.       Which shape do we have the most of?

2.       What is the difference between a circle and the other shapes?

3.       Which shape has three sides?

4.       Which shape has four sides?

5.       What is the difference between a square and a rectangle?

Assessment:  Students will be given a worksheet with an assortment of shapes.  Students will be asked to color the circles-green, triangles-red, rectangles-blue, and squares-yellow.  Assessment will be based on students’ abilities to identify the shapes; thus labeling them with the appropriate color.  During free time, the teacher should ask individual students to explain the differences between the shapes on the worksheet.  Finally, all students should reflect on their learning by writing in their journals.

Book of Shapes

Time: 1 hour

Goal: To restate a story using high-frequency words.

Objectives:

1.       The learner will create a book of shapes.

2.       The learner will memorize high-frequency words.

3.       The learner will restate story to the teacher.

Materials:

1.       A small book for each student.

2.       An assortment of construction paper shapes: circles, squares, rectangles, and triangles put at each group desk.

3.       Glue and pencils

4.       A book called “Bear in a Square.”

5.       One large rectangle, circle, square, and triangle for a visual display

Prep Work: The books should be made in advance.  Teacher should cut an assortment of construction paper shapes and put them in a box at each group table.  Glue and pencils must be passed out before the activity.

Procedures:

Anticipatory Set: Using the large shape representations, the teacher will review plane shapes and pass them around the circle.  Teacher will display the following vocabulary words: I, can, see, circle, square, rectangle, and triangle on a pocket chart.  Next, the teacher will read “Bear in a Square” and discuss the shapes in the story.  The teacher will call on individual students to come up and find high frequency words in the story.

Teacher will present the book (model) that the students will be making.  The teacher will read it aloud and explain that the class will be making the same book together, page by page.

Activity: Students will go to desks and write their names on their books.  Next, students will read the title page together with the teacher- “Book of Shapes.”  For each page, the learner will trace words.  Then students will glue one appropriate shape above the words.  The class will do each page together.

Example:

Read page 1 everyone, “I can see a circle.”  Now, you trace the words and then glue one circle above the words.

Read page 2 everyone, “I can see a square.”  Now, you trace the words and then glue one square above the words.

Read page 3 everyone, “I can see a triangle.”  Now you trace the words and then glue one triangle about the words.

Read page 4 everyone, “I can see a rectangle.”  Now you trace the words and then glue one rectangle above the words.

Assessment:  During free time, the teacher should ask each student to read their books individually.  Assessment will be based on students’ abilities to restate the story and read high-frequency words.  A formal rubric will be used (see example).  Also, students will be assessed based on their abilities to match shapes appropriately to the correct page.  Finally, all students should reflect on their learning by writing in their journals.

Using Shapes to Make Pictures

Topic: Shapes / Art

Time: 1 hour

Goal: Students will apply knowledge about shapes to make pictures.

Objectives:

1.       The learner will identify triangles, circles, rectangles, and squares in pictures.

2.       The learner will consider the use of shapes in the world.

3.       The learner will create pictures using triangles, circles, rectangles, and squares.

Materials:

1.       A book titled “The Shape of Things” by Dayle Ann Dobbs

2.       Large sheets of white construction paper

3.       An assortment of plane shapes: circles, rectangles, triangles, and squares

4.       Glue and crayons

Prep Work: An assortment of construction paper shapes must be made prior to teaching.  All shapes should be in a box at each group table.  Glue and crayons should be at each group table.  Also, large sheets of white construction paper should be laid out for each student before the activity.

Procedures:

Anticipatory Set:  Teacher will read the story “The Shape of Things”

During the story the teacher will point out shapes in the pictures (example- a square window, a circle for a tire, or a triangle for the top of a house.) The Teacher will discuss with students the prevalence of shapes in the world.  Students should be encouraged to find shapes in the classroom.  Teacher will explain to students that they are going to use shapes to make pictures.  The white construction paper will be the background.  Students can color a background and use shapes to make things.  Teacher will present a picture (already done) to serve as a model.

Activity: Students will be allowed to go to their desks and begin their projects.  This lesson is not teacher directed.  Students should be encouraged to practice group discussion and collaboration.

Assessment: Students will be assessed based on their abilities to create objects from the paper cut-outs.  Students should be asked to verbally describe their use of shapes.  Finally, all students should reflect on their learning by writing in their journals.

Equal and Not Equal Parts

Topic: Shapes/Math

Time: 1 hour

Goal: Students will be able to recognize the difference between equal and not equal parts.

Objectives:

1.         The learner will identify shapes that are whole.

2.         The learner will identify shapes cut into halves.

3.         The learner will describe halves as either equal or not equal.

Materials:

1.         A book titled “Shapes” by Jane Simon.

2.         A pocket chart with the vocabulary words: whole, half, halves, equal, and not equal.

3.         Visual representations of shapes that are whole, halves, equal, and not equal to go on the pocket chart with the vocabulary.

4.         An assortment of paper shapes.

5.         A worksheet for independent work.

Prep Work: An assortment of shapes must be cut and placed in a box at each group table.  The teacher will use a large drawing of shapes that are whole and not whole to teach the lesson.  A pocket chart with appropriate vocabulary words will be used to teach vocabulary.  A worksheet for independent work will be used as an assessment.

Procedure:

Anticipatory Set: Teacher will read the vocabulary from the pocket chart and discuss the meanings of whole, halves, equal, and not equal.  A visual representation of each vocabulary word will accompany the definitions on the pocket chart.  Teacher will read the story “Shapes” and further discuss the concept using examples in the story.  Here are some comprehension questions that may be used:

1.         What shapes is this?

2.         Is this shape whole or not whole?

3.         How do you know it is not whole?

4.         Is this shape divided into halves?

5.         Are the halves equal or not equal (same or different)?

Teacher will explain that students will be doing a worksheet in which they will glue shapes that are either whole or halves.  Teacher will demonstrate from a model (already made).  Teacher will explain that each box on the worksheet says either “whole” or “half.”  If the box says “whole,” students will glue a whole shape in that box.  If the box says half, students will cut a shape in half and glue both parts in the box.  The halves may be either equal or not equal.

Activity: This lesson is not teacher directed.  Students will go to their desks and work collaboratively on their worksheets.  If the box says “whole,” students will glue a whole shape in that box.  If the box says half, students will cut a shape in half and glue both parts in the box.  The halves may be either equal or not equal.  Teacher should encourage students to discuss any problems with their group, and they should work together.

Assessment: Students will be assessed based on their abilities to distinguish 1 whole from 2 halves.  Teacher will evaluate each worksheet keeping this in mind.  During free time, each student should be called individually and asked whether or not their halves are equal or not equal.  Finally, all students should reflect on their learning by writing in their journals.

Sorting Shapes

Topic: Shapes/Science

Time: 1 hour

Goal: Students will be able to sort shapes base on one physical attribute (color, shape, texture, or size).

Objectives:

1.       The learner will identify different ways for classifying shapes.

2.       The learner will create a plan for organizing shapes.

3.       The learner will produce their own chart of sorted shapes.

Materials:

1.       A book titled “Color Zoo,” by Lois Ehlert.

2.       An assortment of buttons

3.       Glue

4.       A sorting worksheet

5.       An assortment of attribute shapes of different sizes, colors, and textures.

Prep Work: Ask all students to bring in a bag of buttons the previous week.  Mix all of the buttons together and place in small bowls.  Give each group table a bowl of buttons.  Place glue, worksheets, and buttons at each table before teaching the lesson.

Procedure:

Anticipatory Set: Ask students to brainstorm different ways that people sort things.  Teacher might discuss how people sort their clothes in their closets, or how people sort dishes and silverware in their kitchens.  Explain that sorting helps people organize things.  Read the book “Color Zoo,” and discuss the concept addressed in the book.  Call on children to ask questions about sorting in the book.