I am an Assistant Professor in the M.A. in TESOL Program in the division of Applied and Advanced Studies in Education at the Charter College of Education, at California State University, Los Angeles. My work experience abroad includes serving as an EFL teacher in Brazil for 12 years at various educational institutions like American and British binational centers, and elementary and high schools. During that time I also worked as a certified oral examiner and rater for the University of Cambridge and Michigan ESOL proficiency exams. I have lived in the United States for the past 11 years, and here I have worked as a director of education conducting teacher training at an English as a second language school, and taught international students in credit and non-credit programs at the University of California, Los Angeles, and at Santa Monica College. Some of my current professional service include being part of the CATESOL Board of Directors (California and Nevada Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) serving as University Level Chair, and Editor-in-Chief for the Issues in Applied Linguistics journal.
I am an applied linguist by formation, and some of my several research interests include language assessment, language and cognition, and neurobiology of language learning and use. More specifically, I am particularly interested in the role of the autonomic nervous system in social engagement behaviors during face-to-face interactions in first and second language production. I make use of psychophysiological and behavioral data in multimodal discourse analysis in order to study language use during communicative events. Communicative behaviors during conversation involve cooperative organization of human language and action, but are also influenced by psychological individual differences and neurophysiological biomarkers such as heart rate variability. Accounting for individual psychophysiological characteristics of the co-participants engaged in a communicative event can expand our understanding of linguistic embodiment during such interactions.
Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics. University of California Los Angeles, 2015.
M.A. in Applied Linguistics & TESL. University of California Los Angeles, 2009.
B.A. in Language and Literature. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Brazil), 2005.
Teaching English and a Second and Foreign Language (TESFL) Certificate, 2009. University of California Los Angeles.
Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT), 2006. University of Cambridge.
Cambridge In-service Certificate in English Language Teaching (ICELT), 2005 (awarded with ‘Distinction’). University of Cambridge.
Cambridge ESOL Oral Examiner Certification, 2005. University of Cambridge.
ACE ELT Teaching Certificate, 2004. Rhodes University.
Cambridge ESOL: Reading and Writing Skills, 2004. University of Cambridge.
Cambridge ESOL: Speaking and Listening Skills, 2004. University of Cambridge.
Test Anxiety and Test Performance
CSULA IRB #997679-1
Summary: Since many under-represented students continue to fail to get a satisfactory grade on required tests to enter credential programs, the focus of this study is on California teacher candidates’ anxiety about taking required teacher tests and the background, psychological, and physiological predictors of this anxiety. The purpose of the study is to identify which background variables, language characteristics, psychological factors, or physiological indicators are correlated with candidates’ test-taking anxiety and by extension to candidate test performance. The largest implication for minority candidates is being blocked from the teaching profession by failing to pass the tests.
Behavioral and Psychophysiological Correlates of Conversation
UCLA IRB #11-002367
June 2011-May 2015
Funded by: UCLA Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research & UCLA Academic Senate Council on Research
Summary: From the perspective of turn-taking and decision-making, casual conversation is anything but casual. Such subtle behaviors that take place during ordinary conversation are reflected in measures of peripheral nervous system activity. Therefore, I examine how changes in heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) correlate with such behaviors. Changes in HR and SC often precede, coincide with, or follow a particular segment of interaction that conversational analysts have identified as characteristic of talk-in-interaction (for example, hesitation markers, a transition relevance place, a perturbation (to get an interlocutor’s attention), a hedge, a self repair or self correction, a sound stretch (to provide emphasis), a pitch peak (to signal the end of the turn), a rush through or speed up in speech (to indicate that the speaker is about to give up his turn but has something additional he wants to say), or a fill-in (where the speaker invites the recipient to take the floor). Finally, correlated physiological measurements comprise a well-established research methodology in the field of social psychology and biobehavioral studies.
Discourse Analysis and Autonomic Responsivity
UCLA IRB #11-002212
Fall 2010-May 2011
Funded by the UCLA Center for Culture, Brain, & Development
Summary: The main objective of the study was to investigate the role of autonomic regulation, or physiological regulation of the heart, during dyadic social conversation, and how the conversational rules relate to physiological changes. Heart rate was monitored through the use of Polar Heart Monitors RS800CX on each participant.
Publications and Presentations
Hardacre, B., Snow, M.A. (in press). Teaching pedagogical grammar in English language teacher education. In D. Banegas (Ed.) Understanding Language in English Language Teacher Education: International Voices in Practice and Research. London, UK:Bloomsbury.
Hardacre, B. (in press). The embodiment of talk: Using psychophysiological methods to better understand linguistics behaviors. Danvers, MA: Lexington Books.
Hardacre, B., Guvendir, E., (2018). Cognitive perspectives in teaching speaking. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Guvendir, E., Hardacre, B. (2018). Listening and different age groups. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Hardacre Cerqueira, B. (2015). Behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of conversation. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/360049nd
Hardacre, B. (2013). The Biological and Psychological Correlates of Social Engagement Behaviors in Second Language Acquisition. In A. Joaquin & J. Schumann (Eds.) Exploring the Interactional Instinct. Foundations of Human Interaction Series. OUP.
Hardacre, B. Carris, L. (2011). The UCLA Test of Oral Proficiency: A model for assessing and addressing English proficiency of international teaching assistants. N. Avineri (Panel Moderator) Language Assessment as a System: Best Practices, Stakeholders, Models, and Testimonials. Issues in Applied Linguistics, vol 18(2).
Hardacre Cerqueira, B. (2009). The biological and psychological correlates of social engagement behaviors in second language acquisition. Unpublished MA thesis. University of California, Los Angeles.
Hardacre, B. (2009). The Interactional Instinct [Review of the book Interactional Instinct: The evolution and acquisition of language, by N. Lee et al]. Issues in Applied Linguistics, vol 17(2).
Guvendir, E., Hardacre, B. (2009). Increasing Adult Second Language Learning Efficiency Through the Stimulus of the Dopamine Reward System to Counterbalance Decrease in Plasticity After Critical Period Age”, 7th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities Proceedings pp. 2291-2302.
Hardacre, B. (2008). Once and Future Directions in Language Teaching and Life: an interview with Marianne Celce-Murcia. Issues in Applied Linguistics, vol 16(2).
Hardacre, B., Kelley, J., Hualpa, L. (2018, March). Creating efficient rubrics to increase grading speed and reliability. Workshop at the annual meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Chicago, IL.
Hardacre, B. (2017, March). The role of psychophysiological individual differences in turn-taking and holding the floor. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Portland, OR.
Hardacre, B. (2017, March). How to get published in ESOL and applied linguistics serials. Workshop and panel at the annual meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Seattle, WA.
Hardacre, B. (2016, March). The role of psychological and neurophysiological individual differences in the dynamics of group conversation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Orlando, FL.
Hardacre, B. (2015, March). How to get published in ESOL and applied linguistics serials. Workshop and panel at the annual meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Toronto, Canada.
Hardacre, B. (2014, March). The deafening loudness of silence: Increased physiological responsivity during inter-turn silence in small group conversations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Portland, OR.
Hardacre, B. (2014, March). How to get published in ESOL and applied linguistics serials. Workshop and panel at the annual meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), Portland, OR.
Hardacre, B. (2013, June). The physiology of embodiment: Using heart rate and skin conductance in the study of communicative behaviors during social engagements. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA.
Hardacre, B. (2013, March). Neurophysiology in multi-modal analysis of language use in small group interactions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Dallas, TX.
Hardacre, B. (2012, November). Neurobiological correlates of social engagement behaviors in small group interactions. Paper presented at the biological anthropology section of the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, CA.
Hardacre, B., Schumann, J. (2012, March). Pushing the boundaries of conversation analysis: Making use of heart rate and skin conductance in applied linguistics research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Boston, MA.
Hardacre, B. (2012, March). Physiology and conversation analysis. Paper presented at the Discourse, Communication, and Conversation Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, England.
Hardacre, B. (2011, March). Psychological and physiological correlates of social engagement behaviors in second language acquisition. In J. S. Schumann (Chair), The interactional instinct and second language acquisition. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Association of Applied Linguistics, Chicago, IL.
Hardacre, B. (2009, November). Oversized classes, funds gone? Classroom management strategies on a budget. Workshop conducted at the CATESOL Regional Conference, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
Hardacre, B. (2009, October). Biological basis of social engagement behaviors in second language acquisition. Paper presented at the Encultured Brain Conference, Notre Dame University, South Bend, IN.
Hardacre, B. (2009, January). Increasing adult second language learning efficiency through the stimulus of the dopamine reward system to counterbalance decrease in plasticity after critical period age. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, HI.
Hardacre, B. (2007). Technology: An aid from A to T. Paper presented at the Latin America English Culture Conference, São Paulo, Brazil.
GUEST SPEAKER PRESENTATIONS
April 2018 - Title: “Pursing Academic Teaching Careers." Invited by: Jeremy Kelley, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Course: Academic Professionalization Colloquium
August 2017 - Title: “Psychophysiological Methods in Language Acquisition Research.” Invited by the Multicultural Education Conference in Anaheim (MECA).
May 2017 - Title: "Psychophysiology and Linguistic Embodiment." Invited for the Linguistics in Practice Institute (LIPI), California State University, Northridge.
April 2017 - Title: “Pursing Academic Teaching Careers." Invited by: Jeremy Kelley, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Course: Academic Professionalization Colloquium
March 2017 - Title: "Psychophysiological Methods in Applied Linguistics Research." Invited by Stephanie Kim, California State University, Northridge. Course: Survey in Applied Linguistics.
June 2012 - Title: “When the Framework Doesn’t Fit: Dealing with Resistant Audiences and Methodologies in Applied Linguistic Research” (Co-presenter: Jeremy C. Kelley). Invited by Lyle Bachman and John Schumann, University of California at Los Angeles - Course: Introduction to Doctoral Studies in Applied Linguistics.
March 2012 - Title: “Exploring Physiological Correlates of Conversation.” Invited by John Schumann, University of California at Los Angeles. Course: Foundations of Language Acquisition.
January 2012 – Title: “Transdisciplinary Research Methods in Applied Linguistics.” Invited by Anna Dina Joaquin, California State University at Northridge. Course: Survey of Applied Linguistics.